The fact that the universe is fine-tuned to allow for life is no longer a matter of conjecture. What is at issue is whether this fine-tuning was caused by a Being or was the natural result of physics. Critics object to the idea that our universe was designed for life because most of the cosmos is completely inhospitable and hostile to life. When we understand what these fine-tuned physical constants really involve, it becomes clear that only under certain specific and rare conditions can physical life ever exist on a planet.
The scientific evidence we have today confirms that the clear intent of these physical constants was not to seed the entire universe with life, but to allow precise conditions only on specific planets like earth. By their very nature the fine-tuned physical constants of our universe would make most of the universe inhospitable to life, while providing a very narrow possibility of life on at least one planet.
When persons claim that it was the God of the Bible who is responsible for the universe, it is because the text of this book describes God in this manner, as the source of all that exists. He is not described as a Creator who wanted to fill the universe with life, but chose just one planet to have the precise conditions necessary to support human beings.
The text of Psalms 19, written 3,000 years ago, states that the universe was created as a message to the people of earth: “The universe proclaims the existence of God.The skies display his craftsmanship. Day after day they continue to speak; night after night they make him known. They speak without a sound or word; their voice is never heard. Yet their message has gone throughout the earth, and their words to all the world.”
Other texts describe the universe as existing exactly as science describes it today, “stretched out.” This is no arbitrary term, because it accurately describes the precise procedure for how the universe began and proceeded. During the initial explosion of pure energy, matter was distributed in one direction, while space was created simultaneously to accommodate the expanding matter. This expansion did not spread out circular as with most explosions, but moved out as one would expand a curtain—from one point to another. This is precisely how the Bible described the expansion of the universe, more than 3,000 years ago:
O Lord my God, You are very great: You are clothed with honor and majesty, Who cover Yourself with light as with a garment, Who stretch out the heavens like a curtain. ~Psalms 104:1-2
The prophet Jeremiah wrote 2,700 years ago and described the expansion of the initial universe as taking place, “at His discretion.” In other words, the Creator knew beforehand that the initial expansion of pure energy had to be conducted in a specific manner or it would not produce results that would later allow for life on earth. He used His wisdom and discretion to determine how this process must proceed.
“He has made the earth by His power, He has established the world by His wisdom, And has stretched out the heavens at His discretion.” ~Jeremiah 10:12
The Hebrew word used to describe the stretching out of the universe when it began, is נָטָה nâṭâ, literally to expand from one point to another like one opens a curtain in the morning. This is incredible because during the time that Jeremiah lived on earth in 655 B.C., no one knew that the universe proceeded from its beginning in this manner. Only in the last 80 years has man acquired the knowledge that this is true. This same description for the universe is repeated twice by the prophet Isaiah, also writing 2,700 years ago: Isaiah 42:5 states: “Thus says God the Lord, who created the heavens and stretched them out…” and again in Isaiah 40:22: “It is He who sits above the vault of the earth, and its inhabitants are like grasshoppers, who stretches out the heavens like a curtain and spreads them out.”
Theoretical Physicist, Alan Guth, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, put forth the idea in the 80’s, that if during the initial moments of the Big Bang, (Moment of Creation) the massive expansion of material was not uniform or controlled as it was stretched out, the resulting universe would have been quite disorderly. What we have discovered is that when the universe began, it was quite orderly with an extreme low state of entropy. Under these conditions in which the universe began, a low state of entropy would not have been possible by a natural process. Something or someone, acted upon these initial forces to cause a low state of entropy so that matter could properly form into clumps, making the production of galaxies and stars a reality much later.
Instead, as if by design, a microsecond later, the entire universe jumped in size by ten trillion trillion (10^25). It was at this point that the entire expansion stopped and a normal rate of expansion began. This rapid and sudden expansion stretched out the irregularities of the initial disorderly explosion, exactly as the Bible described the universe over 2,700 years ago. Once the rapid expansion ceased and a normal rate of expansion started once again, the material of the universe could expand into an orderly and even universe.
- Where did the matter for the universe come from since nothing existed prior to this moment?
- What caused the initial sudden expansion?
- What force made the expansion stop, only to resume in an orderly fashion?
- How did the source of these essential procedures know exactly how and when they must take place?
According to the comments made by critics of a Being as the source for the universe, there are naturalistic explanations for these conditions and we don’t need God.
“The orbits of the planets are not fine-tuned ellipses because of gods, but because of physics. Humans are not fine-tuned for their qualities because Yahweh crafted man from dust and woman from man’s rib, but because of the extraordinary power of natural selection and other evolutionary pressures.” ~Luke Muehlhauser
The problem with statements like these is that are made with such authority, but they are simply not true. Isaac Newton observed comets and planets moving in concentric orbits from many different positions, and concluded that this would be impossible apart from the design and engineering of an intelligence. In Newton’s view, a transcendent Being of immense power created gravity to act on these planets and cause them to follow the same center point, ordered by the laws of physics.
Isaac Newton And Gravitational Force
Sir Isaac Newton’s work on the physics of time and space are considered the foundation for all scientific knowledge today. On July 5, 1687, Newton published three books that have been referred to as the Principia, a Latin term that describes his Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.
Newton wrote in his Principia that the order and design which we observe in time and space are inseparable from the existence of God. Concerning the evidence presented by the universe through science, mathematics, and astronomy, Newton said this, “The most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.”
“The true God is a living, intelligent, and powerful being. His duration reaches from eternity to eternity; His presence from infinity to infinity.…He governs all things and knows all things that are or can be done. He is not eternity and infinity, but eternal and infinite; he is not duration or space, but he endures and is present. He endures forever, and is everywhere present; and, by existing always and everywhere, he constitutes duration and space. This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.…He is omnipresent not virtually only, but also substantially; for virtue cannot subsist without substance. In him are all things contained and moved.” ~Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton viewed the evidence for God’s existence as self-evident by the presence of the universe itself. In his observance of all the scientific and mathematical absolutes of the Cosmos, he said, “the Creator cannot be denied in the presence of such a magnificent creation.” Newton found it preposterous that any intelligent person could imagine that the universe came into being without an unlimited intelligence as its cause. Newton came to these conclusions based on the evidence of science, mathematics, and astronomy.
Albert Einstein demonstrated that gravity occurs as a result of space-time bending. In the final conclusion of his theories, Einstein confirms Newton’s judgment that orbits follow geodesic trajectories by design. In other words, both of these great men of science concluded that the universe has a design and a purpose.
Newton determined that without intervention from the Creator of the universe, the stars would collide with each other on a more frequent basis. By apparent design, God has limited the amount of motion that occurs in the universe from decay due to viscosity and friction.5 In many of Newton’s writings, he implies that the force of gravity was influenced by something immaterial—an intelligence.
“It is inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should, without the mediation of something else which is not material, operate upon and effect matter without mutual contact.”
It was the conclusion of Newton that God was the force that kept the planets in orbit—as they could not sustain their motion by themselves.
“This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. 
This essay is an examination of the scientific evidence that describes the 209 physical constants that cause the universe to be fine-tuned for life. There is no ambiguity today regarding the provable facts of science as to whether the universe is fine-tuned for life.
- The universe as we know it, cannot be explained by natural forces.
- The finely-tuned universe, as empirical proof for the existence of God, has no formal logical defects.
- The only current explanation for the existence of the universe—which can be tested and verified is the finely-tuned and designed evidence of the universe.
- Our universe contains the precise physical constants that have the exact values that are required to allow for complex structures, such as galaxies, stars, planets, and people to exist.
- None of these values are possible under any circumstance, by any naturalistic process.
It is because the fine-tuned universe is not impeachable by provable science, that other alternatives for our universe have been postulated, but always in the theoretical. Among these ideas are the assertions that the fine-tuning of our universe was caused by other universes, or even an infinite number of universes. Although these ideas are put forth in an attempt to call into question the fine-tuning of our universe by a Creator, they actually cause even greater problems for those who present them as answers.
The first problem that occurs is that other worlds, or an infinite number of other universes, cannot be scientifically proven. They exist only as mathematical calculations that are postulated by theoretical physicists and cosmologists. We cannot see beyond our own universe or detect anything past our own universe that would prove there actually are other universes in existence.
All the scientific data that we have observed proves, is that ours is the only universe that exists. The creation of these mathematical models to posit other universes, were created solely for the purpose of impeaching the idea that God is the Creator of our universe. Unfortunate for the critics of a fine-tuned universe by a Creator, is that science cannot validate the other world’s theory—while it does provide evidence that an intelligent Being was necessary for these fine-tuned constants to exist. It is the facts of our fine-tuned universe that impeaches the idea there is no God.
Fine-Tuned Constants And Provable Science
In addition to the existence of 209 fine-tuned physical constants that exist in the universe, there are further problems in the naturalistic argument for the existence of the universe. The following are a few of these insurmountable problems that can only be overcome by stipulation that the universe exists because of intelligent actions of a unlimited mind.
First: Life is only possible on earth because of certain elements that exist and were able to bond together in order to form molecules. In the case of earth, there are more than forty of these elements. For molecular bonding to take place, there are two essentials that must also exist: the strength of force for electromagnetism and the ratio of the electron mass in relation to the proton mass. These two are so closely tuned that if their precise balance was changed even slightly, there never would have been life on earth.
- If the electromagnetic force was larger, atoms would cling to electrons so closely that no allocation between electrons and other atoms would be possible.
- If the electromagnetic force was weaker, atoms would not cling to electrons at all, and there would be no allocation between electrons and other atoms, preventing all molecules from forming, resulting in no life.
- If we are to have multiple types of molecules that will exist, the electromagnetic force is even more delicately balanced. The size and stability of the electron orbits around the nuclei of atoms, greatly depends upon the proper ratio of the electron mass to the proton mass. Unless this ratio achieves a precise balance, the chemical bonding necessary for life chemistry would never have taken place.
Second: the Atoms that exist in all matter could not exist unless there were sufficient quantities of the elements necessary for life.
Atoms of many different sizes must be able to form and in order for this to be possible, there must be a delicate balance between the constants of physics the govern the strong and weak nuclear forces, as well as gravity, and the nuclear ground state energies, which are quantum energy levels that are important in the formation of elements from protons and neutrons, that come from several key elements.[A]
In the strong nuclear force that governs the level at which protons and neutrons may bind together in atomic nuclei, we are able to observe this complex mechanism.
- If the strong nuclear force was too weak, multi-proton nuclei would not remain bound together. If this had taken place in the early universe, hydrogen would have been the only element in the universe.
- If the strong nuclear force was only slightly stronger than what we now see in the universe, protons and neutrons would have such great affinity towards each other that none would remain. These protons and neutrons would have attached to other protons and neutrons and our universe would have produced no hydrogen, only heavy elements.
- The chemistry necessary for life is not possible without hydrogen, but if the strong nuclear force at the commencement of the universe was only slightly stronger, hydrogen would have been the only element. This illustrates how fine-tuned the balance is for the strong nuclear force.
- If at the inception of the universe the strong nuclear force was just four percent stronger that it was set at, the diproton, an atom that has two protons and no neutrons, would have formed. This event would have resulted in stars rapidly exhausting their nuclear fuel that no life later would have been possible. The control exercised in this early event allows us to see that these events were intentionally caused for the purpose of human life existing on earth much later.
- If the strong nuclear force was decreased when the universe began, by only ten percent, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen would have been unstable and life on earth today would never have been possible.
- Imagine that you want to make a planet where human beings will be able to live, billions of years later. You cannot simply make a planet with all of the necessary elements to allow humans to thrive. You must also prepare a universe to allow a planet like this to form in the first place, and sustain this universe for billions of years before the planet is formed. There must be many fine-tuned constants pre-set before earth ever exists, or earth will not be able to produce and environment necessary for these beings to live. This requires tremendous foreknowledge of exactly how to start the universe and allow its expansion to continue so that all of these fine-tuned constants are set correctly
- These parameters are not only essential for life on earth, but any possible life of any kind requires life chemistry of the same nature any other place in the universe. What is truly amazing is that this fine balance is a condition that must exist universally on every planet in the universe if it will contain life.
- We understand today that the strong nuclear force is the strongest attractive force in nature, as well as the strongest repulsive force in nature. The stunning reality that this is attractive on one length scale and repulsive on another length scale, defining this constant as particularly unusual and counterintuitive. In a natural process that was solely guided by chance, we would never expect to find such a fine-tuned parameter to make life possible. In spite of this, we find this exact precise setting that allows life to exist in our universe.
- In order that life might be possible, it is essential that the strong nuclear force is only attractive over lengths no greater than 2.0 fermis and no less than 0.7 fermis. A single fermi is a quadrillionth of a meter. This force must manifest its greatest attractive force at near 0.9 fermis.
- If these lengths were shorter than 0.7 fermis, the strong nuclear force must be strongly repulsive. This is due to the protons and neutrons existing as groups of more fundamental particles that are called quarks and gluons. Each of these proton packages are made up of two up quarks and one down quark, plus the relevant gluons. This is while each neutron also contains two down quarks and one up quark with their relevant gluons.
- If the fine balance of strong nuclear force was not strongly repulsive on length scales below 0.7 fermis, the proton and neutron packages of quarks and gluons would merge together. This would produce no atoms, no molecules, resulting in no chemistry possible anywhere—or at any time—during the entire history of the universe.
- This balance must be exquisitely fine-tuned, both in its length of operation throughout the history of the universe and the level of strength in its repulsion. Concerning the weak nuclear force which determines the rates of radioactive decay, if this force was stronger than currently observed, the matter of the universe would be swiftly converted into heavy elements. If this force was weaker, the universe would contain only the lightest of elements. Essential elements necessary for life, like oxygen, carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen, would either be absent from the universe, or exist in quantities so small that life could not exist. What natural process in the production of the universe was capable of advanced determination to produce these precise balances?
- It is insufficient to simply say that since we have these precise balances in the universe, this is proof that they were necessary, and no supernatural explanation is required. This conclusion is preposterous. Of course science must examine how every process produced the necessary elements needed for life, and understand whether these processes happened by chance, or they were precisely controlled. In examination of all 209 physical constants of our universe, it becomes abundantly clear that the presence of these 209 constants, all at the same time, demands a causal explanation.
- Science understand today that unless the weak nuclear force was precisely fine-tuned at one part in ten thousand, these essential elements required for life which are produced only in the core of a supergiant star, would have never been able to escape the boundaries of their cores, making supernova’s impossible. If no supernova’s occurred in our universe, no second generation stars would have been created like earth, resulting in no human life to exist. There are far too many coincidence, if we are to conclude that nature is responsible for these results. The science of the universe proves intelligent actions took place to produce these results. The goal of these precise balances is clear: to allow human beings to live on earth.
Third: The gravitational force strength is determinative in the heat produced by the nuclear furnace of star cores. If the gravitational force was weaker during the expansion of the universe, stars would have been so hot that they would have burned up their nuclear fuel too quickly for life to exist much later. A planet that is capable of sustaining life must have a star that stable and long burning.
- If the gravitational force was weaker during the inception of the universe, there would be no stars hot enough to ignite nuclear fusion. In a universe under these constraints, not elements heavier that hydrogen and helium would have been produced.
- This fine-tuned parameter for the nuclear ground state energies of helium, carbon, beryllium, and oxygen were essential for life to exist. Hoyle discovered that these elements were balanced so precisely that any disruption to the early process of the universe would have resulted in these elements being far different from how they ended up. For Hoyle, this spoke volumes concerning the source of these balances, defining these results as impossible by a natural process, being caused by an outside source. Only a mind is capable of setting precise balances in physical processes so that essential elements can form as they have in our universe.
- Hoyle reasoned that the ground state energies for these elements could not be higher or lower by more than four percent without producing a universe containing insufficient oxygen or carbon for life. Although Fred Hoyle has argued against the idea of theism , he concluded, from the evidence of the universe, that “a superintellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology.” [3,4] In other words, Hoyle was not ready to concede to the existence of the Christian God, but he also could not dismiss the facts of the data that proved an intelligence must have acted upon these processes or they never would have achieved the results our universe displays.
- Many other astrophysicists have demonstrated that the level of design present in electromagnetism and the strong nuclear force is much greater than what physicists previously had determined. This inherent design quality found in these two forces are mandatory for any physical life to exist in the universe. There must be an specific abundance of carbon and oxygen for life, and the only astrophysical sources that has significant quantities of carbon and oxygen are red giant stars. A red giant star that has used up all of its hydrogen fuel by nuclear fusion, can fuse helium into heavier elements. Mathematical models for red giant stars that take on slightly different values in their strong nuclear force and electromagnetic force constants, produce insufficient carbon, oxygen. By adjusting these balances in tiny fractions, these two constants by just four percent larger of smaller, life become impossible.
- When we examine the coupling constant for the strong nuclear force, we learn that had this constant been altered by just one percent smaller or larger, no life on earth would have ever been possible. Again, what process of nature or as a result of the physical laws, could produce this result? This precise limit on the strength of the strong nuclear force and electromagnetic force, demands even more stringent constraints on quark masses and the Higgs vacuum expectation value.  These facts provide us with great evidence of specific design for the physics of the stars and planets in our universe and the tremendous mathematical design of their fundamental particles. It is the knowledge of these facts that have changed the minds of many Cosmologists in recent years from the idea that the universe is a product of natural events, to an awareness that our Cosmos was designed for life on at least one planet.
- In achieving the correct nucleons for our universe, the physics must also be adjusted in order to achieve the correct elements for life. Adjustments were also necessary to cause these elements to bind together so they could form life molecules. Left to the randomness of a universe uncontrolled, the outcome would not obtain enough nucleons, or protons and neutrons, to form the necessary elements. This process had to be controlled or it would have produced and entirely different universe, incapable of supporting human life.
- At the inception of the universe, there were about ten billion and one nucleons for every ten billion antinucleons. The ten billion antinucleons annihilated the ten billion nucleons, which generated a tremendous amount of energy. Every galaxy that exists today, every star that comprises the universe, was formed from these remaining nucleons.
- If the number of excess nucleons in relation to antinucleons were less, there would not have been enough matter for galaxies, stars, and heavy elements to form. If the excess of nucleons to antinucleons was greater, galaxies would have formed, but with such inefficiency that they would have trapped radiation, preventing fragments from forming stars and planets.
Four: one important example of a fine-tuned universe that is understood by a critical requirement for life is the ratio between the electron and a proton of every atom in the universe.
Electron And Proton
The ratio of mass between an electron and a proton is 1:1836, meaning that a proton is 1,836 times larger than an electron. Although there is a great degree of difference between the size of these two parts of an atom, both the electron and proton maintain the exact same electrical charge. With this massive difference in size, how is it possible that both still have the same electrical charge? It took a thinking mind to know the precise size difference that was necessary before the first atom existed. If the electrical charge of the electron is altered by just one part in 100 billion, the body of every human being on earth would explode.
Neutron And Proton
When we examine the neutron, we learn that it is 0.138% larger than a proton. This extra mass, causes the neutron to require more energy to produce than a proton. When the universe began to cool after the massive heat of the initial creation of the universe, there were nearly seven times more protons than neutrons. Had this number increased just 0.1%, the number of neutrons that remained after cooling would not have been sufficient to create the nuclei for the life-essential heavy elements. How is it that this precise limit was reached without exceeding the critical boundary that would have destroyed the universes ability to produce life-essential heavy elements? It is impossible to conclude that this was a random act of the natural process.
The physical laws of the universe do not define the outcome of events, only they manner in which they must occur. It is the outcome of events defined by the 209 physical constants that require intelligence, or they could not have happened, could not exist today to sustain the universe. The physical laws merely define what has already happened when these constants to place and allowed every other event of our universe to proceed. The laws of physics could not produce precise balances of these constants, only described the manner in which they took place.
- It is the larger mass of the neutron, relative to the size of the proton that determines the rate at which neutrons may decay into protons and protons into neutrons. One neutron decays into one proton + one electron + one neutrino. There is such a fine balance here that if the neutron was just 0.1% smaller, the result would produce such a great number of protons that all stars in the universe would rapidly collapse into neutron stars of black holes. For life to exist anywhere in the universe, the neutron mass must be fine-tuned to greater than 0.1%.
- The decay rate for protons is so slow that as yet we have not been able to record a solitary decay event. This defines the decay process of protons to necessitate a fine-tuned parameter in order for life to exist anywhere. Theoretically, protons must decay into mesons at a rate that is close to the known experimental limits. If protons decay even slightly slower into mesons, our universe would not contain enough nucleons to make galaxies, stars, and eventually, planets. The same components that determines the decay of protons also determines the rate of decay for nucleons into antinucleons when the universe began. What natural process of law of physics is capable of determining this precise balance when at the beginning of the universe as -430th of a second, there were no laws or anything else to cause this balance. This precise rate of decay must have been known before the universe commenced and a Being had the ability to control the rate of decay precisely, or the rate of decay for nucleons would never have achieved the precise number required to later produce the correct type of stars.
- If the decay rate at the beginning of the universe was slightly faster, the ratio of nucleons to antinucleons would be incorrect, producing far too much energy being released into the decay process, and this incorrect decay process would have destroyed life, not allow it to exist.
- A precise number of Electrons must exist, equivalent to the number of protons with a tolerance of one part in 10^37. If this balance was off even slightly the electromagnetic force of the universe would have overpowered the gravitational force, resulting in non production of galaxies, stars, and planets. The number: 10^37, is such a great impossibility that it is beyond the mathematical possibility of chance. No natural process can aim, it certainly cannot hit a target so small, at such a great distance. If we were to shoot at a target from earth that is at the other side of the universe and hit the bullseye the first time, this is equal to the balance of gravity and electromagnetism achieving this precise fine-tuned balance when the universe began.
The physics of the universe must be so meticulously fine-tuned, within such precise limits, that there is no possibility that any natural or accidental process could ever have achieved these results. We see the fingerprints of the Creator all over the physics that define our universe. His knowledge; His engineering skills: His power to achieve these results, are defining qualities that are easily observed once we understand the complicated and impossible process that was required to exact a universe like ours. There has never been any scientific explanation presented that proves the laws of the universe, or a purely natural process, was capable of producing these fine-tuned constants described here Their precise boundaries that allow these constants to operate, are exceedingly beyond the ability of unguided processes.
Cosmic Expansion When we begin to understand the universe, the first junction we are brought to is how the universe has expanded since its inception. Fortunate for us today, scientists have been able to accurately measure this rate by examining the Cosmic Background Radiation that still exists from the beginning of the universe. When we compare this rate of expansion to the physics of galaxy and star formation, astrophysicists have discovered something truly amazing.
- How fast or slow the universe has expanded, determines whether or not galaxies were able to form. If too fast, all matter would have dispersed quite efficiently and there would have not been the clumping or gathering of matter necessary to form galaxies. Without galaxies, there would never have been any stars. We need both first and second generation stars in order for a planet like earth to have the correct star to allow life on earth to exist. Had the universe expanded too rapidly when it began, the universe would never have produced galaxies and no one would have ever lived on any planet like earth.
- If the universe had expanded too slowly, matter would have grouped together so well that the universe would have collapsed upon itself at the start into a super-dense lump of matter, never producing a single galaxie or star.
- The creation event of the universe was not a mindless occurrence by random events that were from a purely natural process. Every important event that began at -430th of a second, had to happen under extreme control—such as the rate of expansion, and all the other events mentioned in this essay—or we would never have a universe like ours. The stunning revelation of all this is that if the universe occured by a purely natural process, the result would have been mass disorder, not mass order that is scientifically observed by the balance of these 209 fine-tuned physical constants.
Dark Energy: After the universe began, the cosmic mass density and dark energy density, began to modify the universe’s expansion velocity in dissimilar processes. In order for the universe to produce stars and planets and later earth that would sustain physical life, the value of cosmic mass density had to be exquisitely fine-tuned. Again, trying to explain this by the laws of physics, always comes up short. There is no physical reason these fine-tuned constants could happen by a mere physical process. Guidance had to be instituted or the balance could not have been achieved.
- In these early processes of the universe, dark energy played a critical role. It was the discovery that dark energy had to be exceptionally fine-tuned for the universe to exist that has brought many scientists to the conclusion that intelligence was required. The earliest source for dark energy had be at least 122 orders of magnitude larger than the amount astronomers have presently detected. This means that the original source or sources, had to cancel each other out so that they left just one part in 10^122.
- Think about this for a moment: As the universe rapidly expands, so also does space to accommodate its expansion. Dark Energy is the agent that acts to allow the universe to stretch out into space. The more that space expands to accommodate the universe, the greater the power of dark energy to act as an anti-gravity factor. The larger that space grows in size, the greater the power of dark energy, acting as an “anti-gravity factor.”
- Dark Matter acts to make two very large bodies appear to repel each other, with their repelling force increasing the farther apart these two bodies get from each other. This is the opposite effect of gravity which acts to slow cosmic expansion. Science has now proven that the cosmic expansion rate has been accelerating during the last half of the universe, due to dark energy as an dominant component acting upon this expansion.
- What this mean is that the presence of dark matter demands a recent cosmic beginning, so recent, a natural or accidental beginning of the universe or human life on earth is impossible. Critics of a Creation event by intelligence nearly always seek to refute dark matter because it proves a fine-tuned universe that resulted from intelligence, necessary by a thinking Being.
- Theoretical physicists Lisa Dyson, Matthew Kleban, and Leonard Susskind stated that, “Arranging the cosmos as we think it is arranged . . . would have required a miracle.” These scientists further stated that an “unknown agent intervened in the evolution of the Universe for reasons of its own.”
- Using mathematics and a knowledge of physics, scientists calculate that the force of dark energy should be incredibly large. The degree of its existence is so large that the universe should have expanded so quickly that galaxies and stars could not have formed and there would be no planets or life. The reason that dark energy does not overpower the universe and cause it to implode is there is an equally strong counterforce that restricts the impact of dark energy, so that stars and galaxies can form.
- The precision required to balance dark energy is stunning. This setting has to be accurate from 56 decimal places (Septendecillion) to 122 decimal places (Vigintillion). This is a number so immense that there is no possibility that this physical constant for dark energy could exist unless a mind had known this precise balance was essential to allow a universe that could produce stars and planets. This fact becomes the strongest scientific argument for the existence of God amongst all of the other evidence that exists.
- The universe came into existence from nothing, proceeded with order because of laws, and is understood by mathematics. Describe one naturally occurring phenomenon that can accomplish this? Can any non-thinking thing create everything that will exist and simultaneously create laws to cause it to proceed with specific order to make life possible, and then allow a human mind to understand how it all functions by mathematics, also created simultaneously with the universe One analogy that has been used, but still falls short of the reality of this massive number, one part in 10^122, is in trying to imagine a billion pencils all standing together at once on their sharpened points while on a smooth glass surface, without any visible support.
Relativity, Dimensionality and Quantum Uncertainty: The fine-tuning of the physical constants of the universe has already presented us with overwhelming evidence for a Creator, but we find additional evidence. When we examine the fundamental particles, energy, and the space-time dimensions that exist in the universe, these allow for the principles of quantum tunneling and special relativity to operate exactly as they do. In order for hemoglobin to have the capacity to transport the correct level of oxygen to living cells, quantum tunneling must operate efficiently.
Quantum tunneling must function within very narrow boundaries in transporting hemoglobin with the correct a quantity of oxygen to living cells in all vertebrates and a majority of invertebrate species. Extreme fine-tuning is required in the operation of this system of hemoglobin so that copper and vanadium complete their critical roles in the function of the nervous system, as well as the development of bones in all advanced species. For this process to work correctly, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle must be fine-tuned. In measuring the momentum of particles with the most precise precision, the position of the particle is now known to reside within tolerances of ± a third of a mile. When we increase the distance smaller than half a mile, hemoglobin will not function in advanced life forms. This precise process demonstrates that fine-tuning is so important in advanced life that it would be impossible for it to occur randomly. There is an exquisite design in all of life that is specifically created for the benefit of the beings themselves. This proves that the universe was created to benefit mankind specifically, removing the chance that these many fine-tuned constants are random occurrences.
Einstein demonstrated that relativity only works when certain proteins contain the correct balance of copper and vanadium and the velocity of light is fine-tuned to make this possible. When we examine the velocity of light at it value of 299,792.458 kilometers per second, we see by Einstein’s equation, E = mc 2 , that even small changes in c (the velocity of light) lead to huge changes in E (the energy) or m (the mass).
When these minor changes in light’s velocity take place, either too strong or too weak, life cannot exist, and stars cannot produce the correct elements for life. In order for stable orbits of planets to take place around their stars, as well as all electrons about the nuclei of atoms, are only possible in a universe that has three large and rapidly expanding dimensions of space. Also required, are six extremely small dimensions of space that are currently dormant— but actively expanded during the first 10^43 seconds of the universe’s history. These factors are essential for quantum mechanics and gravity to coexist. For this reason, physical life likely requires different fine-tuning in the number of effective dimensions—both in the present four: three of space plus one of time—and in the earliest moment when the universe began, specifically—ten dimensions, comprised of nine of space plus one of time.
If God, Why So Long?
The question of why God would wait so long, billions of years, to create human life? He is God, anything is possible, why wait so long instead of just creating a universe that is ready for earth and human life. The answer is understood by our comprehension of the physical laws that govern the universe and the physical constants that make life possible on earth. God chose to cause our universe within the constraints of laws and constants. In this model, it takes billions of years to fuse enough heavy elements in the nuclear furnaces of giant stars that make life chemistry possible.
Under the model God created for our universe, He seems interested in displaying great expanses of time, which for Him, are mere days. The Bible describes God as outside of time, space, and matter, not affected by its passing or constraints. These descriptions place God as only taking days to accomplish things that extend into billions of years for us in linear time. The Bible say that “in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” It does not say when this beginning was—either for God, outside time, or for us, within time. For God it could have been days, for us in viewing the scientific evidence available, clearly billions of years were required.
In a universe that ages and this process allows the production of first generation stars, which burn up their fuel and turn into Supernovas. This long process produces the necessary elements for life in a second generation star like earth. If the universe was merely a few billion years old, no older second generations stars like our own would exit. This would make earth impossible and human life on earth none existent. A second problem for a young universe is that ours began with a very low state of entropy, which was essential to allow the early processes that took place. If the expected state of high entropy had been present, we would not have universe at all.
As the universe ages, entropy degrades from low to high, which is needed for life on earth. Without the low entropy that happened in the process of an aging universe, small stars were able to form, and carbon was created, from where all human life depends.
God wanted specific things to happen at the beginning of the universe, and so He ordered it as such so that an extremely low state of entropy existed, and then fine-tuned the universe to proceed and produce first and second generation stars. At an aged universe, God kept the physical constants in place, but increased entropy through the process of time, and all of us who live on this planet came into existence, also by creation from the same God who made the universe.
This brings us to the narrative of the Bible, where we learn that God created this world for us, and it was perfect and there was no evil, sin, suffering, or death on earth. As man violated the spiritual laws God created, the world fell into chaos as sin ruined the perfect creation God made for us. Not long after man’s fall, God promises a Savior for the world, in Genesis 3:15, who would be God Himself, dying for the sins of the world, and making it possible for anyone who believes what God said, to return to a world where perfection and beauty never end.
[A] Source for the scientific data presented in this essay is from: Dr. Hugh Ross, and his book: “The Creator and the Cosmos: How the Latest Scientific Discoveries Reveal God” . RTB Press. Kindle Edition.
. Fred Hoyle, Galaxies, Nuclei, and Quasars (New York: Harper and Row, 1965), 147–50; Fred Hoyle, “The Universe: Past and Present Reﬂection,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 20 (September 1982): 16, doi:10.1146/annurev.aa.20.090182.000245; Hugh Ross, The Fingerprint of God: Recent Scientific Discoveries Reveal the Unmistakable Identity of the Creator, commemorative ed. (Covina, CA: RTB Press, 2010): 103.
. Fred Hoyle, The Nature of the Universe, 2nd ed. (Oxford, U.K.: Basil Blackwell, 1952), 109; Fred Hoyle, Astronomy and Cosmology: A Modern Course (San Francisco, CA: W. H. Freeman, 1975), 684–85; Hoyle, “Universe: Past and Present Reﬂection,” 3; Hoyle, Astronomy and Cosmology, 522.
. Hoyle, Nature of the Universe, 111.
. Hoyle, “Universe: Past and Present Reﬂection,”
. H. Oberhummer, A. Csótó, and H. Schlattl, “Stellar Production Rates of Carbon and Its Abundance in the Universe,” Science 289 (July 7, 2000): 88–90, doi:10.1126/science.289.5476.88. 9. Oberhummer, Csótó, and Schlattl, “Stellar Production Rates,” 90.
. John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 400. 11. James S. Treﬁl, The Moment of Creation (New York: Collier Books, Macmillan, 1983), 127–34.
 Davies, Paul. 1983. God and the New Physics. London, J M Dent & Sons
 John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 400.
 James S. Treﬁl, The Moment of Creation (New York: Collier Books, Macmillan, 1983), 127–34.
 Ross, Hugh. The Creator and the Cosmos: How the Latest Scientific Discoveries Reveal God (Kindle Locations 659-666). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.
 T. de Haan et al., “Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clusters in the 2500 Square-Degree SPT-SZ Survey,” Astrophysical Journal 832 (November 18, 2016): id. 95, doi: 10.3847/ 0004-637X/ 832/ 1/ 95; B. Sartoris et al., “Next Generation Cosmology: Constraints from the Euclid Galaxy Cluster Survey,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 459 (June 21, 2016): 1764– 80, doi: 10.1093/ mnras/ stw630; Ariel G. Sánchez et al., “The Clustering of Galaxies in the Completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological Implications of the Configuration-Space Clustering Wedges,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 464 (January 11, 2017): 1640– 58, doi: 10.1093/ mnras/ stw2443; Jan Niklas Grieb et al., “The Clustering of Galaxies in the Completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological Implications of the Fourier Space Wedges of the Final Sample,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 467 (May 21, 2017): 2085– 112, doi: 10.1093/ mnras/ stw3384; J. Kwan et al., “Cosmology from Large-Scale Galaxy Clustering and Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 464 (February 1, 2017): 4045– 62, doi: 10.1093/ mnras/ stw2464; Vincent R. Bouillot et al., “Probing Dark Energy Models with Extreme Pairwise Velocities of Galaxy Clusters from the DEUS-FUR Simulations,” Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 450 (June 11, 2015): 145– 59, doi: 10.1093/ mnras/ stv558; Alejo Stark, Christopher J. Miller, and Daniel Gifford, “On Escaping a Galaxy Cluster in an Accelerating Universe,” Astrophysical Journal 830 (October 17, 2016): id. 109, doi: 10.3847/ 0004-637X/ 830/ 2/ 109; Christian Marinoni and Adeline Buzzi, “A Geometric Measure of Dark Energy with Pairs of Galaxies,” Nature 468 (November 25, 2010): 539– 41, doi: 10.1038/ nature09577; T. Abbott et al., “Cosmology from Cosmic Shear with Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data,” Physical Review D 94 (July 6, 2016): id. 022001, doi: 10.1103/ PhysRevD. 94.022001; Masato Shirasaki, Takashi Hamana, and Naoki Yoshida, “Probing Cosmology with Weak Lensing Selected Clusters. II. Dark Energy and f( R) Gravity Models,” Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan 68 (February 1, 2016): id. 414, doi: 10.1093/ pasj/ psv105; Adam Mantz et al., “Weighing the Giants: Galaxy Cluster Cosmology Anchored by Weak Gravitational Lensing,” (American Astronomical Society HEAD Meeting #14, Chicago, IL, August 2014); Fulvio Melia, Jun-Jie Wei, and Xue-Feng Wu, “A Comparison of Cosmological Models Using Strong Gravitational Lensing Galaxies,” Astronomical Journal 149 (November 25, 2014): id. 2, doi: 10.1088/ 0004-6256/ 149/ 1/ 2; Xiao-Dong Li et al., “Cosmological Constraints from the Redshift Dependence of the Alcock-Paczynski Effect: Application to the SDSS-III Boss DR12 Galaxies,” Astrophysical Journal 832 (November 21, 2016): id. 103, doi: 10.3847/ 0004-637X/ 832/ 2/ 103; Xue Li, Jens Hjorth, and Radosław Wojtak, “Cosmological Parameters from Supernovae Associated with Gamma Ray Bursts,” Astrophysical Journal Letters 796 (October 31, 2014): id. L4, doi: 10.1088/ 2041-8205/ 796/ 1/ L4; L. Izzo et al., “New Measurements of Ωm from Gamma-Ray Bursts,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 582 (October 2015): id. A115, doi: 10.1051/ 0004-6361/ 201526461; Marek Demianski et al., “Cosmology from Gamma-Ray Bursts II. Cosmography Challenges and Cosmological Scenarios for the Accelerated Universe,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 598 (February 2017): id. A113, doi: 10.1051/ 0004-6361/ 201628911; Marek Demianski et al., “Cosmology with Gamma-Ray Bursts. I. The Hubble Diagram through the Calibrated Ep, i– Eiso Correlation,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 598 (February 2017): id. A122, doi: 10.1051/ 0004-6361/ 201628909. Ross, Hugh. The Creator and the Cosmos: How the Latest Scientific Discoveries Reveal God.
 Philip Ball, “Is Physics Watching Over Us?.”
 George F. R. Ellis, “The Anthropic Principle: Laws and Environments,” in The Anthropic Principle, F. Bertola and U. Curi, eds. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 30; D. Allan Bromley, “Physics,” Science 209 (July 4, 1980): 116, doi:10.1126/science. 209.4452.110.
 George F. R. Ellis, “The Anthropic Principle: Laws and Environments,” 30; H.R. Marston, Shirley H. Allen, “Iron Metabolism in Copper-Deficient Rats,” British Journal of Nutrition, January 1971.
 “The Creator and the Cosmos: How the Latest Scientific Discoveries Reveal God,” pages 32-41.
 Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953.
 Flynn, David (2008-09-08). Temple At The Center Of Time: Newton’s Bible Codex Finally Deciphered and the Year 2012 (Kindle Locations 331-336). Defender Publishing LLC. Kindle Edition
 Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19
 Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press
 H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii
 Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693
 Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953.
 “The Inflationary Universe: the quest for a new Theory of Cosmic Origins, New York, Perseus Publishing, 1998