The idea that the universe exists as a product of natural events, is unprovable by any scientific evidence. In fact, when we carefully study what took place during the first zeptosecond, or a trillionth of a billionth of a second of the universe, we find that critical events that were necessary for life much later, depended upon intelligent one-off decisions that no natural process is capable of.
The events that caused the universe to begin and expand in a precise manner so that it would produce galaxies, stars, and planets much later, is proven by science, to have conducted itself by processes that required foreknowledge of the outcomes for these processes, so that precise parameters could be fine-tuned to ensure the universe continue to expand and allow human life to exist 13.799 billion years later.
There is no ambiguity today regarding the provable facts of science as to whether the universe is fine-tuned for life. It is the fine-tuned universe that proves the universe could not have come into existence by any natural process, but was caused and developed by a source that knew the outcome of every process we observe during the entire history of our universe.
- The universe as we know it, cannot be explained by natural forces.
- The finely-tuned universe, as empirical proof for the existence of God, has no formal logical defects.
- The only current explanation for the existence of the universe—which can be tested and verified is the finely-tuned and designed evidence of the universe.
- Our universe contains the precise physical constants that have the exact values that are required to allow for complex structures, such as galaxies, stars, planets, and people to exist.
- None of these values are possible under any circumstance, by any naturalistic process.
- Scientific Evidence For A Fine-Tuned Universe
See The 209 Physical Constants That Are Fine-Tuned To Make Life Possible On Earth
- See The 1,978 Quantifiable Attributes Required For A Planetary System And Its Galaxy Which Reside Within A Very Narrow Range To Allow Advanced Life To Exist:
SCIENCE UPDATE: January 15, 2020. NASA announced today on their Hubblesite, that images from the New Horizons Spacecraft and the Hubble Space Telescope, now proves that there is not two trillion galaxies in the universe, there are only hundreds of billions. The problem with the overestimate originated from theoretical computations which were wrong. This is evidence that the similar assertion that our universe came into existence as a result of “an infinite number of other universes,” commonly known as the “Multiverse,” is also likely an exaggeration. Theoretical Physicists often cite the Multiverse as proof that God is not necessary, and the fact that our universe contains over 200 fine-tuned physical constants, is what we would expect in an infinite number of universes.
As it turns out, there is not an infinite number of other universes, only one, ours. There has never been any actual scientific evidence that proves there are any other universes; these estimates come from theoretical mathematical calculations, only. We cannot see beyond our own universe, and the reality is, there is no evidence whatsoever the multiverse theory is true. The reality of a fine-tuned universe that allows human life on earth, is proof that intelligence is responsible for our universe, and only the God of the Bible is capable of such engineering.
The following statement is from Marc Postman of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, a lead author on the study:
“New measurements of that weak background glow show that the unseen galaxies are less plentiful than some theoretical studies suggested, numbering only in the hundreds of billions rather than the previously reported two trillion galaxies.
“It’s an important number to know – how many galaxies are there?” said Marc Postman of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, a lead author on the study. “We simply don’t see the light from two trillion galaxies.”
The earlier estimate was extrapolated from very deep sky observations by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope. It relied on mathematical models to estimate how many galaxies were too small and faint for Hubble to see. That team concluded that 90% of the galaxies in the universe were beyond Hubble’s ability to detect in visible light. The new findings, which relied on measurements from NASA’s distant New Horizons mission, suggest a much more modest number.”[AA]
Events Of The First Trillionth Of A Second, Prove That Intelligence Was Necessary
The Space-time Theorems which exist today, prove that there must be a causal agent beyond space and time that created a universe consisting of time, space, and matter. This in symmetry with the discovery of Dark Energy, which gives us our greatest scientific evidence for the Supernatural-Creator, and a Super Intelligent Creation of the universe—for the benefit of human beings.
The Bible describes a Being who existed before the universe who was this causal agent. He is described as the ultimate transcendent Being. He is defined as possessing the technology and mind that was necessary to cause a universe like the one we observe, to begin and exist.
How do we know such a Being exists? We learn what was necessary to cause a universe like ours to begin. There are no natural processes in existence or that are possible, which could exact the precise events that took place when the universe began.
The Four Scientific Evidences That We Can Prove Today:
- The origin of the universe.
- The origin of life.
- The origin of human beings.
- The design of the created universe for the benefit of human being.
It is common knowledge among secular scientists today that there is compelling evidence is for a Causal Agent beyond space and time. One of the reasons that even non-religious scientists stipulate that a causal agent is necessary, is due to the reality of the Cosmological Constant.
Laws And Order
The universe exists because of obedience to a set of laws. We humans live on a planet and have a mind that is able to discover these laws and how the universe exists. This is a fact that is absolutely astonishing.
In order to support advance life on earth, the laws of physics must operate with great precision. The law of gravity is so finely balanced that it is able to hold planets in their orbit, but not so powerful that we cannot walk on earth. In contrast to gravity the laws that regulate the atom, produce forces that are incredibly strong. Change the ratio of the proton to the electron in the atom just 1 part in 10^40 and every atom in the universe self destructs. How did these laws which regulate the forces that make the universe possible, know how to precisely set themselves where they are must be? This becomes an insurmountable obstacle to a naturalistic cause for the universe.
The universe speaks a language that communicates to us how the universe operates; It is called mathematics. This language allows us to express by mathematics what the universe is doing and make predictions for what it will do. The laws of physics operate across the entire universe. It impacts the movements of galaxies. It controls events in the microscopic world of the atom.
It is the laws of the universe that brought the universe from its natural course of disorder, to order. The existence of these physical laws cannot be explained by natural events. Laws can only come from a mind. The existence of laws demands a law maker. A Being of infinite intelligence that is transcendent time, space, and matter, who understood the outcome of setting the universe by these laws and ordering the universe in a specific way, before the universe began.
Scientists assume these laws but they have never been able to explain where they came from in the first place. These laws did not exist before the universe began. The universe and the laws of physics began at the same time.
Science proceeds on the basis that the universe is ordered and exists in a rational and intelligible way. It is extraordinary that the universe did not have to exist in this way. The fact that it does, is good evidence that it was caused to exist with these laws because they are absolutely necessary for order to be possible and produce human life on earth.
When Albert Einstein first proposed the theory of general relativity, he also predicted that the universe had a beginning and was expanding. At that time, it was the consensus of science that the cosmological model of that day was that we lived within an infinitely old universe in a static state throughout infinite time. This infinitely old universe provided the evidence for evolution. By proposing a universe which was not infinitely old, there was great opposition from many scientists.
In order to appease the evolutionists of that time, Einstein proposed an ad hoc addendum to general relativity, the cosmological constant, which cancelled the effects of gravity throughout the universe.
After Edwin Hubble’s discovery that the universe was indeed expanding from a cosmological beginning, Einstein retracted his original idea of the cosmological constant, describing it as “the greatest blunder” of his career.
Today, scientists understand that Einstein’s cosmological constant, known today as “dark energy,” is the dominant component of the universe.
As the universe rapidly expands, so also does space to accommodate its expansion. Dark Energy is the agent that acts to permit the self-stretching ability of space. The larger that space grows in size, the greater the power of dark energy, acting as an “anti-gravity factor.”
Dark Matter acts to make two very large bodies appear to repel each other, with their repelling force increasing the farther apart these two bodies get from each other. This is the opposite effect of gravity which acts to slow cosmic expansion. Science has now proven that the cosmic expansion rate has been accelerating during the last half of the universe, due to dark energy as an dominant component acting upon this expansion.
What this mean is that the presence of dark matter demands a recent cosmic beginning, so recent, a natural or accidental beginning of the universe or human life on earth is impossible. Atheist’s nearly always seek to refute dark matter because it proves a fine-tuned universe that resulted from intelligence, necessary by a thinking Being.
Theoretical physicists Lisa Dyson, Matthew Kleban, and Leonard Susskind stated that, “Arranging the cosmos as we think it is arranged . . . would have required a miracle.”[1e] These scientists further stated that an “unknown agent intervened in the evolution [of the Universe] for reasons of its own.”
Using mathematics and a knowledge of physics, scientists calculate that the force of dark energy should be incredibly large. The degree of its existence is so large that the universe should have expanded so quickly that galaxies and stars could not have formed and there would be no planets or life. The reason that dark energy does not overpower the universe and cause it to implode is there is an equally strong counterforce that restricts the impact of dark energy, so that stars and galaxies can form.
The precision required to balance dark energy is stunning. This setting has to be accurate from 56 decimal places (Septendecillion) to 120 decimal places (Vigintillion). This is a number so immense that there is no possibility that this physical constant for dark energy could exist unless a mind had known this precise balance was essential to allow a universe that could produce stars and planets. This fact becomes the strongest scientific argument for the existence of God amongst all of the other evidence that exists.
The universe came into existence from nothing, proceeded with order because of laws, and is understood by mathematics. Describe one naturally occurring phenomenon that can accomplish this? Can any non-thinking thing create everything that will exist and simultaneously create laws to cause it to proceed with specific order to make life possible, and then allow a human mind to understand how it all functions by mathematics, also created simultaneously with the universe?
The Universe Was Created For A Purpose: Support Human Life
Man looks at the universe and he does not see God. He sees a Cosmos that exists by its own creation. He sees that chance and random events created all that exists and we only think that a God made these things.
When we examine the scientific facts that are known today about how the universe began, we quickly understand that the most crucial and necessary events, could not have taken place by themselves.
In all the mass chaos of the universe at its conception, how did the incomparable heat of trillions of degrees and the massive chaos of an explosion of pure energy, facilitate events like gravity, an impossible low state of entropy, precise electromagnetism, and the creation of atoms, all in one millionth of one millionth, of one millionth of one millionth, of a second?
All of these events are not possible by chance or any natural process—particularly in the presence of the greatest concentrated energy and heat ever to exist.
The Universe Proves God Exists: 209 Physical Constants Required For Life On Earth
Gravity To Electromagnetism Are Balanced Precisely: Events That Evolution Is Not Capable Of
In order to believe that the universe exists by a natural process, we must explain how gravity could come into existence during the first zeptosecond of time and balance itself precisely with electromagnetism—with a tolerance of less than 10^40? How could these unthinking, unknowing elements guide themselves so that they were set at a tolerance so small that any change, greater or lesser than 10^40, would cause the immediate destruction of the universe?
If the universe evolved over billions of years, why does the evidence prove that gravity and electromagnetism were set precisely the first time—exactly when the universe began? The only way that this would be possible is if an intelligence knew ahead of time what this precise setting should be, and that gravity was essential to this process. It would also be necessary to know in advance what the outcome of changing this exact balance would produce. If these quantities were not known in advance, it would be impossible to guess and achieve success on the first attempt, as is the case with our universe. On the first try, gravity and electromagnetism were precisely balanced.
Despite the chance that the universe could not possibly know where gravity and electromagnetism had to be set, this balance was precisely fixed in less than a trillionth of a billionth of a second.
The Consequences Of Incorrect Balance Of Gravity And Electromagnetism
If the ratio between gravity and electromagnetism was increased by only 1 in 10^40, only very small stars would have formed. If the ratio were decreased by the same amount, only very large stars would have formed. In order for advanced life to be possible, there must be both large and small stars present in the universe. Large stars produce the elements needed for life; small stars burn at the precise rate required to sustain life on a planet, such as earth.
Physicist and Cosmologist Paul Davies also confirmed the likelihood that the correct ratio of gravity to electromagnetism could have occurred by accident as a 1-in-10^40 chance. The probability that this precise calibration could have occurred on its own would be like trying to hit a coin at the far end of the universe (156 billion light years) from earth with a single shot on the first try 
Imagine accurately hitting a target 156 billion light-years away, on your first attempt.  To balance gravity and electromagnetism correctly the first time, in a a trillionth of a billionth of a second—at the beginning of the universe—this accuracy was essential. There was only one opportunity for this fine balance to take place when the universe began and it happened perfect the first time. If this balance was off by as little as 10^40, or 1 single grain of sand in a universe that is 60 percent filled with sand, the universe would have collapsed back upon itself before it even began.
When we consider the incredible accuracy required to allow the universe to begin with such precision, we realize that we are living in a universe that was specifically engineered for us by a mind and power that are unlimited.
This fine balance was also necessary for hydrogen and helium to be properly distributed in the correct places—enabling these gasses to be compressed by gravity, into matter—nearly 384 million years later when the first stars formed. These two essential elements for human life, formed during the first three minute of the universe. If they had formed in the first thirty seconds of the universe, our cosmos would have begun primarily with helium and very little hydrogen. This would have produced a universe incapable of producing stars. With no first generation stars, no second generation stars like our sun would have been produced. Second generation stars are necessary for the production of carbon, which is essential for human life. It was from the natural elements of earth that God made man:
Then the Lord God formed the man from the dust of the ground. ~Genesis 2:7
This orderly and precise process of setting the physical constants of the universe, continued throughout the entire history of the universe.
How could an explosion of incalculable force maintain the capacity to control itself so that essential process took place, the first time, and at the exact moment they were necessary—if they merely happened by accident? The science of the universe concludes that these processes are not possible by any unguided operation.
Science Knows How The Universe Began—By Observable Evidence
As we leave earth and travel past our own solar system, past galaxies, stars and planets, we are traveling into deep space. We are looking into the past history of the universe as we travel through space—back to the beginning when time, space, and matter began.
We pass the first infant galaxies and stars. We arrive at the moment when the universe began. This beginning forces us to examine the biggest questions that exist in science. The most important question of science is why the universe began in the first place? We want to know where the material came from that started the universe. What existed before the universe began?
In order to learn these answers, man has built machines the size of cities so that we could simulate the conditions that existed when the universe was created. We have created space telescopes to look deep into our past history. Science is very close to answering the questions of why are we here; where did we come from; are we alone?
As the late Stephen Hawking once said, to know these things, “we would know the mind of God.”
Nearly 3,000 years ago, David wrote that the universe is speaking to us, the existence of God.
The heavens proclaim the glory of God. The skies display his craftsmanship. Day after day they continue to speak; night after night they make him known. They speak without a sound or word; their voice is never heard. Yet their message has gone throughout the earth, and their words to all the world. ~Psalms 19:1-4 (NLT)
Almost 2,000 years ago, Hebrew scholar, Paul, wrote that the entire purpose of the universe, at its creation, is to demonstrate to the people of earth that God does exits.
For ever since the world was created, people have seen the earth and sky. Through everything God made, they can clearly see his invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature. So they have no excuse for not knowing God. ~Romans 1:20 (NLT)
The origin of the universe is the greatest mystery of science, for all time. The more we learn, the greater our awareness that the processes which allowed the universe to begin and exist, were not random and unguided processes.
The more we learn about our universe the more we realize just how unique and special it is. The former idea of the multiverse and unlimited numbers of other universes, as the reason for our universe, is rapidly losing scientific support. First and foremost, we cannot scientifically validate that any other universes actually exist because we cannot see beyond our own universe. There are many theories for how other universes could exist, in the form of mathematical calculations, but none of these have any scientific proof:
- Infinite Universe
- Bubble Universes
- Parallel Universes
- Daughter Universes
- Mathematical Universes
Not one of these other universe theories can be proven by any scientific evidence. They all exist in the theoretical as conjecture and speculation.
Ours is the only universe that we are sure that exists. The more we learn about our universe, the greater the confidence is that ours is the only one. The unique processes which were necessary in order to cause our universe and allow it to develop specifically to support human life on earth, makes it highly unlikely that any other universe could have achieved the same results by a random processes. If we are to believe that an infinite number of other universes exist and one of these has caused our own, then all that we have accomplished by this theory is to make the process infinitely more complex. We must also need an explanation for how all of these other universes began in the first place and were able to produce at least one with the capacity to support human life. The greater the number of universes, the greater the need for an explanation as to how this is was possible. The only conclusion supported by science today is that ours is the only universe in existence and before it began, there was nothing.
The Universe Was Engineered For Life
Our universe presents us with stunning evidence that it was made for a purpose, and that purpose was us. Examining the physical constants that exist, these 209 fine-tuned physical properties of our universe are set so precisely that it is impossible to define them by any natural or evolutionary process. Evolution is not capable of fine-tuned properties. Evolution works over long durations of time, by mutation, trial and error. The physical constants of our universe must all be set correctly at once with no margin for error.
Since 1920, everything that scientists once thought they knew about the universe has been drastically altered. The conventional thought for the existence of the universe, prior to the twentieth century, was the universe is static and eternal.
In 1929, the idea of an eternal universe changed in an instant. At the Mount Wilson Observatory above Las Angeles, astronomer Edwin Hubble, learned that the galaxies of the universe are moving away from each other. These galaxies are moving away from earth at speeds that are unimaginable. This knowledge that the universe is in a state of rapid acceleration away from a starting point, gave us the first evidence that the universe had a stunning and sudden beginning.
All galaxies are moving away from earth, and those galaxies that are twice as far from us, are moving twice as fast. Galaxies three times as far away as other galaxies, are moving three times as fast. Everything in the universe is moving away from earth. This reality which Edwin Hubble discovered, became known as “Hubble’s Law.” This discovery was the beginning of our learning that the universe began suddenly.
By the observance of galaxies in motion, Hubble demonstrated that the universe is rapidly expanding. Theoretically, a universe which is expanding, must have begun suddenly at a single point. By measuring just how fast the universe is expanding, astronomers can determine when it began.
How Old Is The Universe?
How do scientists know that the universe is 13.799 billion years old? We were not there when the universe began, so how can anyone possibly know this for certain? If we were to take a video of a thermonuclear explosion, after it had completed, we could reverse the video back to the beginning an see when and how the explosion took place.
In Cosmology, scientists have the capacity to run the events of the universe in reverse and calculate when and how the universe began. We know that everything that exists, started with a cosmic explosion. You can understand how this works by simply looking up at the sky at night. You are seeing stars that are millions of light years from earth. It took the light from these stars that you are seeing in the night sky, millions of years to get to earth so that you could observe them.
If we can look far enough into space, we can look back and see the beginning of the universe.
Today, we have a deep space telescope that permits us the ability to look deep into space and see stars that existed farther back in time, closer to the moment when the universe began.
This ability to look back and see the events of the universe when it began, was only a starting place. The beginning of the universe started everywhere. When the universe began, it was the size of an atom, yet contained all the energy that would become matter, comprising all that exists today—densely compacted.
What Existed Before The Universe Began?
How could everything that exists today, come from nothing? There are some theoretical physicists who assert that the laws of physics allow the universe to come into existence from nothing. The problem is that, like the multiverse, these are mathematical equations, but they cannot be tested or proven scientifically. The evidence we do have and can observe, proves that nothing existed before our universe began.
This is particularly interesting because this is precisely what the Bible states regarding the beginning of the universe. The first line, of the first chapter, of the first book of the Bible states, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” The Hebrew word used for “created,” is bara, which means to make from non existing materials. In other words, the Bible tells us that before the universe, nothing existed, and God created the material for the universe, simultaneously with its creation.
This is precisely what the evidence of science today, proves. There is absolutely no evidence that any other universes exist, or that any other universe was responsible for the creation of our universe. These are all interesting ideas but they have no practical scientific evidence to support them.
What scientists state as certain, is that everything we see today, could have arisen from nothing—exactly what the Bible has said to us all along.
Hebrew scholar, Paul, wrote in the eleventh chapter of Hebrews, that the universe was created by elements that are “invisible.” How could a first century man know that all that exists was made by invisible atoms?
By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible. ~Hebrews 11:3 (NKJV)
The prerequisite to understanding the universe is that it was created out of nothing. At the moment of creation, when there was nothing prior to this moment, a tiny particle the size of an atom, containing all the matter that would make up the universe—tightly compressed—exploded in infinite temperature, and infinite violence. Understanding how nothing turned into everything, is one of the greatest mysteries of our universe.
If you can accept that this is how the universe began, it is possible to begin to understand that only an infinite intelligence would have the capacity to make this all possible.
Most of us have accepted the idea that our universe is so large and vast, and has exited for so long, that there are very likely other intelligent beings in the universe. Some have postulated that these civilizations have existed for billions of years longer than man has lived on earth. These beings would theoretically be so far advanced that they may have capabilities that exceed our imagination. They may be able to travel throughout the universe, create life, create planets, and live forever.
Go just a little further. Go back to an infinite time when a Being existed and imagine what He might know. It is certainly understandable that such a Being could have the ability to create a universe like ours and make people like us to live on a planet like earth.
Some people have a problem with the Biblical idea of God, so imagine an extraterrestrial who has always been alive, who has the power and technology to create anything. Not too hard to imagine, if we try.
How The Universe Began
Everything came from a single point that is nearly, infinitely, small, made from pure energy. The inevitable product of this tiny spec of energy contained all of the mass, energy of the 400 billion galaxies that are thought to exist in our universe. All of this came from a source that was smaller than a single atom.
The entire universe was a millionth of a billionth of a centimeter in diameter.
This tiny particle was pure energy. From this energy, the universe began. At this beginning, all of the laws and forces which govern our universe, also began. Before the universe started there was no time to mark its duration, no space to put a universe in, and no matter to make anything. Even the laws of physics did not exist when the universe began.
Despite the absence of the physical laws, the precise balances of gravity, electromagnetism, and the process of every atom’s creation, began. How could they begin on their own, if not by intelligent engineering?
The first force to emerge from the new universe was gravity. The entire determination for whether the universe would exist; it’s size, structure and everything that would be a part of the universe, was determined the moment that gravity was created.
Gravity shaped the universe and made the formation of stars and planets possible. In computer simulations, where different amounts of gravity are imparted to potential universes, with too little gravity, nothing happens. With too little gravity all that we would have is material flying apart and no structures would be able to form.
A universe that began with too much gravity, would provide nothing more than black holes that would swallow up all the matter of the universe.
Gravity had to be precise at the beginning of the universe or this universe that we live in would never have happened. This becomes a tremendous obstacle to overcome by mere happenstance. There is no natural or evolutionary process which can hit a precise setting for gravity the first time. The entire premise of evolution is based upon millions of misses before a successful hit that permits the process to continue. With a successful universe like ours, the precise setting for gravity must be right the first time.
When we see a requirement in life that is so precise that any adjustment plus or minus, would cause a collapse of that process, we understand that intelligence was necessary for this precise setting to have occurred. Only concerning the universe and human life, do people believe that the events that were necessary to make the universe possible and human life successful on earth, could have taken place by accident.
Precision Of Gravity
What is incredible about the precise setting for gravity in our universe is the fact that it happened in less than one second. If gravity was not precisely set at -430th of a second, we would not have a universe. No matter how great your faith in science is, it is impossible to believe that gravity just happened to set itself where it had to be, in less than -430th of a second. Intelligence and infinite power were required to know this setting was necessary, and then be able to engineer the process to take place exactly as it did.
There is absolutely no possibility that gravity could exist on its own and set itself precisely when it began, so that our universe would be possible, by itself.
As this pinpoint of energy exploded, guided by a precise amount of gravity, it expanded in every direction. The universe grew by an extraordinary jump in size, also in a fraction of a second. Scientists estimate that in less than a millionth, of a millionth, of a millionth, of a millionth, of a second, space expanded by a factor bigger than a million, million, million, million, times.
What is most puzzling about this massive increase in size is that it exceeded the speed of light. This would have broken one of the fundamental laws of physics, which states that nothing can travel faster than the speed of light.
There is one exception to this rule: objects in empty space can go faster than light. From the size of an atom, to the size of a baseball, took a millionth, of a millionth, of a millionth, of a millionth, of a second.
This doesn’t sound like a huge increase, but when you begin with energy that comprises the entire universe, as small as an atom, and it increases to the size of a baseball in a millionth, of a millionth, of a millionth, of a millionth, of a second, this would mean that this had to happen faster than light can travel.
This is one of the principle points of a universe that could not have began or controlled itself, that makes any natural process impossible. The crucial processes that were talking place which were essential to the success of the universe were happening so fast, because all of the energy was condensed so much closer together.
These events of the initial universe happened so quickly that scientists needed a new unit of measurement to be able to understand all of these events happening so fast. This new unit or measurement for how quickly the initial universe expanded, is called Plank Time.
To give you an idea how short Plank Time is, there are more units of Plank Time in one second, than all of the seconds since the universe began, nearly 14 billion years ago.
There are nearly 31 million seconds in a year. It has been nearly 14 billion years since the universe began. Multiply 31 million 556 thousand, 926, by 14 billion, and you get a time scale that is so small that all human intuition evaporates.
If you look at your watch and measure one second, ask yourself how many Plank Times is that? It is a billion, billion, billion, billion, billion, Plank Times.
When the universe is just a few Plank Times old, an exploding mass of energy is expanding faster than the speed of light. In just a few more Plank Times, the entire universe was determined.
Events Happening In Infinitesimally Small Durations Of Time
In just a few Plank Times, a fraction of a second, the universe is so small that you could hold it all in the palm of your hand. In just a few more Plank Times, another tiny fraction of a second, the universe expands to the size of the earth.
In the initial Plank Times of the universe, this energy was hotter than anything that exists today. The internal fury of a star that exists today is calm compared to the violence that existed in the first second of the universe. These temperatures were so hot that the atoms of the human body would be torn apart and cease to exist. This early universe was trillions of degrees in temperature.
As the universe continue to rapidly expand, it also begins to cool. As these temperatures decrease, new processes are possible in the development of the universe. The pure energy of the universe begins to transform into tiny sub-atomic particles. This is the first real matter that exists in the new universe. This conversion of energy into matter, was predicted in the formula of Albert Einstein, E=MC², many years before anyone knew anything about the moment the universe began. At the time that Einstein formulated his theory of relativity, he and a majority of scientists, believed the universe was static and eternal.
In Einsteins formula, E=MC², the creation of the universe is explained. Even if the universe was created out of nothing but pure energy, energy can be converted to matter, and matter to energy. Everything that we have in our lives—everything that exists in the universe, can come from this pure energy.
This brings us to another realization. When God created the universe, He knew ahead of time that every good thing we have in our life, homes, cars, food, clothes, cell phones, and every wonderful thing that exists for our enjoyment, would be possible when He made the universe from pure energy. The energy didn’t know this. The universe did not care if we had all that we enjoy, but the God who made the universe for us, understood how much these things would mean to us. He loved us, so He created a universe from this pure energy and knew that it would someday be converted into matter that would make all we need and love.
In a thermonuclear explosion, a small amount of matter is converted to a massive amount of energy. At the creation of the universe the opposite took place. God created a massive amount of energy from where all the matter that exists today would originate.
God did not need to create matter at the beginning of the universe, all He had to do was create a massive amount of energy that would later be converted to matter. This microscopic particle of massive energy was all that God needed to make this incredible universe. This gives us a small glimpse into the mind, heart, and power of the God who created our universe because of His love for people.
By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, And all the host of them by the breath of His mouth. ~Psalms 33:6 (NKJV)
It only took a few Plank Times, fractions of one second, and God had already created all of the building blocks that would be necessary for our universe to build stars, planets, galaxies, and eventually people.
This matter which first existed in the universe was unlike matter we see today. The matter which makes up all that we can see today, was not the same kind of matter that existed in the earliest moments of the universe. The conditions of the early universe that existed at less than one second, were so extreme that atoms did not exist. There were, tiny subatomic particles.
How Pure Energy Became Matter
During this first second of the universe there was so much energy contained in such a small space, that particles were being created, matter and energy were being transferred back and forth, but was too unstable to form the universe that exists today. The extreme temperature of the early universe, energizes the tiny subatomic particles. This causes them to appear and disappear. These particles are moving around in what appears to be chaos. As the universe ages, these particles begin to slow down as the temperature of the universe decreases over time.
Someone looking at this process from the outside would imagine that these are simply the normal process of natural events that are unguided and random. When we examine the entire text of the Bible, we see that long processes of time is precisely how God does most things of lasting value. God promises a Savior in Genesis 3:15; it was not until 3,500 years later that the Savior arrives. Jesus promises to come again to set up His kingdom on earth and end evil, sin, suffering, and death; it has been nearly 2,000 years since that promise was made.
Peter said that when these long processes of time unfold, people start to imagine that God must not exist because certainly God, if He does exist, would not take so long to do what He intends. Peter said that in the last days, before Jesus does come again, people will be saying that it has been too long since Jesus said He would come again; He is not going to return.
Most importantly, I want to remind you that in the last days scoffers will come, mocking the truth and following their own desires. They will say, “What happened to the promise that Jesus is coming again? From before the times of our ancestors, everything has remained the same since the world was first created.” They deliberately forget that God made the heavens long ago by the word of his command, and he brought the earth out from the water and surrounded it with water. ~2 Peter 3:3-5 (NLT)
Notice that Peter places the long duration of time since Jesus promised to come again, in context with the long period of time that God took when He created the universe.
All of these seemingly random events of the universe during the 13.799 billion years of its history, seem too long. It is for this reason that some have said that God created the universe in six days. When we carefully read the text of Genesis chapter 1, we see that the very first line of the Bible states that “in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” When this creation took place, is not revealed.
Verse 2 tells us that when God began to prepare the earth for human habitation, it was covered with water and darkness. Verse 3 begins a description of six days in which light that already existed in the form of the sun and moon, were able to be seen on the surface of earth because God removed the canopy of vapor that blocked light from earth. Then God made the seeds that were already on the earth, begin to produce plants. He created animal life and finally human life, during six 24 hour days. Then on the seventh day, God rested. These seven days are not a description of the universe at its creation, but earth and it is prepared by God for human habitation. A 13.799 billion year old universe does not violate one principle of the Bible. In fact, it demonstrates the great love, care, and patience of God for all human beings.
If you read the objections for an old universe by young earth advocates, you discover that their primary objection to the universe being created over a long process of billions of years, is that God would not do this. Their primary assertion for a old universe/old earth, is that this would mean that the universe evolved over billions of years. Of course, this is not true. Simply because God took a long period of time to do something, does not mean that He was not actively involved in doing all of these things. In fact, science proves that God had to be involved for the entire history of the universe.
While the world has been waiting for Jesus to fulfill His 2,000 year old promise to come again, God has been working in the world to prepare the hearts of people to receive Jesus as their Savior—every day.
Energy Converted To Matter, Takes Time
As the process of time in the early universe continues, the particles of energy stop changing back into energy and remain as matter. This is a process that God built into the universe to prepare it for the time when earth would be ready for man to inhabit this planet.
We think of 13.799 billion years as an extraordinarily long period of time. Peter, again commenting on how God operates in the universe, said that a thousand years to the Lord, is but one day. In context with the question of Jesus taking too long to return, Peter said that our view of time is all wrong. God lives outside of time. In eternity time does not exist. For God, a thousand years, is no more than a day. Jesus has only been gone for two days.
The Lord isn’t really being slow about his promise, as some people think. No, he is being patient for your sake. He does not want anyone to be destroyed, but wants everyone to repent. But the day of the Lord will come as unexpectedly as a thief. Then the heavens will pass away with a terrible noise, and the very elements themselves will disappear in fire, and the earth and everything on it will be found to deserve judgment. ~2 Peter 3:9-10 (NLT)
Notice again that Jesus’ delay in returning to earth, is placed before us in context with the creation of the universe, and its eventual destruction. Someday, Jesus will destroy the present universe and create a brand new universe. It is interesting that Peter correctly describes the scientific process for how the universe will be destroyed; a massive heat death.
“…the heavens will pass away with a terrible noise, and the very elements themselves will disappear in fire, and the earth and everything on it…”
As the particles of the early universe are slowing down by the cooling of the universe and becoming matter, we discover that at the same time there is a threat to the universe that was not known by scientists until recent history; antimatter.
Everything in the universe is made from matter. All the matter that exists today in the immensity of our universe, came from the pure energy that God created at the moment the universe began.
Einstein, by his mathematical equation, E=MC², means that energy is transformed into matter. At the time that Einstein formulated this equation is was only a theory. Today, scientists have seen this equation is reality as they have gone back in time to the moment when the universe began and have seen how pure energy was actually converted into all the matter that makes up our universe today.
Science Seeks To Understand The Early Universe
The world’s largest machine, a collider, is housed in Switzerland. Seventeen miles around, the size of a city, this massive machine was built to try and simulate the actual conditions that existed just millionths of a second after the universe began. The purpose of the Collider is to force tiny particles to collide with each other at near the speed of light. When these collisions take place, they create energy that would have been similar to what happened at the beginning of the universe.
When these collisions happen in the collider, energy is briefly transformed into matter in the same processes that took place at the inception of our universe. These tiny particles of matter only exist for a fraction of a second and move at velocities that are nearly impossible to detect. All that scientists can currently detect are the trails left behind after these collisions and conversions of energy to matter. The point of this exercise is to understand how energy transforms into matter.
Matter And AntiMatter
The specific type of matter that scientists are interested in is the kind that was produced in the early universe. When matter was first produced in our universe, antimatter was also produced. Antimatter is the mirror image of matter. Matter has a positive charge, antimatter has a negative charge. When these two opposites meet, they are both destroyed. If the early universe has contained equal parts of matter and antimatter, the universe would have ceased to exist at the beginning.
This would have resulted in no stars, planets, galaxies, or people on earth.
Incredibly, for every billion particles of antimatter, there were a billion and one particles of matter. This one little particle of matter is what survived in the early universe and made up all that exists. Here is where the events of the early universe become particularly interesting to us regarding whether God created the universe or it evolved by a natural process.
Impossible, Natural Processes
There is no possibility that this extra particle of matter, over antimatter, happened by chance. In order for the universe to begin, this requirement must have been known beforehand, and engineered specifically to develop in this way. If this process was left up to chance or a natural process, it could never have happened the first time and provided the proper conditions for matter to develop and make our universe possible.
By now you are beginning to see that processes which took place in Plank Time, or fractions of seconds, were not random, but planned. If any of these many processes did not take place the first time and with extreme precision, there would have never been a universe at all.
Intelligence is the only quantity in the universe that is capable of making precise decisions, and these decisions must be based on foreknowledge of where and when these events must take place—before they take place.
The Universe Proves God Exists: 209 Physical Constants Required For Life On Earth
Those who believe the universe is the product of blind luck or fortuitous events, don’t understand that in the real world, none of these events are possible if left to chance. In these precise processes, we can understand how God is absolutely essential to the creation of the universe and all life that exists. Without an infinite mind, there could be no universe or earth and none of us would ever exist.
After All This Has Taken Place, The Universe Is Still Just One Second Old!
The next stage of the universe that is required is the assembly of these tiny particles into atoms. The universe is still incredible hot and expanding at a rate beyond imagination. Temperatures continue to cool, the primitive particles start slowing down and bonding together. These become the first atoms that will make up the first elements of the universe. The first element is hydrogen. During the next three minutes, the universe acquires two more elements, helium and lithium.
The size of the universe is now light years in dimension. Everything that would later be understood as interesting, happened during the first three minutes. Not until 380,000 years after the universe began, did it all become transparent. Before this time, all that existed as the universe was an opaque, milky soup of electrons that would slow down and adhere to the new atoms that are being created. It took a great deal of time for all of the atoms of hydrogen, helium, and lithium to form. Scientists believe that this process took about 380,000 years before the universe was mass-producing atoms. As this process is completed, the first light is created and can be seen in the universe.
Cosmic Background Radiation
In 1964, two young scientists, Arno Penzias, and Robert Wilson, discovered cosmic radiation from the beginning of the universe. The sounds that these two men were hearing from the universe were the creation of atoms at the beginning of the universe. This was the moment when the milky, opaque cloud, cleared and light began in the universe by the formation of the first stars.
To confirm these findings, scientists launched the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite, or COBE satellite on November 18, 1989, at 7:34 AM MST, that was pointed into space and took the temperature of the universe. By measuring differences in temperature across space, scientists created the first map of our early universe.
It is Interesting that they called these first images, “The Face of God.”
These images showed us what the infant universe looked like when it was just 380,000 years old. These early images were very fuzzy and resolution was not very clear. NASA decided to launch a more advanced satellite, known as the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), on June 30, 2001, at 12:46 PM MST.
Just one day after launch, the first signal came back from this satellite. The result of this new work provided us with the most detailed image of the early universe ever seen.
Red and yellow areas are warmer; blue and green areas are cooler. The differences in these temperatures tell us how the future universe would develop. These tiny variations in temperature show us differences in density of matter. Some regions of space have more matter, others have less. Places with no matter, would later become empty space. Areas with dense matter will become the construction sites of galaxies, stars, and planets.
If the universe did not have these fluctuations in the density of matter, no stars could ever have formed. The question then arises, “how did the early universe—which is inanimate and has no mind of its’s own—know to distribute matter in these clusters so that galaxies, stars, and planets could form later?”
The obvious answer is, they could not possibly have known this. In fact, left to its own, by a natural process or by random acts of nature, these groups of matter that would make stars and planets possible later, could not have formed. This again becomes an empirical evidence of science from our universe which demand that intelligence acted upon the universe and caused this grouping of matter during unimaginable violence and extreme temperature. Whatever you want to call this Intelligence, it was a Non-Material Being, an Eternal Mind, which made these events possible.
At 380,000 years old and trillions and trillions of miles across, clouds of hydrogen and helium gas are floating in space. Not for an another 200 million years will these gases be compressed sufficiently by gravity, to become the first stars.
When the first stars were sufficiently compressed by gravity to begin their nuclear process, they lit up the universe in brilliant light. In every direction, the universe began to light up until it developed into what we see today when we look up into a night sky.
About one billion years after the first stars begin to light up, the first galaxy of stars begin to form. Over the next eight billion years, billions are added to the number of galaxies.
Earth Is Formed
About five billion years ago, is a quiet corner of one of these galaxies, in our Milky Way galaxy, gravity begins to form dust and gas to form our star that makes life on earth possible. It is now about nine billion years after the universe began, when our small solar system comes into existence. One of the planets that are formed during this process is earth, to which the Bible describes in Genesis chapter 1, when God made it ready for our habitation in six 24 hour days.
Young earth creationists object to an old universe because they say the text of Genesis chapter 1 specifically states that God created the universe in six literal 24 hour days. The problem is, Genesis chapter 1 does not say this.
Genesis 1:1 states that God created the heavens and the earth in the beginning. When the beginning occurred, we are not told.
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. ~Genesis 1:1
The earth was without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God was hovering over the face of the waters. ~Genesis 1:2
Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. ~Genesis 1:3
- Verse 1. God created the heavens and the earth.
- Verse 2. The earth first existed without form.
- Verse 3. God formed the earth for habitation in six days.
There is no specific statement here in Genesis Chapter 1 that indicates the entire universe was created in six days. The references in verses 3-31 describe God’s work to make the earth ready for habitation during a period of six days.
- Day 1: Genesis 1:3-5—God causes the light that is already in existence by our sun to be seen on the surface of the earth (no land yet).
- Day 2: Genesis 1:6-8—dividing the thick atmosphere (firmament) of the earth from the water that covered the earth.
- Day 3: Genesis 1:9-13—dividing the seas from the land so that land appears, and seeds begin to grow (seeds were already present); grass, herbs, and trees begin to grow.
- Day 4: Genesis 1:14-19—the stars, moon, and sun are fully visible on the land of earth (they already existed but were unseen on the surface of the earth).
- Day 5: Genesis 1:20-23—creation of fish, birds, and the larger sea creatures. Each created according to their own kind, not evolved.
- Day 6: Genesis 1:24-31—creation of land animals, creation of man and woman, dominion over the earth given to man, command to reproduce; all plants, herbs, and trees given to mankind for food.
- Day 7: God ends His work of creation on the earth, and He rests.
One of the verses from the Bible which has been used to make the case that the entire universe was created in six days is found in Exodus 31:17.
It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel forever; for in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day He rested and was refreshed. ~Exodus 31:17
Notice that there is a different word used here (made) in reference to the six days of creation. Genesis 1:1 describes God as creating the heavens and the earth. The English word “create” came from the Hebrew word “bara,” which means to make from nothing.
The Hebrew word used in Exodus 31:17 for made is “mad,” which is correctly translated as measure and not to create from nothing as Genesis 1:1 indicates.
It is clear that Exodus 31:17 is not referring to the original creation of the universe, in Genesis 1:1, but to the time afterwards when God measured the heavens and the earth to bring the earth out of its formless state, as described in Genesis 1:2. It was then that God utilized the six days of preparing the earth for man, in Genesis 1:3-31.
A Universe By Intelligence, Not By Accident
The reality that the universe exhibits design characteristics, which are only possible by intelligence, demands a rational answer. We cannot satisfy science nor the questions of the existence of life by any other answer except that the universe was created. The “God of the gaps” excuse that was used for many years by creationists in explaining certain phenomenon is not necessary, for God is the solution to all the questions for how and why the Cosmos came into being and exists in the way we observe it.
The complexity of the universe requires an engineering process of infinite magnitude. The universe did not evolve into its present state. It was created and controlled in such a manner, that it would become an environment that would allow the earth to exist and people to inhabit the planet much later.
For complete and detailed information on the theories for the true age of the universe, see the book “A Universe From God” by the same author, Robert Clifton Robinson, available at Amazon Kindle Books.
The End Of The Universe
Our universe is still expanding and the speed of its expansion is increasing over time. Eventually, just as the universe began by God, it will also end by Him. Jesus promised that someday this present universe will be destroyed and He will create a new universe where sin, evil, sickness, suffering, and death, do not exist again.
Those who have read the Bible and learn who God is—the One who made the universe, understand that we are defective in our nature. God made us perfect, but we became imperfect by our own decisions to rebel against the perfection God and live our own way. Our rebellion and the defects of unrighteousness that are seen every day all over the earth, make it impossible for any one of us to live in the perfect world God will create. In order for this to be possible, our imperfection of sin must be removed.
When God came to earth in the form of a man, He lived without sin and offered His perfect life in exchange for ours. Jesus’ death paid for the sins of the whole world. According to God’s promise, everyone who believes God, and turns from their sins, to Jesus for their salvation, will be a part of God’s new and perfect world.
From this brief summary of what we know about the universe from science and cosmology, we understand that the universe only exists because intelligence acted upon it to make everything possible. It is impossible and absolutely unprovable that the universe just happened to begin by itself and was capable of achieving all of these precise events. The precision necessary to allow our universe to begin, develop, and sustain human life on earth, were only possible be forethought, design, engineering, and infinite power.
Critics of God and the Bible, frequently ask why the God described in the Bible is superior or different from any of the other gods or religions of the world. The reason that some people ask this question is because they don’t know the God who is described in the pages of the Bible. Anyone who studies the 66 books of the Hebrew and Greek scriptures, quickly learns that this God is unlike any other.
First of all, the gods and religions of the world all create from within what already exists. The God of the Bible states that He is the source of all creation. John chapter 1, Colossians chapter 1, and Hebrews chapter 1, are three places where Jesus is described as the causal agent of all that exits.
All things were made through Jesus, and without Him nothing was made that was made. ~John 1:3 (RCR)
For by Jesus all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him. ~Colossians 1:16 (RCR)
Long ago God spoke many times and in many ways to our ancestors through the prophets. And now in these final days, he has spoken to us through his Son. God promised everything to the Son as an inheritance, and through the Son he created the universe. ~Hebrews 1:1-2 (NLT)
Throughout the Bible, God claims that He alone is the source of the universe. He supports this assertion by including principles in the text which no man knew at the time these words were written. The Bible presents these scientific facts of the universe to us—precisely as they have existed since the beginning of the Cosmos.
- In the beginning there was nothing, when suddenly, the universe came into existence (Genesis 1:1).
- Time, Space, and Matter came into existence at the same precise moment (Genesis 1:1).
- The number of stars in the universe are so great in number, they cannot be counted (Jeremiah 33:22).
- The Sun follows a circular course through the universe (Psalms 19:4-6).
- The Earth is a sphere (Isaiah 40:22).
- The Earth hangs in empty space, suspended by gravity (Job 26:7).
- All matter in the universe is made up of invisible material, consisting of Atoms (Hebrews 11:3).
No other religion or god of this world has ever conveyed through the writings of their scriptures such detailed knowledge of the universe, prior to the scientific discovery of these facts. The One True God has presented these pieces of evidence to us as proof that He is the one who made the universe and the only one in whom we should trust.
To you it was shown, that you might know that the LORD Himself is God; there is none other besides Him. ~Deuteronomy 4:35
The Universe Exists As Scientific Evidence That God Must exist.
[AA] Essay posted at the Hubblesite website: https://hubblesite.org/contents/news-releases/2021/news-2021-01″NEW MEASUREMENTS OF THE SKY’S BLACKNESS SHOW GALAXIES ONLY NUMBER IN THE HUNDREDS OF BILLIONS
How dark is the sky, and what does that tell us about the number of galaxies in the visible universe? Astronomers can estimate the total number of galaxies by counting everything visible in a Hubble deep field and then multiplying them by the total area of the sky. But other galaxies are too faint and distant to directly detect. Yet while we can’t count them, their light suffuses space with a feeble glow.
To measure that glow, astronomical satellites have to escape the inner solar system and its light pollution, caused by sunlight reflecting off dust. A team of scientists has used observations by NASA’s New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt to determine the brightness of this cosmic optical background. Their result sets an upper limit to the abundance of faint, unresolved galaxies, showing that they only number in the hundreds of billions, not 2 trillion galaxies as previously believed.
How dark does space get? If you get away from city lights and look up, the sky between the stars appears very dark indeed. Above the Earth’s atmosphere outer space dims even further, fading to an inky pitch-black. And yet even there, space isn’t absolutely black. The universe has a suffused feeble glimmer from innumerable distant stars and galaxies.
New measurements of that weak background glow show that the unseen galaxies are less plentiful than some theoretical studies suggested, numbering only in the hundreds of billions rather than the previously reported two trillion galaxies.
“It’s an important number to know – how many galaxies are there?” said Marc Postman of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, a lead author on the study. “We simply don’t see the light from two trillion galaxies.”
The earlier estimate was extrapolated from very deep sky observations by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope. It relied on mathematical models to estimate how many galaxies were too small and faint for Hubble to see. That team concluded that 90% of the galaxies in the universe were beyond Hubble’s ability to detect in visible light. The new findings, which relied on measurements from NASA’s distant New Horizons mission, suggest a much more modest number.”
 A zeptosecond, or a trillionth of a billionth of a second, is a unit of Plank Time, the measurement used in calculating the events which took place during the first second of the universe. Plank Time is approximately 5.39 × 10 −44 s, named after Max Planck.
 Albert Einstein, “Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie,” in Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1917), Feb. 8, 142– 52. The English translation is in The Principle of Relativity: A Collection of Original Memoirs on the Special and General Theory of Relativity by H. A. Lorentz, A. Einstein, H. Minkowski, and H. Weyl with notes by A. Sommerfeld and translated by W. Perrett and G. B. Jeffrey (London, UK: Methuen and Co., 1923), 175– 88; Albert Einstein, “Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie,” Annalen der Physik 354 (1916): 769– 822. The English translation is in The Principle of Relativity, 109– 64, doi: 10.1002/ andp. 19163540702. Ross, Hugh. The Creator and the Cosmos: How the Latest Scientific Discoveries Reveal God (Kindle Locations 4688-4693). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.
 Vibert Douglas, “Forty Minutes with Einstein,” Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 50 (June 1956): 100. Ross, Hugh. The Creator and the Cosmos: How the Latest Scientific Discoveries Reveal God (Kindle Locations 4693-4694). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.
 Ross, Hugh. The Creator and the Cosmos: How the Latest Scientific Discoveries Reveal God (Kindle Locations 659-666). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.
 T. de Haan et al., “Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clusters in the 2500 Square-Degree SPT-SZ Survey,” Astrophysical Journal 832 (November 18, 2016): id. 95, doi: 10.3847/ 0004-637X/ 832/ 1/ 95; B. Sartoris et al., “Next Generation Cosmology: Constraints from the Euclid Galaxy Cluster Survey,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 459 (June 21, 2016): 1764– 80, doi: 10.1093/ mnras/ stw630; Ariel G. Sánchez et al., “The Clustering of Galaxies in the Completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological Implications of the Configuration-Space Clustering Wedges,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 464 (January 11, 2017): 1640– 58, doi: 10.1093/ mnras/ stw2443; Jan Niklas Grieb et al., “The Clustering of Galaxies in the Completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological Implications of the Fourier Space Wedges of the Final Sample,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 467 (May 21, 2017): 2085– 112, doi: 10.1093/ mnras/ stw3384; J. Kwan et al., “Cosmology from Large-Scale Galaxy Clustering and Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 464 (February 1, 2017): 4045– 62, doi: 10.1093/ mnras/ stw2464; Vincent R. Bouillot et al., “Probing Dark Energy Models with Extreme Pairwise Velocities of Galaxy Clusters from the DEUS-FUR Simulations,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 450 (June 11, 2015): 145– 59, doi: 10.1093/ mnras/ stv558; Alejo Stark, Christopher J. Miller, and Daniel Gifford, “On Escaping a Galaxy Cluster in an Accelerating Universe,” Astrophysical Journal 830 (October 17, 2016): id. 109, doi: 10.3847/ 0004-637X/ 830/ 2/ 109; Christian Marinoni and Adeline Buzzi, “A Geometric Measure of Dark Energy with Pairs of Galaxies,” Nature 468 (November 25, 2010): 539– 41, doi: 10.1038/ nature09577; T. Abbott et al., “Cosmology from Cosmic Shear with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data,” Physical Review D 94 (July 6, 2016): id. 022001, doi: 10.1103/ PhysRevD. 94.022001; Masato Shirasaki, Takashi Hamana, and Naoki Yoshida, “Probing Cosmology with Weak Lensing Selected Clusters. II. Dark Energy and f( R) Gravity Models,” Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan 68 (February 1, 2016): id. 414, doi: 10.1093/ pasj/ psv105; Adam Mantz et al., “Weighing the Giants: Galaxy Cluster Cosmology Anchored by Weak Gravitational Lensing,” (American Astronomical Society HEAD Meeting #14, Chicago, IL, August 2014); Fulvio Melia, Jun-Jie Wei, and Xue-Feng Wu, “A Comparison of Cosmological Models Using Strong Gravitational Lensing Galaxies,” Astronomical Journal 149 (November 25, 2014): id. 2, doi: 10.1088/ 0004-6256/ 149/ 1/ 2; Xiao-Dong Li et al., “Cosmological Constraints from the Redshift Dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski Effect: Application to the SDSS-III Boss DR12 Galaxies,” Astrophysical Journal 832 (November 21, 2016): id. 103, doi: 10.3847/ 0004-637X/ 832/ 2/ 103; Xue Li, Jens Hjorth, and Radosław Wojtak, “Cosmological Parameters from Supernovae Associated with Gamma Ray Bursts,” Astrophysical Journal Letters 796 (October 31, 2014): id. L4, doi: 10.1088/ 2041-8205/ 796/ 1/ L4; L. Izzo et al., “New Measurements of Ωm from Gamma-Ray Bursts,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 582 (October 2015): id. A115, doi: 10.1051/ 0004-6361/ 201526461; Marek Demianski et al., “Cosmology from Gamma-Ray Bursts II. Cosmography Challenges and Cosmological Scenarios for the Accelerated Universe,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 598 (February 2017): id. A113, doi: 10.1051/ 0004-6361/ 201628911; Marek Demianski et al., “Cosmology with Gamma-Ray Bursts. I. The Hubble Diagram through the Calibrated Ep, i– Eiso Correlation,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 598 (February 2017): id. A122, doi: 10.1051/ 0004-6361/ 201628909. Ross, Hugh. The Creator and the Cosmos: How the Latest Scientific Discoveries Reveal God.
 Philip Ball, “Is Physics Watching Over Us?.”
 ibid Davies, Paul. 1983. God and the New Physics. London, J M Dent & Sons
Categories: Agnostics and Skeptics, Empirical Evidence for God, Evolution, Forgiveness of Sin, God is Eternal, How Intelligence Acted Upon The Universe, How Salvation Occurs, Origin of the Universe, Physical Constants, Religion vs. Relationship, Robert Clifton Robinson, Salvation through Jesus, Science and the Bible, Scientists Who Believe in God, The age of the Universe, The Existence of God, Understanding Eternity, Why evil exists