The Ontological Argument

Basis Of The Ontological Arguments For The Existence Of God

The argument that there is no proof for the existence of God is irrational. In fact, there is no reasonable explanation for the universe or life itself, apart from God. The question that has been rightly asked: “Why is there a universe at all?”

Since everything that exists has an explanation for its existence, there must also be a reason that the universe exists. Since all things that are temporal have a first cause and the universe came into being at some point, the universe must have a first cause. Since it is impossible for anything to cause itself, the universe must have come into existence by a power that is transcendent of time and space. By the complexity, balance, and design of the universe, we perceive that all things in existence were caused by an infinite intelligence; an intelligence which is without limits and perfect. Only an unlimited and eternal Being would have the capacity to create such a universe. I personally do not understand why it is so hard for people to accept that God exists and that He is the most logical explanation for the existence of the universe.

There are two types of things that exist.

1. Things that exist by necessity.
2. Things which are caused.
Mathematics exists by necessity. It is not caused to exist by anything else.

The universe does not need to exist, it exists because it was caused. Nothing comes into existence apart from intelligence, therefore; God is the most logical cause of the universe.

A Being which is eternal, such as God, does not require a cause. A Being who is the source of all that exists, must be before all things.

The error of evolution is that it cannot explain how life began in the first place.⁠4 Life was also, not necessary; it was caused. Since Human intelligence requires an equal or greater intelligence to bring us into being, the logical explanation is God.

Could we imagine that the microprocessors that enable today’s computers to function, came about by random mutations or chance arrangements of atoms? How much more difficult would it be to evolve a human mind, which is exponentially greater in complexity to any microprocessor or sophisticated computer code?

How Did God Make the Universe?

In the beginning there was nothing. The universe did not exist. There were no planets, no stars, not even empty space. Imagine all the matter that makes up the universe—tightly compressed into a particle that is nearly invisible. Scientists believe that it was from this tiny, densely compressed speck of material, that everything that we see today, originated.⁠5

At zero linear time, this speck of material exploded and expanded at hundreds of millions of miles per hour. This was an incomprehensible sphere of energy that was dense and compact beyond imagination. The temperature of the initial flash of energy was trillions of degrees. This was a mass of pure plasma, expanding at the Speed of Light.⁠6

Everything that would exist in our present universe would come from this initial material; the planets, the stars, every living thing—even time and space itself—all things were created at that moment.

According to the Bible:

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The Hebrew word for “created” is Bara—to make from nothing.⁠7 According to the words of God, He created everything that exists in the universe from nothing, in single event.  —Genesis 1:1

A Universe Without God is Irrational

There are certain phenomenon that are present in the universe that leave us with little doubt of their origin. Gasses may form stars, and stars form planets; these groups of stars may form galaxies, but what of their origin?

We know today that specific and incredible processes were in play during the initial moments of the big bang. The universe did not come into existence by totally naturalistic causes. There is a reason for the order that we observe in the cosmos. Order never comes from chaos. When we behold a magnificent machine we understand that conception, design, engineering, and building were necessary for this device to exist.

Physicists have described the universe as a “masterful machine.” Some scientists and mechanical engineers describe the universe as “indistinguishable from a quantum computer.⁠8

The universe contains an organization and symphony of physical constants that have made life possible. The precise requirements that are necessary and provide enough stability for advanced life form to exist, is stunning.

If we modify any of the physical constants of the universe, even slightly, we end up with a completely different universe from the one that we presently have.⁠9

“On the face of it, the universe does look as if it has been designed by an intelligent creator expressly for the purpose of spawning sentient beings.”⁠10  —Paul Davis, Physicist and Cosmologist

Physicist, Fred Hoyle, described the universe as existing in its present form as though a “superintellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology.”

The existence of the universe is an ever-present reminder that we live in a world that was specifically made for us

It is unreasonable to try to explain the universe without God. What we observe is a cosmos of Brobdingnagian size and complexity that could not have come into existence apart from an eternal and infinite mind.

The basic premise for understanding the universe, begins with an acknowledgement of what we can observe: A cosmos so immense and complex, that it necessitates a Creator. Without this basic confirmation, we will never know anything of why and how the universe operates. To try and do so will leave out the most basic questions that must be answered before all others:

  • How did the universe begin when there was no time, space, or matter before that moment?
  • How did life begin since all attempts at replicating the moment of creation have failed by the scientific community.
  • Why does the universe exist at all?
  • Evolution cannot answer these questions—even after 150 years of Darwinian doctrine. All that evolution can accurately explain, is how life developed after it appeared on earth; it does not tell us how and why life came into existence in the first place.

To imagine that the universe has no first cause is to assume that anything can come into existence without a cause. We do not observe this phenomenon having occurred anywhere in the universe, except during one infinite reality—God.

First: we know that God exists—by the things that He has made. The universe does not exist by happenstance or as the result of chance. In the first picosecond (one trillionth of a second) of the universe, the precise balance between gravitational force and the expansion of energy, was precisely calibrated, within extremely narrow limits—necessary for life to exist on earth, billions of years later (if it is billions year old). The big question is why they were calibrated at all since the models that scientists have developed for how the universe should have expanded, reveal a universe drastically different from what actually occurred.

1. The Universe as we know it, cannot be explained by natural forces.
2. The finely tuned universe as empirical proof for the existence of God, has no formal logical defects.
3. The only current explanation for the existence of the universe—which can be tested and verified, is the finely tuned and design evidence of the universe.
4. Our universe contains the precise physical constants that have the exact values that are required to allow for complex structures, such as galaxies, stars, planets, and people.

The Universe Cannot Be Explained Apart From An Intelligent Source.

The Universe is far to complex, exceedingly super-engineered, and masterfully balanced. Every star that exists amongst the 300 sextillion that we think exists, came into being because of several early processes in the initial expansion of the universe.

These processes demanded extreme power and control in order to spread out the material of the initial mass, evenly, so that matter would be disbursed in equal amounts, across the expanse of space. this would be similar to a person blowing air into a large balloon until it reached a critical point where it exploded and began to eject material outward from the pressure that had been exerted internally upon it. As time is slowed to near cessation, a person could act independent of time itself and walk throughout the room and place the balloon’s material in even patterns, in every direction.

This is very similar to the phenomenon that scientists have observed in their mathematical calculations of the first second of the universe. No one knows for certain what process caused this equal distribution of matter throughout the universe—which allowed the clumping of matter that provided the perfect environment for stars to form much later. Whether is was inflation, antimatter, or some other unknown phenomenon, it is certain that extreme intelligence caused this control to exist in the first place.

Second: we know that God exists, because He has placed a knowledge of Himself inside the heart of every person.[1] Universally, around the world, in all cultures and people, throughout the history of man on the earth—there is an inner knowledge of God within the heart of man. This creates a desire for worship and a sense of wonder that is universally seen in every people and nation.

Third: the Lord has also placed a knowledge of eternity in the heart of the human species. Every person understands that death is unnatural, unreasonable, and not a normal part of life. We seem to understand inherently that something has taken place in this world which has caused an unnatural break in what should be a life without end. It is not logical or reasonable that, at some point, we would cease to exist. All of us feel a deep sense of eternity; we seem to know inherently that we should not die.

He has made everything beautiful in its time. Also He has put eternity in their hearts, except that no one can find out the work that God does from beginning to end.  —Ecclesiastes 3:11

The Argument For One Eternal, Unlimited, God

  1. In order for God to exist, He must be perfect in every regard.
  2. If there were anything that God must learn or did not know, He would not be God.
  3. Since God by definition is all powerful, infinite, eternal and knows all things, it is impossible that any other God could exist.
  4. There are god’s in the world but these are the creation of men and imagination. These god’s are not eternal, all powerful, and know all things. By these definitions, these supposed god’s are not God but counterfeits.
  5. The presence of this masterful, infinitely complex, governed by Physical laws and understood my mathematics, the Cosmos requires an unlimited intelligence.
  6. Therefore God must exist.

Let us consider this premise: The term “God,” is defined as a Being who is perfect in every regard. Any being who is not perfect would not be God, with a big “G,” he would simply be one god amongst many imperfect god’s, little “g.”

The exclusive example of God existing as more than one, is found in the Bible. The Biblical God is a compound unity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; meaning that three person’s are all described as one God. The name of God; אֱלֹהִים ’ lôhîym; (Elohim) is plural.[2]

This is the only way that three Beings who are perfect could be understood. Only if these three were in complete unity of mind, will, and purpose could they function as one God. It would be impossible for several Beings to exist as separate God’s; their lack of unity would define them as less than perfect, therefore, not God

A part of perfection is unity. Unity is defined as “the state of being united or joined as a whole.”[3] In mathematics, unity is defined by the number one, therefore three persons who are perfect, must exist in perfect unity as one. For this reason, the true God must be singular.

Since there can only be one God (big G), this first premise requires that He must be perfect in every regard, incapable of error. If God were able to commit error, He would not be perfect, and therefore he could not be God.

Since God is perfect, He must also be eternal. For no created being, who came into existence at some point in time, by the work of one who existed before him, could be perfect, since he has relied upon one before him for his existence. The fact that a god could be created, removes the certainty that he is perfect—lacking the ability to exist before, and apart from, all other things.

In this regard, any created being could not be God (big G).

When atheists ask the question: “who created God?”, they are implying that the kind of God they are thinking of is a created God. In this regard, this kind of being is a logical impossibility.

The fact that a created god requires one before him for his existence, would define his creator as greater than the one he has made. If we continue to follow all of these created god’s back to their source, we never arrive at one who is the original and the source of all others.

If, however, God can be defined as singular, with no beginning; having no creator, and being eternal—this God would be perfect and would fulfill the true definition of God.

This is precisely the definition of the God who is revealed in the pages of the Bible.

“You are My witnesses,” says the LORD, “And My servant whom I have chosen, That you may know and believe Me, And understand that I am He. Before Me there was no God formed, Nor shall there be after Me. —Isaiah 43:10

…Is there a God besides Me? Indeed there is no other Rock; I know not one. —Isaiah 44:8

Before the mountains were brought forth, Or ever You had formed the earth and the world, Even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God. —Psalms 90:2

By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, And all the host of them by the breath of His mouth. Psalms 33:6

The God of the Bible is eternal, has no beginning, and was not formed by any god before Him. He simply exists, and always has. This God is perfect, knows all things, is unlimited and does not require a cause for His existence.

It is interesting to me that many scientists accept the fact that there could be a civilization somewhere in the universe that is so advanced in their intelligence, that they would have the power to create other beings and cause them to live forever. However, when we present the ultimate Being, who has lived forever, and describe Him as the source of all life, scientists reject this as impossible. It appears that the objection of an eternal Being with unlimited power and intelligence, originates from a religious abhorrence rather than a logical impossibility.

Of the five major religions of the world, we see a remarkable difference:

Hindus believe in millions of gods and goddesses.
Buddhists claim that God does not exist.
New Age followers believe that they are God.
Muslims believe in a powerful but unknowable God.
Christians believe in a personal God who is loving and knowable.

As previously defined, the true God must be singular. The concept of many god’s, defines their existence as less than perfect, therefore, not God. There are many examples of these lesser god’s in the world. Most often, these god’s are the creation of men, legend, or myth. The manner in which the Bible describes God, as a singular, compound unity, with no equal, meets the logical requirements for the true God. All the other religions of the world make use of substandard, or lesser god’s, and therefore—they are not the One True God.

These lesser god’s always fail the test of a true God. For these beings, starting as imperfect, they can never attain the place of perfection—since they first existed as flawed. The true definition of perfection is the eternality of that perfection. As human beings, we are willing to accept imperfection, but the essence of true perfection requires an eternal duration—or it is not perfection.

The God of the Bible is self-existent, having no beginning or end, requiring no first cause. He has always existed and is the source of all life, matter, and energy, even time itself.

Although we may not understand the eternal nature of God, for things which are eternal are difficult for human beings to understand, we do understand the concept of perfection. Although we cannot attain it, we know—instinctively, what perfection is. In understanding God, if we take what we can comprehend: God must be perfect, then we understand that this requires that He is eternal. Perfection requires eternality. Once again, any created being who depended upon a being before him, cannot be God in the sense of perfection. Perfection requires complete autonomy from all other created things.

This is why the atheist question: “who made God,” is flawed. If there is a God, He must be the only one. If there was a god before him who made him, he would not be God, only a substandard god—like so many mythical creatures of old.

The God who made the universe and all life was not Himself created; He is eternal. This is the primary difference between a universe that has a beginning and God who has no beginning. The universe came into being; God did not. This is the premise of the entire gospel of John:

In the beginning was the Word (Messiah), and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. —John 1:1-3 (NIV)

Only God is self-existent and has no first cause. This is obvious and self-evident by the observable universe. The kind of God who could create the universe, would possess a mind of such infinite wisdom; it is impossible for a transient being to comprehend such a Being—unless He should choose to reveal Himself. We do not know how God was able to engineer and build the universe that we see (not to mention what we cannot see); we know only that a Transcendent Being of infinite power is required to accomplish such an endeavor.

To put forth the premise that matter and energy can self-generate themselves, from nothing; to assert that intelligent beings, could evolve from a single cell, is utter lunacy. The theory of evolution—where all life originates from a single cell; this cell mutates randomly, until it becomes a species that mutates into all other species, finally mutating into intelligent beings, is not possible. This kind of thinking is fantasy—insanity at its very essence. Evolution has never proven, how life began in the first place. Evolution has never proven that one species has, in the past, evolved into a new species. Observing evolutionary adaptation does not prove that it is possible for one species to evolve into a new and completely different species. The similarities that we observe between species, indicates a common creative source, not a common evolutionary source.

Let us remember that in all the history of the human species, no person has ever observed anything coming into existence by itself or from nothing. In spite of this, the scientific world works hard to prove that God does not exist and the universe created itself, rather than to simply acknowledge the obvious: God made the universe. We know that He exists by what He has made. When someone makes something, the evidence of their existence as an intelligent being is left behind and is verifiable proof that they exist. The incredible universe that we behold is evidence of the greatest intelligent Being in existence.

Science is founded upon the basis of observable, provable data. The evidence that is observable from the universe, indicates a super intellect is responsible for the cosmos, not a random set of events.

Many of the world’s greatest minds have examined the complexity of the universes and concluded that there is no possibility that the universe could have come into existence by itself.[4] The fact that the universes exists—requires a Super-Intellect, capable of unlimited engineering and Creative power.

This is the premise that is stated by the Bible: Man knows that God exists, by the things that He has made:

because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them. 20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse…  —Romans 1:19-20

Arguments Against The Ontological Argument

Although attempts are made at refuting the argument of the universe as evidence for God’s existence, this premise has no logical flaws. What is observable is a magnificent work of extreme engineering—requiring intelligence that is beyond human imagination.

The idea that the universe could create itself when an infinite duration of time existed when nothing was present, is not logical. Everything that exists could not come from nothing, suddenly, and at a moment with no cause.

The only arguments that are put forward by scientists, cosmologists, and theoretical physicists, is the existence of other universe which existed before our own that caused our universe to begin. This theory is fatally flawed in that it is based on extreme conjecture.

First: we cannot see past our present universe to actually observe whether there are any other universes. All existing data confirms that our universe is the only universes.

Second: Absent the ability to observe any other universes this theory is not tenable—existing only in the theoretical.

Theories Of Other Universes To Refute The Ontological Argument:

An idea that theoretical physicists have used to explain the fine tuning of the universe is the theory of the multiverse. In Hyperspace, this theory imagines an unlimited number of other universes other than our own. In an unlimited number of universes, it would be reasonable and even expected that some would have gravity, carbon and the other constants necessary for life. This would mean that God is not necessary, a universe which is perfect for life is simply the result of chance and the law of statistics.

The theory of the multiverse is the often referenced method that a great number of scientists use to explain why fine tuning is present in our universe. Since our universe has the capacity to make as many as 300 sextillion stars, then it is certainly possible to make many more in other universes.

The idea of an infinite number of other universes is actually just as likely as the idea that there is an infinite Creator, yet this theory is rarely asserted by the majority of scientists who study the origin of the universe.
The biggest problem with the multiverse theory is that there is no possibility for us to see if there actually are other universes beyond our own. Currently we cannot see even the edge of our own universe, much less what, if any, lies beyond. Science is based upon observable, testable data and the multiverse is not a scientific theory that can be observed or tested. For this reason, it is not a viable candidate for the origin of all that exists.

The idea of creating an unlimited number of universe simply to explain our own which exists with clear evidence of fine tuning, is to complicate the search for the origin of the universe to an extreme. It is much easier and more reasonable to conclude that a Being not unlike us, yet infinitely more intelligent, determined to make a universe and people in it like Himself. We can certainly conceive of intelligent life somewhere else in the universe that is billions of years more advanced than we are—with the technology to make life last forever. How hard is it to stretch our imagination a little further and imagine that we were created by someone who is very much like us, yet infinite and unlimited.

New Theories For The Universe:

The idea of an unseen dimension that is just millimeters from us.
One of these new ideas is called “String Theory,” which allegedly could explain everything in the universe; including the origin of the universe.
Fundamental packages of energy called strings, which vibrate in different ways according to the different kinds of particles that we find in the universe.

According to string theory these infinitesimally small strings are the fundamental building blocks of all energy and matter. The mathematics behind the theory of string theory comes to one astonishing conclusion: these strings must not only vibrate in the dimension that we can see but also in other dimensions that we cannot see. The idea is that these other dimensions are so small that we cannot detect them. Some scientists say that these other dimensions may reside outside of our universe in a “bulk universe.”

A bulk universe is one of many membranes of other universes that reside within a higher dimensional bulk.

In theory, this higher dimensional bulk could be present only millimeters from each one of us although we could not see them as they reside within a different dimension.

In a three dimensional universe where we can perceive height, length, and depth, someone that lives within a two dimensional universe with just height and width would not be able to communicate with us, not being able to see before or behind themselves.

The person living in a three dimensional universe can see the person in the two dimensional universe as they have height, width, and depth but the person in the two dimensional world cannot see or communicate with anyone that lives within a world of greater dimensions.

If the laws of physics are constrained to work in a certain dimension, then we cannot see or hear, touch or experience a dimension that has different qualities of dimension from our own.

There could be physical entities and beings that are only millimeters in front of us but we would never be able to detect them. This is really how the Bible describes the invisible world of the Spirit. Angels, or even God Himself could be standing only inches from us and we would not have the capacity to see or discern that they are there.

Just as science cannot prove or disprove the presence of other beings in a higher dimension from our own, so also scientists cannot prove or disprove that there are other universes in a higher dimension. Although mathematics may give the possibility for these things, it does not mean that they actually exist.

String theory predicts that our universe extends into other dimensions but it does not predict if anything else actually lives in these dimensions.
Theologians state that we will never find God in the eleven dimensions of string theory because He transcends the universe we can see as well as any other universes that may be theorized which cannot be seen.

Within this complex string theory, there is also an incredible amount of fine tuning that would be necessary to make this possible.
Hidden within theses eleven dimensions of string theory there is not an unconditioned, completely intelligible, unrestricted, continuously creative reality.

Even if God does not exist within the bulk universe, the reason for the big bang might exist.

Another hypothesis of theoretical physicists is that the big bang resulted when two of these parallel membranes crashed into each other within a higher dimension of hyper-space.

The problem in all of these new theories is that scientists do not have the ability to prove or disprove what happens in these higher dimensions or whether they support or disprove the existence of a Creator.

This in the inherent difficulty that resides in the continual denial of an infinitely intelligent Being as the source of all that exists. It is much easier to explain our universe, the presence of fine tuning and the existence of life on our planet by God than these endless excuses for why scientists think that God cannot exist.

[1] The arguments from Romans 1:19-20 which declares that even though man may deny the existence of God, he is being disingenuous, as this knowledge was hardwired into the psyche of all human beings.
[2] Strong’s # h0430. אֱלֹהִים ’ lôhîym; plural of 433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God.
[3] Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, 2016
[4] “A Universe From God,” 2013, Robert Clifton Robinson, the chapter: “Scientists Who Believe in God.”