The Teleological Argument

The Teleological Argument for God’s existence is based upon the observable universe which reveals a clear design. When we examine the manner in which the universe is built, we see a magnificently engineered machine of near infinite complexity. Machines of extreme complexity cannot design and order themselves—they require an intelligence which acts upon the materials to assemble them in such a way that they are useful and functional.

Let us remember that in all the history of the human species, no person has ever observed anything coming into existence by itself or from nothing. In spite of this, the scientific world works hard to prove that God does not exist and the universe created itself, rather than to simply acknowledge the obvious: God made the universe. We know that He exists by what He has made. When someone makes something, the evidence of their existence as an intelligent being is left behind and is verifiable proof that they exist. The incredible universe that we behold is evidence of the greatest intelligent Being in existence.

Science is founded upon the basis of observable, provable data. The evidence that is observable from the universe, indicates a super intellect is responsible for the cosmos, not a random set of events.

Many of the world’s greatest minds have examined the complexity of the universes and concluded that there is no possibility that the universe could have come into existence by itself.[1] The fact that the universes exists—requires a Super-Intellect, capable of unlimited engineering and Creative power.

This is the premise that is stated by the Bible: Man knows that God exists, by the things that He has made:

Because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse…  —Romans 1:19-20

By the manner in which the universe presents itself, we understand that it could not evolve or occur by any natural process. This is particularly evident in the balances which exist

During each of these unimaginably complex processes, there were certain procedures that were required—precisely, and at specific times (in trillionth of seconds), with certain elements that were necessary at specific points—in order to make life possible billions of years later. If any of these elements or procedures were altered, even slightly, our galaxy, star, and planet would never have formed; and no life would have ever existed on earth much later. The only rational explanation for how these precise events could have occurred at all, is through an infinite transcendent intelligence with unlimited power and ability, who determined that these processes would take place.

It is impossible that all of the precise requirements that were necessary for the present universe, to have developed by themselves as naturally occurring phenomenon—without an outside force acting upon them to cause their results. If all of the specific events that took place during -430 seconds, up to the first million years, had not taken place at the specific moment they occurred, no life would have existed anywhere in the universe.

Intelligent beings design, create, order, and balance material things. Matter and energy does not have the capacity to achieve these processes by themselves. When we observe the universe, we understand that the materials which make up the cosmos are assembled in such a way that an intelligence is required to execute the correct procedure, at the precise time, to allow stars, galaxies and planets to form. In the initial inflation of the universe, there was a clear and controlling influence which allowed the precise expansion of matter and energy, at a specific rate, so that stars would be able to form about 100 million years later.

Evidence Of Engineering

The following are many of the imperative conditions which must have been in place during the alleged 14 billion year history of the Cosmos, in order for for human beings to inhabit the earth today. This is not Cosmic Evolution, it is evidence of an actively involved Creator who has worked in great detail—for a very long period of time, to ensure that His most beloved creation: human beings, would have a dwelling place, perfectly suited for life.

Type of universe: Scientists are baffled by the type of universe which exists, having understood what the conditions were at the beginning. This is a primary and often understated reality of the universe. Given the explosion of all matter from the initial moment of the Big Bang, Physicists would have expected that a chaotic universe would have resulted from the ensuing expansion of gases—hostile to any form of life. The fact that so many necessary events took place, over such an extremely long period of time—designed to make life a reality and occurring numerous times, for billions of years—defines these events as supernatural, not random acts, nor the operation of an evolutionary process.

Rate of expansion: As the energy of the universe began to move out from its initial expansion, this energy was unevenly distributed. At a point near the beginning, a short burst of energy called “inflation” caused the universe to increase in size enormously by 1025or ten trillion—trillion times its original size. Had all of the energy from the initial universe been evenly distributed, apart from a sudden inflation and return to normal expansion, it would have been impossible for the existing matter to form galaxies far into the future. Because the universe began with energy evenly distributed, during the sudden increase in size—this inflation stretched away all of these irregularities, causing an even distribution of galaxies in all directions, which is observable today. Incredibly, this initial expansion—appears to have been controlled in such a precise way that it allowed for just the right amount of irregularities to permit a “clumping” of matter that would produce galaxies later on. Computer models show that the energy difference between the peaks and valleys of this density had to be close to 0.00001, or no galaxies would have been able to form. A rate slightly higher or lower, and the matter necessary to form galaxies, stars, and planets, much later—would not have been possible. This is profound evidence of controlled design.

Extremely low entropy: Entropy is the rate of heat loss associated with the specific degree of randomness or disorder within a system. In the beginning of the universe there was an unusually low level of disorder related to heat loss—intimating strict control being instituted, which permitted a specific outcome. The universe should not have come into being with a very low rate of entropy. Given the parameters that were present at the commencement of the universe, there was a great degree of certainty that it would have began with a very high rate of degradation. Sir Roger Penrose determined that the presence of an extremely low level of entropy at the Big Bang, is indicative of engineering, rather than random fortuity. The probability that this condition would have been present during the initial expansion of the universe is 1 in 10 to 10123.[2]

In his book, “Cycles of Time, An Extraordinary New View of the Universe,” Dr. Penrose describes the existence of low entropy as an essential precursor to life—from the first moments the universe began.

“The entire fabric of life on Earth requires the maintaining of a profound and subtle organization, which undoubtedly involves entropy being kept at a low level.”[3]

“Let us return to the basic question that we have been trying to address in this part, namely the issue of how our universe happened to come about with a Big Bang that was so extraordinarily special—yet special in what appears to have been a very peculiar way where, with regard to gravity, its entropy was enormously low in comparison with what it might have been, but the entropy was close to maximum in every other respect.”[4]

Dr. Penrose illustrates the high degree of impossibility in which the universe was likely to begin with extremely low entropy by calculating the results of the present universe in reverse—back to the moment the Big Bang began, revealing that the actual level of entropy should have been very high.

“We can get some appreciation of this if we imagine the time-reversed context of a collapsing universe, since this collapse, if taken in accordance with the Second Law, ought to lead us to a singular state of genuinely high entropy.”[5]

In fact, the chances that the precise universe we observe—which began with extremely low entropy—was so astronomically remote, it could not have occurred by chance. In the words of Dr. Penrose, the existence of this condition requires an completely new theoretical explanation.

“The probability of finding ourselves in a universe of such a degree of specialness, if it had come about just by chance, has the utterly absurdly tiny value of around 1 in 10124, irrespective of inflation. This is the kind of figure that needs some completely different kind of theoretical explanation!”[6]

The way in which the early universe began under such a low level of entropy, is one of the most puzzling and important questions of science and mathematics today. Described as “aimed with incredible precision,” this defines the origin of the universe as having a supernatural beginning rather than by natural phenomenon.

“That picture would have our collapsing pre-Big-Bang phase somehow ‘aimed’ with incredible precision at such a very special ultimate state, of the same extraordinary degree of specialness that we appear to find in our actual Big Bang.”[7]

Robinson’s Argument For An Engineered Universe

  1. All machines of complexity require intelligence..
  2. The universe is the most sophisticated and complicated machine that has ever existed..
  3. The complexity, engineering, and tuned constants which make life possible, demand intelligence to exist.
  4. The only known intelligence who has the intellect, engineering prowess, and power to build a machine like the universe is God..
  5. For reasons of complexity and intelligence as preeminent requirements, God must exist.

The 34 Constants Which Make Life Possible

What few people consider is that the universe exists by a very narrow margin of constants that permit life to exist. These physical constants exist in virtually the entire universe. No natural process could produce an environment necessary for life where every critical requirement to make life possible was necessary before life could exist. In other words, without these constants  being in place first, not even the basic cell could exist. In order to calibrate so many physical constants before life, an intelligence was necessary.

The Strengths Of The Teleological Argument

The basis of a universe which exists as a high functioning machine is a strong argument for the existence of God. Although scientists seek to discount this premise, they cannot refute the observable data that exists. There is no ambiguity in the fine tuned constants which exists. What is at disagreement is what the presence of these constants mean.

For the critic of a fine tuned universe, the answer is that in the presence of an infinite number of other universes, we would expect that there would be a great number which evolved under the precise constants that are necessary for intelligent life.

This argument is impeached by the non existence of any observable data to confirm this hypothesis. We cannot see any other universes, therefore, the idea that universe which present constants that permit life as common, is not a viable alternative to a created universe.

Weaknesses of the argument

Some critic of the Teleological Argument see the observation of a fine tunes, ordered universe as subjective. In fact, the opposite is true. The data which validates the presence of constants that allow life to exist is observable, scientific, data.


NOTES:
[1] “A Universe From God,” 2013, Robert Clifton Robinson, the chapter: “Scientists Who Believe in God.”
[2] Roger Penrose, The Road to Reality, The Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.
[3] Penrose, Roger (2011-09-06). Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the Universe (p. 77). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
[4] Ibid. page 122
[5] Ibid, page 123
[6] Ibid, page 127
[7] Ibid, page 143