God Is Necessary For The Universe To Exist

COPYRIGHT WARNING

Orion_Nebula_-_Hubble_2006_mosaic_18000

With all of the wonders of science and astronomy today, no person can tell us how the universe came into being from nothing. Many theories are conjectured and put forth regarding the existence of the “multiverse,” while no evidence for any other universes actually exists. Since we cannot see beyond our present cosmological structure, it is impossible to state categorically that many others certainly exist. The entire purpose for introducing the multiverse theory was to camouflage the obvious truth that our universe exists by design. Until scientists are able to prove by scientific methods that there are trillions of other universes, in addition to our own, we must—as intelligent men and women, deny this mystical materialistic answer for our existence.

The theory of Occam’s Razor defines the simplest and most obvious answer as the often correct conclusion.[1] No person views a one-hundred and four story skyscraper and questions how it came into existence. It is understood that a mind conceived this building. Engineers designed its structure. Builders assembled the components that were required to erect this great edifice. Anyone who would state that the Freedom Tower in New York City came into existence on its own, would be ignored or laughed to scorn. The obvious conclusion is that someone made it.

Of infinitely greater complexity, is the universe itself. Today, intelligent men and women find themselves backed into a corner that does not permit the admission that design is a clear attribute of the cosmos. To stipulate design is to admit a Designer. The scientific word is not ready to accept God as the source of anything at the present time. Although thousands of scientists are moving into the arena of faith in a Magnificent Creator as the source for all that exists, it is doubtful that the world of science as a whole, will ever make this admission. The costs are far too high. The entire composition of authority, power, and wealth, reside upon those who preserve the atheistic posit of science.

The reader must understand that the facts of science lead to only one conclusion: the universe exists as a model of design. There were no haphazard and chaotic conditions in the early formation of the cosmos. Specific and detailed procedures were followed to exact a specific outcome that would ensure life on earth—today, nearly 14 billion years after the universe began.

1. The Universe as we know it, cannot be explained by natural forces.
2. The finely tuned universe as empirical proof for the existence of God, has no formal logical defects.
3. The only current explanation for the existence of the universe—which can be tested and verified, is the finely tuned and design evidence of the universe.
4. Our universe contains the precise physical constants that have the exact values that are required to allow for complex structures, such as galaxies, stars, planets, and people.

The universe cannot be explained apart from an intelligent source. It is far to complex, exceedingly super-engineered, and masterfully balanced. Every star that exists amongst the 300 sextillion that we think exists, came into being because of several early processes in the initial expansion of the universe. These processes demanded extreme power and control in order to spread out the material of the initial mass—evenly so that matter was disbursed in equal amounts, across the expanse of space. It would be similar to a person blowing air into a large balloon until it reached a critical point where it exploded and began to eject material outward from the pressure that had been exerted internally upon it. As time is slowed to near cessation, a person could act independent of time itself and walk throughout the room and place the balloon’s material in even patterns, in every direction. This is very similar to the phenomenon that scientists have observed in their mathematical calculations of the first second of the universe. No one knows for certain what process caused this equal distribution of matter throughout the universe—which allowed the clumping of matter that provided the perfect environment for stars to form much later. Whether is was inflation, antimatter, or some other unknown phenomenon, it is certain that extreme intelligence caused this control to exist in the first place.

Theoretical Physicists, Stephen Hawking described the impossibility of a universe existing at all, as a supernatural event apart from a naturalistic cause.

“The odds against a universe like ours emerging out of something like the Big Bang are enormous. I think there are clearly religious implications.” [2]

In the first picosecond (one trillionth of a second) of the universe, the precise balance between gravitational force and the expansion of energy, was precisely calibrated, within extremely narrow limits—necessary for life to exist on earth, billion of years later. The big question is why they were calibrated at all since the models that scientists have developed for how the universe should have expanded, reveal a universe drastically different from what actually occurred.

Stephen Hawking describes the models that scientists have developed for a universe which began under the conditions that were present at the moment of the Big Bang:

Why did the universe start out with so nearly the critical rate of expansion that separates models that recollapse from those that go on expanding forever, that even now, 10 thousand million years later, it is still expanding at nearly the critical rate? If the rate of expansion one second after the Big Bang had been smaller by even one part in 100 thousand million million, the universe would have recollapsed before it ever reached its present size.”[3]

In fact, during -430th of second, during the initial expansion of gases, there were many essential mechanisms that were required if life would be possible on the earth, billions of years later. If, for example, the ratio of electromagnetism to gravity was either increased or decreased by 1040, we would have the wrong type of stars in the universe that would make life impossible on any planet.[4]

Sir Isaac Newton’s work on the physics of time and space are considered the foundation for all scientific knowledge today. On July 5, 1687, Newton published three books that have been referred to as the “Principia,” a Latin term that describes his “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.”[5]

Newton wrote in his Principia, that the order and design which we observe in time and space are inseparable from the existence of God. In Newton’s view of the evidence presented by the universe through science, mathematics, and astronomy, this “most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.”[6]

The true God is a living, intelligent, and powerful being. His duration reaches from eternity to eternity; His presence from infinity to infinity.…He governs all things and knows all things that are or can be done. He is not eternity and infinity, but eternal and infinite; he is not duration or space, but he endures and is present. He endures forever, and is everywhere present; and, by existing always and everywhere, he constitutes duration and space.  This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.…He is omnipresent not virtually only, but also substantially; for virtue cannot subsist without substance. In him are all things contained and moved.”[7]

Isaac Newton viewed the evidence for God’s existence as self-evident by the presence of the universe itself. In his observance of all the scientific and mathematical absolutes of the Cosmos, “the Creator cannot be denied in the presence of such a magnificent creation.” Newton found it preposterous that any intelligent person could imagine the universe came into being, without an unlimited intelligence as its first cause. Newton came to these conclusions based on the evidence of science, mathematics, and astronomy.[8]

Isaac Newton observed comets and planets moving in concentric orbits from many different positions, and concluded that this would be impossible apart from the design and engineering of an intelligence. A transcendent being of immense power created gravity, to act on these planets and cause them to follow the same center point, ordered by the laws of physics.[9]

Albert Einstein demonstrated that gravity occurs as a result of space-time bending, which in the final conclusion of his theories, confirms Newton’s judgment that orbits follow geodesic trajectories. In other words, both of these great men of science concluded that the universe has a design and a purpose.

Newton determined that without intervention from the Creator of the universe, the stars would collide with each other on a more frequent basis. By apparent design, God has limited the amount of motion that occurs in the universe from decay due to viscosity and friction.[10] In many of Newton’s writings, he implies that the force of Gravity was influenced by something immaterial—an intelligence.

“It is inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should, without the mediation of something else which is not material, operate upon and effect matter without mutual contact.”[11]

It was the conclusions of Sir Isaac Newton, that God was the force that kept the planets in orbit—as they could not sustain such motion by themselves.

This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. …This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called ‘Lord God’ παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or ‘Universal Ruler.’ … The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect.”[12]

When we examine the writing of Isaac Newton, we find that he also believed in a supernatural design which is observable in the area of Biblical Prophecy. He believed that it is impossible that more than 300 prophecies which describe one person, who is described as the Messiah, could ever be fulfilled by any one person.

“Newton understood the words of God in prophecy as a reflection of the design in God’s creation.”[13]

In order for God to exist, He would have to be before and above all other things; otherwise, He would just be “a god” in a long series of Gods. This is concept of God that is presented to us in the Bible. The God of the Bible is unique and singular.

1. He is eternal, with no beginning and no end.
2. He knows all things.
3. All things were made by Him.
4. All things belong to Him.
5. All beings are subject to Him.
6. All true laws originate from Him.
7. All Judgement belongs to Him.

The universe, the earth, and all human beings are evidence for God. The fact that these three exist in such an advanced form and are so beautifully and elegantly designed, proves that there is a Master Designer as their source.

Luck or Providence?

According to many scientists, all of the requirements for life which have existed since the beginning of the universe, are simply lucky breaks that took place as the result of random occurrences. When we carefully examine what is required to allow for human life on the earth, we are stunned by how many important elements had to come together, over billions of years, in order to make life possible.

Described as “fine tuning,” what has actually taken place is elegant engineering—with extreme precision. The Creator of the universe has ordered specific events so that one planet could support life in a remote corner of the Universe.[14]

A Specific Kind of Universe Was Necessary

There are several of these finely-tuned calibrations which were necessary at the beginning of the universe—during its initial expansion, as well as 9 billion years later, when our solar system formed—which made an environment possible to sustain life on earth. These points will be made in detail as this chapter progresses.

These are important facts which are seldom mentioned in a discussion of the existence of the universe and how it began. Many of the details of the first moments of the universe are divided into picoseconds and microseconds. These might seem like insignificant details to us who live within hours, days, weeks, months, and years; but in the subatomic world of particle physics, a picosecond can be a very long period of time. There are some subnuclear particles that require only a trillion-trillionth of a second to complete their decay. This gives us an idea how much was occurring in the just the first second of the expansion of the universe. The details that we are interested in, at this point, is in understanding how many of these specific events took place in the first moments of the cosmos. Had any one of these processes been altered—even slightly, say 1040, the universe would have been vastly different and would not be able to sustain any advanced life form.

If, for example, the initial expansion of the universe was slightly smaller, it would have immediately collapsed back upon itself; and no universe would have begun. Had the expansion been just slightly larger, the dispersal of gases would have been too rapid to congeal into galaxies.

Theoretical Physicist Alan Guth, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, put forth the idea, in the 80’s, that in the initial moments of the Big Bang (Moment of Creation), had the explosion not been uniform or controlled; it would have been quite disorderly. A microsecond after the universe began its initial expansion, it jumped in size by ten trillion-trillion (1025). It was then that the entire expansion stopped, and a normal rate of expansion began. This rapid and sudden expansion had the effect of “stretching out” the irregularities of the initial disorderly explosion. This is interesting, considering that 3,000 years ago, God is described as “stretching out” the heavens.

…God…Who stretched out the heavens like a curtain. —Psalms 104:1 (RCR)

Once this rapid inflation ceased and a normal rate of expansion continued, the material of the universe could develop into an orderly and even universe.[15]

What caused the initial and sudden expansion and what force caused it to cease, only to resume itself once again, in an orderly fashion?

Guth’s proposal was that anti-gravity caused the initial sudden and uneven expansion of matter to quickly diminish and then stop. In the universe’s initial inflation, the expansion of gases was far too fast to form galaxies much later in the universe. This problem was solved by the force exerted by antigravity suddenly halting the initial rapid expansion. Incredibly, this all happened in 10-32 seconds (a hundred, trillion-trillion-trillionth of a second).[16]

Most scientists today like this idea of “Inflation” as an answer for the initial expansion of the universe, but no one really understands—at this point, how the expansion ceased. The reason is that antigravity is so powerful; it could have easily overwhelmed the universe at its earliest stages. What caused the universe to extricate itself from this seemingly runaway process?

One of the big questions is where all of the matter that populates the cosmos came from, after this inflation had ended? Scientists think that the heat, which was generated from the inflation phase, is the answer. We see evidence of this thousand, trillion, trillion, degree heat that is estimated to have existed at the initial inflation of the universe—in the form of “Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation” (CMBR). This cosmic radiation is the remnants of the massive inflation which occurred at the beginning of the universe when tremendous heat was generated—producing the 1050 tons of matter that makes up the observable universe.

One of the puzzling questions regarding the origin of the universe and what existed before the Big Bang occurred, is what the conditions were before the moment of this massive inflation—if it did in fact occur. Scientists have postulated that whatever existed before the inflation, was certainly wiped out by the massive expansion and subsequent intense heat that it produced.

 Why a Universe at All?

One of the baffling questions in the study of the initial moments of the Big Bang, is why we have a universe which is clearly designed for life, instead of one which would make life impossible. Given the parameters which were present during the first moments of the universe, a vastly different result would be expected. The fine-tuning of the universe, which existed at the beginning of the Big Bang, was so essential for life that even the basic element of carbon—of which all human beings are made—would not exist, had the universe began by any other process.

“It has been frequently argued that there are many curious coincidences in the relations between the constants of Nature upon which life on Earth seems to depend…One of the most striking of such apparent coincidences was revealed with William Fowler’s confirmation of Fred Hoyle’s remarkable prediction of the existence of a particular energy level of carbon which, had it not existed, would have meant that the production of heavy elements in stars would not have been able to proceed beyond carbon, leaving the planets devoid of nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine, sodium, sulphur, and numerous other elements.”[17] —Roger Penrose

This indicates that all of the “coincidences” in the origin of the universe were actually designed, engineered, and constructed in the precise manner necessary for life on earth, much later.

In concluding his estimation of how the universe began, Dr. Penrose moves towards the “miraculous” as the most reasonable explanation for the unique and precise early state of the Big Bang.

“If we do not assume the Second Law (Thermodynamics/Entropy), or that the universe originated in some extraordinarily special initial state, or something else of this general nature, then we cannot use the ‘improbability’ of the existence of life as a premise for a derivation of a Second Law that is operative at times earlier than the present. No matter how curious and non-intuitive it may seem, the production of life would (if we do not make a prior assumption of the Second Law) be far less probable to come about by natural means—be it by natural selection or any by other seemingly ‘natural’ process—than by a ‘miraculous’ creation simply out of random collisions of the constituent particles!”[18]

Since a state of extremely low entropy at the beginning of the Big Bang was a primary component in the formation of the early universe—this stands as empirical evidence for design. This initial low entropy most certainly did not happen by chance; as the natural state of the initial universe should have exhibited a very high degree of disorder. The fact that the universe began by a great deal of organization—controlled to exact a specific result that would permit life billions of years later, these details demand an intelligent source.

We should remember that the specific type of universe which developed during the hundred trillion-trillion-trillionth of a second of the initial expansion of the universe, were critically controlled by forces unknown to scientists today.[19] From this point and continuing throughout the expansion of the universe, this control has been continually ordered in such a way that life would be possible in one specific galaxy, one solar system, and one planet. At the formation of earth, this design continued in directing the absolute necessary constants of the solar system and the earth, which would allow human life to dwell upon its surface and prosper.

Evidence of Engineering

The following are many of the imperative conditions which must have been in place during the alleged 14 billion year history of the Cosmos, in order for for human beings to inhabit the earth today. This is not Cosmic Evolution, it is evidence of an actively involved Creator who has worked in great detail—for a very long period of time, to ensure that His most beloved creation: human beings, would have a dwelling place, perfectly suited for life.

Type of universe: Scientists are baffled by the type of universe which exists, having understood what the conditions were at the beginning. This is a primary and often understated reality of the universe. Given the explosion of all matter from the initial moment of the Big Bang, Physicists would have expected that a chaotic universe would have resulted from the ensuing expansion of gases—hostile to any form of life. The fact that so many necessary events took place, over such an extremely long period of time—designed to make life a reality and occurring numerous times, for billions of years—defines these events as supernatural, not random acts, nor the operation of an evolutionary process.

Rate of expansion: As the energy of the universe began to move out from its initial expansion, this energy was unevenly distributed. At a point near the beginning, a short burst of energy called “inflation” caused the universe to increase in size enormously by 1025or ten trillion—trillion times its original size. Had all of the energy from the initial universe been evenly distributed, apart from a sudden inflation and return to normal expansion, it would have been impossible for the existing matter to form galaxies far into the future. Because the universe began with energy unevenly distributed, during the sudden increase in size—this inflation stretched away all of these irregularities, causing an even distribution of galaxies in all directions, which is observable today. Incredibly, this initial expansion—appears to have been controlled in such a precise way that it allowed for just the right amount of irregularities to permit a “clumping” of matter that would produce galaxies later on. Computer models show that the energy difference between the peaks and valleys of this density had to be close to 0.00001, or no galaxies would have been able to form. A rate slightly higher or lower, and the matter necessary to form galaxies, stars, and planets, much later—would not have been possible. This is profound evidence of controlled design.

Extremely low entropy: Entropy is the rate of heat loss associated with the specific degree of randomness or disorder within a system. In the beginning of the universe there was an unusually low level of disorder related to heat loss—intimating strict control being instituted, which permitted a specific outcome. The universe should not have come into being with a very low rate of entropy. Given the parameters that were present at the commencement of the universe, there was a great degree of certainty that it would have began with a very high rate of degradation. Sir Roger Penrose determined that the presence of an extremely low level of entropy at the Big Bang, is indicative of engineering, rather than random fortuity. The probability that this condition would have been present during the initial expansion of the universe is 1 in 10 to 10123.[20]

In his book, “Cycles of Time, An Extraordinary New View of the Universe,” Dr. Penrose describes the existence of low entropy as an essential precursor to life—from the first moments the universe began.

The entire fabric of life on Earth requires the maintaining of a profound and subtle organization, which undoubtedly involves entropy being kept at a low level.”[21]

“Let us return to the basic question that we have been trying to address in this part, namely the issue of how our universe happened to come about with a Big Bang that was so extraordinarily special—yet special in what appears to have been a very peculiar way where, with regard to gravity, its entropy was enormously low in comparison with what it might have been, but the entropy was close to maximum in every other respect.”[22]

Dr. Penrose illustrates the high degree of impossibility in which the universe was likely to begin with extremely low entropy by calculating the results of the present universe in reverse—back to the moment the Big Bang began, revealing that the actual level of entropy should have been very high.

We can get some appreciation of this if we imagine the time-reversed context of a collapsing universe, since this collapse, if taken in accordance with the Second Law, ought to lead us to a singular state of genuinely high entropy.”[23]

In fact, the chances that the precise universe we observe—which began with extremely low entropy—was so astronomically remote, it could not have occurred by chance. In the words of Dr. Penrose, the existence of this condition requires an completely new theoretical explanation.

The probability of finding ourselves in a universe of such a degree of specialness, if it had come about just by chance, has the utterly absurdly tiny value of around 1 in 10, to the 10th, to the 124th power, irrespective of inflation. This is the kind of figure that needs some completely different kind of theoretical explanation!”[24]

The way in which the early universe began under such a low level of entropy, is one of the most puzzling and important questions of science and mathematics today. Described as “aimed with incredible precision,” this defines the origin of the universe as having a supernatural beginning rather than by natural phenomenon.

“That picture would have our collapsing pre-Big-Bang phase somehow ‘aimed’ with incredible precision at such a very special ultimate state, of the same extraordinary degree of specialness that we appear to find in our actual Big Bang.”[25]

In the Beginning…

When we examine the text of the Bible, which describes the universe with a sudden beginning, we are struck by its similarities with the facts of science. Many Christians today assert that there is an attempt to reconcile science with the Bible. In fact, the Bible was the first to state that the universe had a beginning and that it was “unfolded” by God at the conception of His creation. The Bible was the first to state that earth is a sphere which hangs in empty space, and that our sun moves through space in a circuit. All of these facts of science were revealed in the Bible, before any scientist knew of their truth.

It is He who sits above the circle of the earth… —Isaiah 40:22

He stretches out the north over empty space; He hangs the earth on nothing. —Job 26:7

…He has set a tabernacle for the sun, Which is like a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, And rejoices like a strong man to run its race. Its rising is from one end of heaven, And its circuit to the other end; And there is nothing hidden from its heat. —Psalms 19:4-6

How could Job know that gravity was the agent that allowed the earth to hang upon nothing? How could the prophet Isaiah understand that the earth was a sphere, when the rest of the world thought that it was flat?

The beginning of the 19th Psalm describes the universe as a great storyteller of the glory of God. As we examine the cosmos, we see a magnificent designer and engineer who fashioned the stars and planets for a purpose. Their existence, in the words of David; display God as the Creator and reveal to intelligent people that He is the source of all that exists.

The heavens declare the glory of God; And the firmament shows His handiwork. Day unto day utters speech, And night unto night reveals knowledge. —Psalms 19:1-2

David wrote these words, nearly 3,000 years ago. This scientific information about the sun, the earth, and the universe, was written hundreds of years before any scientist discovered these facts.

Let us imagine eternity past when nothing existed. How did a tiny spec of densely compacted material which comprised all the matter of the present universe—appear in the first place?

The circumstances required to cause an event like the Big Bang—in the precise, orderly and obviously controlled procedure in which it took place—has no logical explanation other than a force of unlimited power, infinite intelligence, and incomprehensible wisdom. A random act, a moment of happenstance, or blind chance—could not have been the cause of such an orderly and well defined procedure. There were forces acting on this process to ensure that it proceeded in such a way that life would be possible at a time of great distance from the initial expansion of the universe.

It is my belief that the only reasonable answer to all of the questions for how and why the universe exists at all—is a transcendent, magnificent, all-powerful and infinitely good being whom the Hebrew and Christian scriptures define as “God.”

The preceding is from the book: “A Universe From God,” by Robert Clifton Robinson


NOTES:
[1] William of Ockham (c. 1287–1347) was an English Franciscan friar and theologian, an influential medieval philosopher and a nominalist. His popular fame as a great logician rests chiefly on the maxim attributed to him and known as Ockham’s razor. The term razor refers to distinguishing between two hypotheses either by “shaving away” unnecessary assumptions or cutting apart two similar conclusions (from wikipedia).
[2] 1. Collins, Francis S. (2006-07-17). The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief (p. 75). Free Press. Kindle Edition.
2. I. G. Barbour, When Science Meets Religion (New York: HarperCollins, 2000).
[3] Stephen Hawking, A Brief History, Page 138.
[4] Davies, Paul. 1983. God and the New Physics. London, J M Dent & Sons
[5] Among versions of the Principia online
[6] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953.
[7] Flynn, David (2008-09-08). Temple At The Center Of Time: Newton’s Bible Codex Finally Deciphered and the Year 2012 (Kindle Locations 331-336). Defender Publishing LLC. Kindle Edition
[8] Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19.
[9] Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press
[10] H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii
[11] Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693
[12] Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953.
[13] David Flynn, “Temple at the Center of Time”, Location 384, Kindle Version
[14] Davies, Paul. 1983. God and the New Physics. London, J M Dent & Sons
[15] “The Inflationary Universe: the quest for a new Theory of Cosmic Origins, New York, Perseus Publishing, 1998
[16] Ibid.
[17] Ibid, page 171
[18] Penrose, Roger (2011-09-06). Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the Universe (Kindle Locations 902-910). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
[19] “The Inflationary Universe: the quest for a new Theory of Cosmic Origins, New York, Perseus Publishing, 1998
[20] Roger Penrose, The Road to Reality, The Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.
[21] Penrose, Roger (2011-09-06). Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the Universe (p. 77). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
[22] Ibid. page 122
[23] Ibid, page 123
[24] Ibid, page 127
[25] Ibid, page 143

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