Evidence For Fine-Tuning Of The Universe: 209 Physical Constants That Make Life On Earth Possible

There is no ambiguity today regarding the provable facts of science as to whether the universe is fine-tuned for life.

  1. The universe as we know it, cannot be explained by natural forces.
  2. The finely-tuned universe, as empirical proof for the existence of God, has no formal logical defects.
  3. The only current explanation for the existence of the universe—which can be tested and verified is the finely-tuned and designed evidence of the universe.
  4. Our universe contains the precise physical constants that have the exact values that are required to allow for complex structures, such as galaxies, stars, planets, and people to exist.
  5. None of these values are possible under any circumstance, by any naturalistic process.

The following are 209 parameters for the universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and Earth which must have values falling within narrowly defined ranges for physical life of any conceivable kind to exist.[1] At each constant you will see a reference for “if larger, if smaller,” which indicates that these physical constants are precisely set. Even a slight change in any of these constants will so disrupt the current universe that either it would never have begun (as with gravity and electromagnetism), or if they were changed today, human life on earth would cease to exist.

What natural process is capable of setting a precise balance the first time, for over 209 physical constants? In order to achieve these fine balances, the precise setting must be known before the process begins. This involves foreknowledge, engineering, and extreme intelligence.

See The Scientific Evidence That Confirms A Fine-Tuned Universe

Physical Constants For the Early Universe:

1. strong nuclear force constant if larger: no hydrogen; nuclei essential for life would be unstable if smaller: no elements other than hydrogen

2. weak nuclear force constant if larger: too much hydrogen converted to helium in big bang, hence too much heavy-element material made by star burning; no expulsion of heavy elements from stars if smaller: too little helium produced from big bang, hence too little heavy-element material made by star burning; no expulsion of heavy elements from stars

3. gravitational force constant if larger: stars would be too hot and would burn up too quickly and too unevenly if smaller: stars would remain so cool that nuclear fusion would never ignite, hence no heavy-element production

4. electromagnetic force constant if larger: insufficient chemical bonding; elements more massive than boron would be too unstable if smaller: insufficient chemical bonding; inadequate quantities of either carbon or oxygen

5. ratio of electromagnetic force constant to gravitational force constant if larger: no stars of less than 1.4 solar masses, hence short stellar life spans and uneven stellar luminosities if smaller: no stars of more than 0.8 solar masses, hence no heavy element production

6. ratio of electron to proton mass if larger: insufficient chemical bonding for stable molecules to be possible if smaller: insufficient chemical bonding for stable molecules to be possible

7. ratio of numbers of protons to electrons if larger: electromagnetism would dominate gravity, preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation if smaller: electromagnetism would dominate gravity, preventing galaxy, star, and planet formation

8. expansion rate of the universe if larger: no galaxy formation if smaller: universe would collapse prior to star formation

9. entropy level of the universe if larger: no star condensation within the proto-galaxies if smaller: no proto-galaxy formation

10. baryon or nucleon density of the universe if larger: too much deuterium from big bang, hence stars burn too rapidly if smaller: insufficient helium from big bang, hence too few heavy elements forming

11. velocity of light if faster: stars would be too luminous if slower: stars would not be luminous enough

12. age of the universe if older: no solar-type stars in a stable burning phase in the right part of the galaxy if younger: solar-type stars in a stable burning phase would not yet have formed

13. initial uniformity of cosmic radiation if smoother: stars, star clusters, and galaxies would not have formed if coarser: universe by now would be mostly black holes and empty space

14. fine structure constant (a number, 0.0073, used to describe the fine structure splitting of spectral lines) if larger: DNA would be unable to function; no stars more than 0.7 solar masses if larger than 0.06: matter would be unstable in large magnetic fields  if smaller: DNA would be unable to function; no stars less than 1.8 solar masses

15. average distance between galaxies if larger: insufficient gas would be infused into our galaxy to sustain star formation over an adequate time span if smaller: the Sun’s orbit would be too radically disturbed

16. average distance between stars if larger: heavy element density too thin for rocky planets to form if smaller: planetary orbits would become destabilized

17. decay rate of the proton if greater: life would be exterminated by the release of radiation if smaller: insufficient matter in the universe for life

18. 12 Carbon ( 12 C) to 16 Oxygen ( 16 O) energy level ratio if larger: insufficient oxygen if smaller: insufficient carbon

19. ground state energy level for 4 Helium ( 4 He) if higher: insufficient carbon and oxygen If lower: insufficient carbon and oxygen

20. decay rate of 8 Beryllium ( 8 Be) if faster: no element production beyond beryllium and, hence, no life chemistry possible if slower: heavy element fusion would generate catastrophic explosions in all the stars

21. mass excess of the neutron over the proton if greater: neutron decay would leave too few neutrons to form the heavy elements essential for life if smaller: neutron decay would produce so many neutrons as to cause all stars to collapse rapidly into neutron stars or black holes

22. initial excess of nucleons over antinucleons if greater: too much radiation for planets to form if smaller: not enough matter for galaxies or stars to form

23. polarity of the water molecule if greater: heat of fusion and vaporization would be too great for life to exist if smaller: heat of fusion and vaporization would be too small for life’s existence; liquid water would become too inferior a solvent for life chemistry to proceed; ice would not float, leading to a runaway freeze-up

24. supernova explosions if too far away: not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planets if too close: radiation would exterminate life on the planet; planet formation would be disrupted if too frequent : life on the planet would be exterminated if too infrequent: not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planets if too soon: not enough heavy element ashes for the formation of rocky planets if too late: life on the planet would be exterminated by radiation

25. white dwarf binaries if too many: disruption of planetary orbits from stellar density; life on the planet would be exterminated if too few: insufficient fluorine produced for life chemistry to proceed if too soon: not enough heavy elements made for efficient fluorine production if too late: fluorine made too late for incorporation in proto-planet

26. ratio of exotic to ordinary matter if larger: universe would collapse before solar-type stars could form if smaller: galaxies would not form

27. galaxy clusters if too dense: galaxy collisions and mergers would disrupt star and planet orbits; too much radiation if too sparse: insufficient infusion of gas into galaxies to sustain star formation for a long enough time

28. number of effective dimensions in the early universe if larger: quantum mechanics, gravity, and relativity could not coexist and life would be impossible if smaller: quantum mechanics, gravity, and relativity could not coexist and life would be impossible

29. number of effective dimensions in the present universe if larger: electron, planet, and star orbits would become unstable if smaller: electron, planet, and star orbits would become unstable

30. mass values for the active neutrinos if larger: galaxy clusters and galaxies would be too dense if smaller: galaxy clusters, galaxies, and stars would not form

31. big bang ripples if smaller: galaxies would not form; universe expands too rapidly if larger: galaxy clusters and galaxies would be too dense; black holes would dominate; universe collapses too quickly

32. total mass density if larger: universe would expand too slowly, resulting in unstable orbits and too much radiation; random velocities between galaxies and galaxy clusters would be too large if smaller: universe would expand too quickly for solar-type stars to form

33. dark energy density if larger: universe would expand too quickly for solar-type stars to form if smaller: universe would expand too slowly, resulting in unstable orbits and too much radiation

34. size of the relativistic dilation factor if larger: certain life-essential chemical reactions would not function properly if smaller: certain life-essential chemical reactions would not function properly

35. uncertainty magnitude in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle if larger: certain life-essential elements would be unstable; certain life-essential chemical reactions would not function properly if smaller: oxygen transport to body cells would be inadequate; certain life-essential elements would be unstable; certain life-essential chemical reactions would not function properly

36. density of neutrinos if larger: galaxy clusters and galaxies would be too dense; supernova eruptions would be too violent if smaller: galaxy clusters, galaxies, and stars would not form; inadequate supernova eruptions resulting in too few heavy elements dispersed into the interstellar medium

37. ratio of proton to electron charge if larger: inadequate chemical bonding if smaller: inadequate chemical bonding

38. ratio of cosmic mass density to dark energy density if larger: galaxies, stars, and planets needed for life would form at the wrong time or the wrong location or both if smaller: galaxies, stars, and planets needed for life would form at the wrong time or the wrong location or both

39. initial homogeneity of the universe if greater: no galaxies or stars form if lesser: black holes form before any stars form; no nuclear-burning stars

40. number of neutrino species if less than 3: big bang fuses insufficient helium from hydrogen, resulting in inadequate life-essential elements  if more than 4: big bang fuses too much helium from hydrogen, resulting in inadequate life-essential elements

41. ratio of ordinary matter to exotic matter if larger: rotation curves of spiral galaxies would not be flat enough; galaxy clusters would not be in virial equilibrium if smaller: insufficient star formation

42. density of giant galaxies during early cosmic history if larger: galaxy cluster suitable for advanced life will never form if smaller: galaxy cluster suitable for advanced life will never form

43. epoch for peak of hypernova eruptions events if earlier: density of heavy elements will be too high at best epoch for life if later: density of heavy elements will be too low at best epoch for life

44. epoch for peak of supernova eruptions events if earlier: density of heavy elements will be too high at best epoch for life if later: density of heavy elements will be too low at best epoch for life

45. number of different kinds of supernovae if lower: some of the elements essential for life will be missing

46. number of supernova eruption events  if too many: too much heavy element production for life to exist if too few: inadequate production of heavy elements for life to exist

47. decay rate of an isolated neutron if faster: big bang would fuse too little hydrogen into helium, resulting in inadequate life-essential elements  if slower: big bang would fuse too much hydrogen into helium, resulting in inadequate life-essential elements

48. density of metal-free population III stars in early universe if higher: cosmic metallicity at optimal time for life will be too high; too much gas will be blown out of primordial galaxies if lower: cosmic metallicity at optimal time for life will be too low; too little gas will be blown out of primordial galaxies

49. average mass of metal-free population III stars if larger: these stars will not scatter any of their heavy elements into interstellar space  if smaller: these stars will scatter an insufficient quantity of heavy elements into interstellar space

50. water’s heat of vaporization if larger: liquid water would evaporate too slowly if smaller: liquid water would evaporate too rapidly

51. hypernova eruptions  if too many: relative abundances of heavy elements on rocky planets would be inappropriate for life; too many collision events in planetary systems if too few: not enough heavy element ashes present for the formation of rocky planets if too soon: leads to a galaxy evolution history that would disturb the possibility of advanced life; not enough heavy element ashes present for the formation of rocky planets if too late: leads to a galaxy evolution history that would disturb the possibility of advanced life; relative abundances of heavy elements on rocky planets would be inappropriate for life; too many collision events in planetary systems

52. H 3 + production amount if too large: planets will form at wrong time and place for life if too small: simple molecules essential to planet formation and life chemistry will not form

53. density of quasars if larger: too much cosmic dust forms; too many stars form too late, disrupting the formation of a solar-type star at right time and right conditions for life if smaller: insufficient production and ejection of cosmic dust into the intergalactic medium; ongoing star formation impeded; deadly radiation unblocked

54. density of giant galaxies in the early universe if larger: too large a quantity of metals ejected into the intergalactic medium, providing future stars with too high of a metallicity for a life-support planet at the right time in cosmic history if smaller: insufficient metals ejected into the intergalactic medium, depriving future generations of stars of the metal abundances necessary for a life-support planet at the right time in cosmic history

55. masses of stars that become hypernovae if too massive: all the metals produced by the hypernova eruptions collapse into black holes resulting from the eruptions, leaving none of the metals available for future generations of stars if not massive enough: insufficient metals are ejected into the interstellar medium for future star generations to make stars and planets suitable for the support of life

56. density of gamma-ray burst events if larger: frequency and intensity of mass extinction events will be too high if smaller: not enough production of copper, scandium, titanium, and zinc

57. intensity of primordial cosmic superwinds if too low: inadequate star formation late in cosmic history if too great: inadequate star formation early in cosmic history

58. smoking quasars if too many: early star formation will be too vigorous, resulting in too few stars and planets being able to form late in cosmic history if too few: inadequate primordial dust production for stimulating future star formation

59. level of supersonic turbulence in the infant universe if too low: first stars will be the wrong type and quantity to produce the necessary mix of elements, gas, and dust so that a future star and planetary system capable of supporting life will appear at the right time in cosmic history if too high: first stars will be the wrong type and quantity to produce the necessary mix of elements, gas, and dust so that a future star and planetary system capable of supporting life will appear at the right time in cosmic history 60. rate at which the triple-alpha process (combining of three helium nuclei to make one carbon nucleus) runs inside the nuclear furnaces of stars if too high: stars would manufacture too much carbon and other heavy elements; stars may be too bright if too low: stars would not manufacture enough carbon and other heavy elements to make advanced life possible before cosmic conditions would rule out the possibility of advanced life; stars may be too dim

Evidence for the Fine-Tuning of the Milky Way Galaxy, Solar System, and Earth

The following parameters of a planet, its moon, its star, and its galaxy must have values falling within narrowly defined ranges for life of any kind to exist. A more complete list with breakdowns for different kinds of life with scientific literature citations is available at reasons.org/finetuning.

1. galaxy cluster type if too sparse: insufficient infusion of gas to sustain star formation for a long enough time if too rich: galaxy collisions and mergers would disrupt solar orbit

2. galaxy mass if too small: starburst episodes would occur too late in the history of the galaxy; galaxy would absorb too few dwarf and super-dwarf galaxies, thereby failing to sustain star formation over a long enough time; structure of galaxy may become too distorted by gravitational encounters with nearby large-and medium-sized galaxies if too large: starburst episodes would occur too early in the history of the galaxy; galaxy would absorb too many medium-sized, dwarf, and ultra-dwarf galaxies, making radiation from the supermassive black hole in the galaxy’s core too deadly and disturbing the galaxy’s spiral structure too radically

3. galaxy type if too elliptical: star formation would cease before sufficient heavy element build-up for life chemistry if too irregular: radiation exposure would be too severe on occasion and not all the heavy elements for life chemistry would be available

4. galaxy-mass distribution if too much in the central bulge: a life-supportable planet would be exposed to too much radiation if too much in the spiral arms: a life-supportable planet would be destabilized by the gravity and radiation from adjacent spiral arms

5. galaxy location if too close to a rich galaxy cluster: galaxy would be gravitationally disrupted  if too close to a very large galaxy or galaxies: galaxy would be gravitationally disrupted if too far from dwarf galaxies: insufficient infall of gas and dust to sustain ongoing star formation

6. proximity of solar nebula to a supernova eruption if closer: nebula would be blown apart if farther: insufficient heavy elements for life would be absorbed

7. timing of solar nebula formation relative to a supernova eruption at even the right distance if earlier: nebula would be blown apart (because it would not have sufficiently collapsed to hold together)  if later: nebula would not absorb enough heavy elements

8. number of stars in parent star birth aggregate if too few: insufficient input of certain heavy elements into the solar nebula if too many: planetary formation and planetary orbits would be too radically disturbed

9. star formation history in parent star vicinity if too much too soon: planet formation and planetary orbits would be too radically disturbed

10. birth date of the star-planetary system if too early: quantity of heavy elements would be too low for large rocky planets to form if too late: star would not yet have reached stable burning phase; ratios of potassium-40, uranium-235, 238, and thorium-232 to iron would be too low for long-lived plate tectonics to be sustained on a rocky planet

11. parent star distance from center of galaxy if closer: galactic radiation would be too great; stellar density would disturb planetary orbits; wrong abundances of silicon, sulfur, and magnesium relative to iron for appropriate planet core characteristics if farther: quantity of heavy elements would be insufficient to make rocky planets; wrong abundances of silicon, sulfur, and magnesium relative to iron for appropriate planet core characteristics

12. z-axis heights of star’s orbit if too great: exposure to harmful radiation from the galactic bulge and nearby spiral arms would be too great when it gets too far above or below the galactic plane

13. parent star age if younger: luminosity of star would change too quickly if older: luminosity of star would change too quickly

14. parent star mass if less: range of planet distances for life would be too narrow; tidal forces would disrupt planet rotational period; stellar flare activity would be too great, ultraviolet radiation would be too variable for plants if greater: luminosity of star would change too quickly; star would burn too rapidly

15. parent star metallicity if too small: insufficient heavy elements for life chemistry would exist if too great: life would be poisoned by certain heavy element concentrations

16. parent star color if redder: photosynthetic response would be insufficient if bluer: photosynthetic response would be insufficient

17. galactic tides  if too weak: too low of a comet ejection rate from giant planet region and beyond if too strong: too high of a comet ejection rate from giant planet region and beyond

18. flux of cosmic-ray protons (one way cloud droplets are seeded) if too small: inadequate cloud formation in planet’s troposphere if too large: too much cloud formation in planet’s troposphere

19. solar wind if too weak: too many cosmic-ray protons reach planet’s troposphere causing too much cloud formation; too much incident deadly cosmic radiation if too strong: too few cosmic-ray protons reach planet’s troposphere causing too little cloud formation; too much incident deadly solar radiation

20. parent star luminosity relative to speciation of life if increases too soon: runaway greenhouse effect would develop if increases too late: runaway glaciation would develop

21. surface gravity (escape velocity) if stronger: planet’s atmosphere would retain too much ammonia and methane if weaker: planet’s atmosphere would lose too much water

22. distance from parent star if farther: planet would be too cool for a stable, efficient water cycle if closer: planet would be too warm for a stable, efficient water cycle

23. inclination of orbit  if too great: seasonal differences on the planet would be too extreme if too small: small seasonal differences would limit abundance and diversity of life

24. orbital eccentricity if too great: seasonal temperature differences would be too extreme

25. axial tilt if greater: latitudinal surface temperature differences would be too great if less: latitudinal surface temperature differences would be too great

26. rate of change of axial tilt if greater: climatic changes would be too extreme; surface temperature differences could become too extreme

27. rotation period if longer: diurnal temperature differences would be too great if shorter: atmospheric jet streams would become too laminar and average wind speeds would increase too much

28. planet’s magnetic field if stronger: electromagnetic storms would be too severe; too few cosmic-ray protons would reach planet’s troposphere, inhibiting adequate cloud formation if weaker: ozone shield would be inadequately protected from hard stellar and solar radiation; time between magnetic reversals would be too brief for the long term maintenance of advanced life civilization

29. thickness of crust if thicker: too much oxygen would be transferred from the atmosphere to the crust and the volcanic and tectonic activity necessary for continental buildup would be too weak if thinner: volcanic and tectonic activity would be too great

30. albedo (ratio of reflected light to total amount falling on surface) if greater: runaway glaciation would develop if less: runaway greenhouse effect would develop

31. asteroidal and cometary collision rate if greater: too many species would become extinct if less: crust would be too depleted of materials essential for life

32. oxygen to nitrogen ratio in atmosphere if larger: advanced life functions would proceed too quickly if smaller: advanced life functions would proceed too slowly

33. carbon dioxide level in atmosphere if greater: runaway greenhouse effect would develop if less: plants would be unable to maintain efficient photosynthesis

34. water vapor level in atmosphere if greater: runaway greenhouse effect would develop if less: precipitation would be too meager for life on the land

35. ozone level in stratosphere if greater: surface temperatures would be too low; insufficient long wavelength ultraviolet radiation at the surface for life-critical biochemistry to operate if less: surface temperatures would be too high; too much deadly ultraviolet radiation at planet surface

36. oxygen quantity in atmosphere if greater: plants and hydrocarbons would burn up too easily if less: advanced animals would have too little to breathe

37. nitrogen quantity in atmosphere if greater: too much buffering of oxygen for advanced animal respiration; too much nitrogen fixation for support of diverse plant species; greenhouse effect would be too enhanced if less: too little buffering of oxygen for advanced animal respiration; too little nitrogen fixation for support of diverse plant species; insufficient enhancement of greenhouse effect

38. ratio of potassium-40, uranium-235, 238, and thorium-232 to iron for the planet if too low: inadequate levels of plate tectonic and volcanic activity if too high: radiation, earthquakes, and volcanic activity at levels too high for advanced life

39. rate of planet’s interior heat loss if too low: inadequate energy to drive the required levels of plate tectonic and volcanic activity if too high: plate tectonic and volcanic activity shuts down too quickly

40. seismic activity if greater: too many life-forms would be destroyed; continents would grow too large; vertical relief on the continents would become too great; too much erosion of silicates would remove too much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere if less: nutrients on ocean floors from river runoff would not be recycled to continents through tectonics; too little erosion of silicates would remove insufficient carbon dioxide from the atmosphere; continents would not grow large enough; vertical relief on the continents would be inadequate for the proper distribution of rainfall, snow pack, and erosion

41. volcanic activity if lower: insufficient amounts of carbon dioxide and water vapor would be returned to the atmosphere; soil mineralization would become too degraded for life if higher: advanced life, at least, would be destroyed

42. timing of the initiation of continent formation if too early: silicate-carbonate cycle would be destabilized if too late: silicate-carbonate cycle would be destabilized

43. soil mineralization if too nutrient-poor: no possibility of life or complexity of life would be limited if too nutrient-rich: no possibility of life or complexity of life would be limited

44. gravitational interaction with a moon if much greater: axial tilt variations would make life impossible if greater: tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational period would be too severe if much less: axial tilt instabililty would make advanced life impossible if less: orbital obliquity changes would cause climatic instabilities; movement of nutrients and life from the oceans to the continents and vice versa would be insufficient; magnetic field would be too weak

45. Jupiter’s distance if greater: too many asteroid and comet collisions would occur on Earth if less: Earth’s orbit would become unstable; Jupiter’s presence would too radically disturb or prevent the formation of Earth

46. Jupiter’s mass if greater: Earth’s orbit would become unstable; Jupiter’s presence would too radically disturb or prevent the formation of Earth if less: too many asteroid and comet collisions would occur on Earth

47. inward drift in major planet distances if greater: Earth’s orbit would become unstable if less: too many asteroid and comet collisions would occur on Earth

48. major planet eccentricities if greater: orbit of life-supportable planet would be pulled out of life-support zone; too many asteroid and comet collisions

49. major planet orbital instabilities and mean motion resonances if greater: orbit of life-supportable planet would be pulled out of life-support zone; too many asteroid and comet collisions

50. mass of Neptune if too small: not enough Kuiper Belt objects (asteroids and comets beyond Neptune) would be scattered out of the solar system if too large: chaotic resonances among the gas giant planets would occur

51. Kuiper Belt of asteroids (beyond Neptune) if not massive enough: Neptune’s orbit remains too eccentric, which destabilizes the orbits of other solar system planets if too massive: too many chaotic resonances and collisions would occur in the solar system

52. separation distances among inner terrestrial planets if too small: orbits of all inner planets would become unstable in less than 100,000,000 million years if too large: orbits of the inner planets most distant from star would become chaotic

53. continental relief if smaller: insufficient variation in climate and weather; rate of silicate weathering would be too small if greater: too much variation in climate and weather; rate of silicate weathering would be too great

54. chlorine quantity in atmosphere if smaller: erosion rates, acidity of rivers, lakes, and soils, and certain metabolic rates would be insufficient for most life-forms if greater: erosion rates, acidity of rivers, lakes, and soils, and certain metabolic rates would be too high for most life-forms

55. iron quantity in oceans and soils if smaller: quantity and diversity of life would be too limited to support advanced life; if very small, no life would be possible if larger: iron poisoning of at least advanced life would result

56. tropospheric ozone quantity if smaller: insufficient cleansing of biochemical smogs if larger: respiratory failure of advanced animals, reduced crop yields, and destruction of ozone-sensitive species

57. mesospheric ozone quantity if smaller: circulation and chemistry of mesospheric gases so disturbed as to upset relative abundances of life-essential gases in lower atmosphere if greater: circulation and chemistry of mesospheric gases so disturbed as to upset relative abundances of life-essential gases in lower atmosphere

58. quantity and extent of forest fires if smaller: growth inhibitors in the soils would accumulate; soil nitrification would be insufficient; insufficient charcoal production for adequate soil water retention and absorption of certain growth inhibitors; inadequate coverage of the planet by grasslands and savannas if greater: too many plant and animal life-forms would be destroyed; too many forests would convert to savannas and grasslands; less carbon dioxide would be removed from the atmosphere, resulting in global warming; less rainfall

59. quantity and extent of grass fires if smaller: growth inhibitors in the soils would accumulate; soil nitrification would be insufficient; insufficient charcoal production for adequate soil water retention and absorption of certain growth inhibitors if greater: too many plant and animal life-forms would be destroyed; too many savannas and grasslands would be converted to deserts; less rainfall

60. quantity of soil sulfur if smaller: plants would become deficient in certain proteins and die if larger: plants would die from sulfur toxins; acidity of water and soil would become too great for life; nitrogen cycles would be disturbed

61. density of quasars in host galaxy’s vicinity if smaller: insufficient production and ejection of cosmic dust into the intergalactic medium; ongoing star formation impeded; deadly radiation unblocked if larger: too much cosmic dust forms; too many stars form too soon, disrupting the formation of a solar-type star at the right time and under the right conditions for life

62. density of giant galaxies in host galaxy vicinity if smaller: insufficient metals ejected into the intergalactic medium, depriving future generations of stars of the metal abundances necessary for a life-support planet at the right time in cosmic history if larger: too large a quantity of metals ejected into the intergalactic medium, providing future stars with too high of a metallicity for a life-support planet at the right time in cosmic history

63. giant star density in galaxy if smaller: insufficient production of galactic dust; ongoing star formation impeded; deadly radiation unblocked if larger: too much galactic dust forms; too many stars form too early, disrupting the formation of a solar-type star at the right time and under the right conditions for life

64. rate of sedimentary loading at crustal subduction zones if smaller: too few instabilities to trigger the movement of crustal plates into the mantle thereby disrupting carbonate-silicate cycle if larger: too many instabilities triggering too many crustal plates to move down into the mantle thereby disrupting carbonate-silicate cycle

65. poleward heat transport in planet’s atmosphere if smaller: disruption of climates and ecosystems; lowered biomass and species diversity; decreased storm activity and precipitation if larger: disruption of climates and ecosystems; lowered biomass and species diversity; increased storm activity

66. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in solar nebula if smaller: planet formation process would be too inefficient; insufficient early production of asteroids, which would prevent a planet like Earth from receiving adequate delivery of heavy elements and carbonaceous material for life, advanced life in particular if larger: planet formation process would too efficient; early production of asteroids would be too great, resulting in too many collision events for a planet arising out of the nebula that could support life

67. phosphorus and iron absorption by banded iron formations if smaller: overproduction of cyanobacteria would have consumed too much carbon dioxide and released too much oxygen into Earth’s atmosphere thereby overcompensating for the increase in the Sun’s luminosity (too much reduction in atmospheric greenhouse efficiency) if larger: underproduction of cyanobacteria would have consumed too little carbon dioxide and released too little oxygen into Earth’s atmosphere thereby undercompensating for the increase in the Sun’s luminosity (too little reduction in atmospheric greenhouse efficiency)

68. silicate dust annealing by nebular shocks if too little: rocky planets with efficient plate tectonics cannot form if too much: too many collisions in planetary system; orbital instabilities in planetary system too severe

69. size of galactic central bulge if smaller: inadequate production of life-essential heavy elements; inadequate infusion of gas and dust into the spiral arms, preventing solar type stars from forming at the right locations late enough in the galaxy’s history if larger: radiation from the bulge region would kill life on a life-support planet and generate the wrong kinds of spiral arms

70. solar magnetic activity level if smaller: solar wind would inadequately repel or dampen cosmic rays if greater: solar luminosity fluctuations would be too large; solar flares would be too frequent and intense

71. quantity of geobacteraceae if smaller or nonexistent: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons accumulate in the surface environment thereby contaminating the environment for other life-forms if greater: could crowd out other important bacterial species

72. quantity of aerobic photoheterotrophic bacteria if smaller: inadequate recycling of both organic and inorganic carbon in the oceans if greater: could crowd out other important bacterial species

73. average rainfall and snowfall precipitation if too small: inadequate water supplies for land-based life; inadequate erosion of landmasses to sustain the carbonate-silicate cycle; inadequate erosion to sustain certain species of ocean life that are vital for the existence of all life if too large: too much erosion of landmasses, which upsets the carbonate-silicate cycle and hastens the extinction of many species of life vital for life’s existence

74. distance from nearest black hole if too close: radiation would prove deadly for life

75. density of black holes in vicinity of potential life-support planet if too high: radiation would prove deadly for life

76. water absorption capacity of planet’s lower mantle  if too low: too much water on planet’s surface; no continental landmasses; too little plate tectonic activity; carbonate-silicate cycle disrupted if too high: too little water on planet’s surface; too little plate tectonic activity; carbonate-silicate cycle disrupted

77. ratio of inner dark halo mass to stellar mass for galaxy if too low: co-rotation distance is too close to the galactic center exposing the life-support planet to too much radiation and too many gravitational disturbances if too high: co-rotation distance is too far from the galactic center, making it very unlikely that the solar system would be ejected that far from its birth star cluster

78. star rotation rate if too slow: too weak of a magnetic field, resulting in not enough protection from cosmic rays for the life-support planet if too fast: too much chromospheric emission, causing radiation problems for the life-support planet

79. aerosol particle density emitted from forests if too low: too little cloud condensation, which reduces precipitation, lowers the albedo (planetary reflectivity), and disturbs climates on a global scale if too high: too much cloud condensation, which increases precipitation, raises the albedo (planetary reflectivity), and disturbs climate on a global scale; too much smog

80. density of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles in vicinity of life-support planet if too low: inadequate delivery of life-essential materials; under compensates for the luminosity of the host star if too high: disturbs climate too radically on life-support planet; overcompensates for the luminosity of the host star

81. thickness of mid-mantle boundary if too thin: mantle convection eddies become too strong; tectonic activity and silicate production become too great if too thick: mantle convection eddies become too weak; tectonic activity and silicate production become too small

82. galaxy cluster density if too low: insufficient infall of gas, dust, and dwarf galaxies into a large galaxy that eventually could form a life-supportable planet if too high: gravitational influences from nearby galaxies would disturb orbit of the star with a life-supportable planet thereby exposing that planet to either deadly radiation or gravitational disturbances from other stars in that galaxy

83. star formation rate in solar neighborhood during past 4 billion years if too high: life on Earth would be exposed to deadly radiation or Earth’s orbit would be disturbed

84. cosmic-ray luminosity of Milky Way Galaxy if too low: not enough production of boron if too high: life spans for advanced life too short; too much destruction of planet’s ozone layer; overproduction of boron

85. air turbulence in troposphere if too low: inadequate formation of water droplets if too great: rainfall distribution would be too uneven; storms would be too severe

86. quantity of phytoplankton if too low: inadequate production of molecular oxygen and inadequate production of maritime sulfate aerosols (cloud condensation nuclei); inadequate consumption of carbon dioxide if too great: too much cooling of sea surface waters and possibly too much reduction of ozone quantity in lower stratosphere; too much consumption of carbon dioxide

87. quantity of iodocarbon-emitting marine organisms if too low: inadequate marine cloud cover; inadequate precipitation if too great: too much marine cloud cover; too much cooling of Earth’s surface

88. mantle plume production if too low: inadequate volcanic and island production rate if too great: too much destruction and atmospheric disturbance from volcanic eruptions

89. quantity of magnetars (proto-neutron stars with very strong magnetic fields) if too few during galaxy’s history: inadequate quantities of r-process elements synthesized if too many during galaxy’s history: too great a quantity of r process elements synthesized; too great of a high-energy cosmic-ray production

90. frequency of gamma-ray bursts in galaxy if too low: inadequate production of copper, titanium, and zinc; insufficient hemisphere-wide mass extinction events if too great: too much production of copper and zinc; too many hemisphere-wide mass extinction events

91. parent star magnetic field if too low: solar wind and solar magnetosphere would not be adequate to thwart a significant amount of cosmic rays if too great: too high of an x-ray flux would be generated

92. level of outward migration of Neptune if too low: total mass of Kuiper Belt objects would be too great; Kuiper Belt too close to the Sun; Neptune’s orbit not be circular enough and distant enough to guarantee long-term stability of inner solar system planets’ orbits if too great: Kuiper Belt too distant and contain too little mass to play any significant role in contributing volatiles to life-support planet or to contributing to mass extinction events; Neptune would be too distant to play a role in contributing to the long-term stability of inner solar system planets’ orbits

93. Q-value (rigidity) of Earth during its early history if too low: final obliquity (axial tilt) of Earth becomes too high; rotational braking of Earth too low if too great: final obliquity of Earth becomes too low; rotational braking of Earth is too great

94. parent star distance from galaxy’s co-rotation circle if too close: a strong mean motion resonance would destabilize the parent star’s galactic orbit if too far: planetary system would experience too many crossings of the spiral arms

95. frequency of late impacts by large asteroids and comets if too low: too few mass extinction events; inadequate rich ore deposits of ferrous and heavy metals if too many: too many mass extinction events; disturbances of planet’s crust too radical

96. size of the carbon sink in the deep mantle of the planet if too small: carbon dioxide level in planet’s atmosphere would be too high if too large: carbon dioxide level in planet’s atmosphere would be too low; biomass would be too small

97. growth rate of central spheroid for the galaxy if too small: inadequate flow of heavy elements into the spiral disk; inadequate outward drift of stars from the inner to the central portions of the spiral disk if too large: inadequate spiral disk for late-born stars 98. amount of gas infalling into the central core of the galaxy if too little: galaxy’s nuclear bulge becomes too large if too much: galaxy’s nuclear bulge fails to become large enough

99. level of cooling of gas infalling into the central core of the galaxy if too low: galaxy’s nuclear bulge becomes too large if too high: galaxy’s nuclear bulge fails to become large enough

100. ratio of dual water molecules, (H 2 O) 2 , to single water molecules, H 2 O, in the troposphere if too low: inadequate raindrop formation; inadequate rainfall  if too high: distribution of rainfall over planet’s surface too uneven

101. quantity of volatiles on and in Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone if too low: inadequate ingredients for the support of life; atmosphere would be too thin; oceans would be too shallow or nonexistent if too high: no possibility for a means to compensate for luminosity changes in star; atmosphere would be too thick; oceans would be too deep

102. level of spiral substructure in spiral galaxy if too low: galaxy would not be old enough to sustain advanced life if too high: gravitational chaos would disturb planetary system’s orbit about center of galaxy and thereby expose the planetary system to deadly radiation or disturbances by gas or dust clouds or both

103. mass ratio of inner gas giant planet to outer gas giant planet if greater by 50 % : resonances would generate non-coplanar planetary orbits, which would destabilize orbit of life-support planet if lesser by 25 % : mass of the inner gas giant planet necessary to adequately protect life-support planet from asteroidal and cometary collisions would be large enough to gravitationally disturb the orbit of the life-support planet

104. timing of late heavy bombardment if too early: bombardment of Earth would be too intense; too much mass accretion; too severe a disruption of mantle and core; too much core growth if too late: bombardment of Earth would not be intense enough; too little oxygen would be delivered to the core; too little core growth; too little life history time

105. degree of continental landmass barrier to oceans along rotation axis if too low: rotation rate of planet slows down too slowly if too high: rotation rate of planet slows down too quickly

106. lifetimes of methane in different atmospheric layers if too short: greenhouse gas input to atmosphere inadequate to prevent runaway freezing of planetary surface  if too long: greenhouse gas input to atmosphere launches a runaway evaporation of planet’s surface water

107. release rate of biogenic bromides into the atmosphere if too low: tropospheric ozone and nitrogen oxides abundances in the atmosphere would be too high for healthy land life; greenhouse effect of the atmosphere may be too high to compensate for changes in solar luminosity; too much ultraviolet radiation blocked out, causing plant growth to suffer  if too high: tropospheric ozone in the atmosphere would be too low to maintain a clean enough atmosphere for healthy land life; greenhouse effect of the atmosphere may be too low to compensate for changes in solar luminosity; ozone abundance in stratosphere would become too low to block out enough UV radiation to protect surface life

108. height of the tallest trees if too low: inadequate interception and capture of water from rolling fog; inadequate buildup of soil nutrients and biodeposits; loss of quality timber for sustaining human civilization  if too high: inadequate tree growth efficiency; greater level of tree damage

109. mass of ordinary dark matter halo surrounding the galaxy if too small: spiral structure cannot be maintained long term; galaxy would grow too rapidly; galaxy structure would become too disturbed if too large: spiral structure cannot be maintained long term; galaxy would not grow rapidly enough; galaxy structure would become too disturbed

110. mass of exotic dark matter halo surrounding the galaxy if too small: spiral structure cannot be maintained long term; galaxy would grow too rapidly; galaxy structure would become too disturbed if too large: spiral structure cannot be maintained long term; galaxy would not grow rapidly enough; galaxy structure would become too disturbed

111. density of ultra-dwarf galaxies (or supermassive globular clusters) in vicinity of the galaxy if too low: spiral structure would not be adequately sustained; heavy element flow into galactic habitable zone would be inadequate; galactic structure stability would not be adequately maintained if too high: galactic core would produce too much deadly radiation; too many heavy elements would be funneled into the galactic habitable zone; galactic structure stability would not be adequately maintained

112. formation rate of molecular hydrogen on dust grain surfaces when the galaxy is young if too low: too few stars would form during the early history of the galaxy, which would delay the possible formation of a planetary system capable of sustaining advanced life past the narrow epoch in the galaxy’s history during which advanced life could exist  if too high: too many stars would form during the early history of the galaxy, which would lead to the shutdown of star formation and spiral structure before the epoch during which a planetary system capable of sustaining advanced life could form

113. intensity of far ultraviolet radiation from nearby stars when circumsolar disk was condensing into planets if too much weaker: Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Kuiper Belt would have been much more massive, making advanced life on Earth impossible if too much stronger: Uranus, Neptune, and the Kuiper Belt would never have formed and Saturn would have been smaller, making advanced life on Earth impossible

114. amount of methane generated in upper mantle of planet if too small: inadequate delivery of methane to planet’s atmosphere, causing too little solar heat to be trapped by the atmosphere if too large: too great a delivery of methane to planet’s atmosphere, causing too much solar heat to be trapped by the atmosphere

115. level of biogenic mixing of seafloor sediments if too low: too low of a level of marine sediment oxygen resulting in a too low biomass and nutrient budget for marine coastal ecosystems; disruption of biogeochemical cycles

116. production of organic aerosols in the atmosphere if too small: depending on the particular aerosol, either too little solar radiation is reflected into space or too little solar radiation is absorbed into the troposphere if too large: depending on the particular aerosol, either too much solar radiation is reflected into space or too much solar radiation is absorbed into the troposphere

117. total mass of primordial Kuiper Belt of asteroids and comets if too small: inadequate outward drift of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune; inadequate circularization of the orbits of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune; late heavy bombardment of Earth would not be intense enough to bring about the necessary chemical transformation of Earth’s crust, mantle, and core; inadequate delivery of water and other volatiles to Earth if too large: too much outward drift of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune; late heavy bombardment of Earth would be too intense; too much delivery of water and other volatiles to Earth

118. quantity of sub-seafloor hypersaline anoxic bacteria if too small: inadequate sulfate reduction and methanogenesis to sustain the global chemical cycles essential for sustaining advanced life and human civilization; inadequate supply of concentrated metal ores for sustaining human civilization if too large: too high of a level of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis to sustain the global chemical cycles essential for sustaining advanced life and human civilization

119. mass of moon orbiting life-support planet if too small: inadequate ocean tides; planet’s rotation rate would not slow down fast enough to make advanced life possible; a mass lower than about a third of the Moon’s would not be adequate to stabilize the tilt of the planet’s rotation axis if too large: a mass higher by 2% of the Moon’s mass would destabilize the tilt of the planet’s rotation axis; ocean tides would be too great, causing too much erosion and disturbing continental shelf life; planet’s rotation rate would slow down so quickly as to make advanced life impossible

120. density of galaxies in the local volume around life-support galaxy if too low: inadequate growth in the galaxy; inadequate buildup of heavy elements in the galaxy; star formation would be too anemic and history of star formation activity would be too short if too high: galaxy would suffer catastrophic gravitational disturbances and star formation events would be too violent and too frequent; galaxy would grow too large and too quickly; astronomers’ view of the universe would be significantly blocked

121. surface level air pressure for life-support planet if too small: lung operation in animals would be too inefficient, eliminating the possibility of high respiration rate animals; wind velocities would be too high and air streams too laminar, causing devastating storms and much more uneven rainfall distribution; less lift for aircraft, making air transport more dangerous and costly if too great: lung operation would be too inefficient, eliminating the possibility of high respiration rate animals; wind velocities would be too low, resulting in much lower rainfall on continental landmasses; too much air resistance, making air transport slower, more costly, and more dangerous

122. level and frequency of ocean microseisms if too low: inadequate precipitation; inadequate redistribution of continental shelf nutrients if too high: storm intensities would become too great; precipitation levels would be too high; too much disturbance of the continental shelf environment and ecosystems

123. depth of Earth’s primordial ocean if too shallow: early planet-sized collider would have eradicated too much of Earth’s light element material and would have too radically altered or destroyed the primordial Earth; no moon would form or the moon’s size or composition would be too radically disturbed if too deep: early planet-sized collider would have ejected too little of Earth’s light element material into interplanetary space; no moon would form or the moon’s size or composition would be too radically disturbed

124. rate of quartz re-precipitation on Earth if too low: cycling of silicon would be so disturbed as to affect the production of free oxygen by phytoplankton and the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by the weathering of silicates if too high: cycling of silicon would be so disturbed as to affect the production of free oxygen by phytoplankton and the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by the weathering of silicates

125. rate of release of cellular particles (fur fiber, dandruff, pollen, spores, bacteria, phages, etc.) and viruses into the atmosphere  if too low: inadequate production of aerosol particles that are especially effective as cloud condensation nuclei, thereby resulting in too little rain, hail, snow, and fog  if too high: too much production of aerosol particles that are especially effective as cloud condensation nuclei, thereby causing too much precipitation or precipitation that is too unevenly distributed

126. rate of leaf litter deposition upon soils if too low: inadequate amounts of nutrients delivered to soils; inadequate amounts of silica delivered to soils; serious disruption of silica cycling  if too high: soils and the ecosystems within them become too deprived of light, oxygen, and carbon dioxide; inadequate nitrogen fixation in soils

127. date of star formation shutdown in the galaxy if too soon: no possibility of planets forming with the mix of heavy elements to support advanced life if too late: probability too high that a nearby supernova eruption or an encounter with a dense molecular cloud or a young bright star would prove deleterious to life on the life-support planet

128. degree of confinement to the galactic plane for the galaxy’s light-emitting ordinary matter if less: spiral structure would either collapse or become unstable if more: inadequate infusion of gas and dust into the spiral arms, preventing solar-type stars from forming at the right locations late enough in the galaxy’s history

129. average albedo of Earth’s surface life if less: would cause runaway evaporation of Earth’s frozen and liquid water if more: would cause runaway freeze-up of Earth’s water vapor and liquid water

130. collision velocity and mass of planet colliding with primordial Earth if either is too low: insufficient amount of Earth’s light element material would be removed; infusion of heavy element material into Earth’s core would be too small; no moon would form or too small of a moon would form if either is too high: Earth would suffer too much destruction; too much of Earth’s light element material would have been removed; no moon would form or the moon’s size and/or composition would be too radically disturbed

131. photo erosion by nearby giant stars during planetary formation phase if smaller: too few volatiles would be removed from the protoplanetary disk if larger: too many volatiles would be removed from the protoplanetary disk; too radical of a truncation of the outer part of the planetary disk and hence inadequate formation of gas giant planets that are distant from the star

132. surface density of the protoplanetary disk if smaller: number of protoplanets produced would be too many; average protoplanet mass would be too small if larger: number of protoplanets produced would be too few; average protoplanet mass would be too large

133. quantity of terrestrial lightning if less: too small or too unstable of a charge-depleted zone would exist in the Van Allen radiation belts surrounding Earth, making efficient communication satellite operation impossible; too few forest and grass fires would be generated; inadequate nitrogen fixation if more: Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts would become so weak that too much hard radiation would penetrate Earth’s surface to the detriment of life; too many forest and grass fires would be generated

134. timing of solar system’s last crossing of a spiral arm if earlier: humanity would now be too close to a spiral arm and thus would face more cosmic rays, a colder climate, a weaker ozone shield, and a high probability of encountering a large molecular cloud if later: humanity would now be too close to a spiral arm and thus would face more cosmic rays, a colder climate, a weaker ozone shield, and a high probability of encountering a large molecular cloud; inadequate time for the buildup of resources provided by previous generations of advanced life

135. amount of iron-60 injected into Earth’s primordial core from a nearby  type II supernova eruption if less: inadequate differentiation of Earth’s interior layers, which prevents any long-term support of plate tectonics and a strong magnetic field  if more: Earth’s plate tectonics would become too destructive; Earth’s interior structure would become inappropriate for the support of life and advanced life in particular

136. level of oxidizing activity in the soil if smaller: inadequate oxygenation of the soil for healthy root growth and the support of animal life in the soils; inadequate nutrients for land life if larger: organic matter would too rapidly decompose

137. level of water-soluble heavy metals in soils if lower: inadequate trace element nutrients available for life, especially for advanced life if higher: soluble metals would be at toxic levels for life, especially advanced life; catastrophic drop in soil microorganism diversity would occur

138. quantity of methanotrophic symbionts in wetlands if lower: inadequate consumption and conversion of methane gas and inadequate delivery of carbon to mosses, causing too much methane and carbon dioxide to be released to the atmosphere, resulting in a global warming catastrophe if higher: too much consumption and conversion of methane gas and too much delivery of carbon to mosses, causing too little methane and carbon dioxide to be released to the atmosphere, resulting in a global cooling catastrophe

139. ratio of asteroids to comets for the late heavy bombardment of Earth if lower: inadequate delivery of heavy elements to Earth; too many volatiles delivered to Earth; melting of Earth would not be sufficient to adequately transform Earth’s interior if higher: inadequate delivery of volatiles to Earth; bombardment would be too destructive; chemical transformation of Earth’s interior would become inappropriate for the long-term support of advanced life

140. quantity and diversity of viruses in the oceans if lower: inadequate breakdown of particulate nutrients into usable forms for bacteria and microbial communities if higher: too much devastation of bacteria, microorganisms, and larger life-forms in the oceans

141. quantity of amommox bacteria (bacteria exploiting anaerobic ammonium oxidation reactions) in the oceans if lower: food chain base in oxygen-depleted marine environments would be driven to a level too low if higher: consumption of fixed nitrogen by these bacteria would deprive photosynthetic life of an important nutrient

142. quantity of soluble silicon and silica in the oceans if lower: too severe a limitation on the growth of marine diatoms, which would remove an important source from the food chain and an important contributor to both nitrogen fixation and marine aerosol production if higher: silicon and silica absorption by certain marine organisms could reach toxic levels for those organisms; diatom growth could become too predominant and thus damage the ecosystem

143. quantity of phosphorous and phosphates in the oceans if lower: too severe a limitation on the growth of nitrogen-fixing marine bacteria if higher: growth of algae blooms could result in toxin release levels detrimental to virtually all other life-forms

144. availability of light to upper layers of the oceans if lower: inadequate phytoplankton growth in low-iron content waters  if higher: phytoplankton growth in high iron content waters would become too aggressive and thus upset that part of marine ecosystem; certain phytoplankton blooms would release too many toxins that could prove deadly to other life-forms

145. amount of summer ground foliage in the arctic if smaller: lower reflectivity warms the arctic, possibly leading to climate instabilities if larger: higher reflectivity cools the arctic, possibly leading to climate instabilities

146. quantity of dissolved calcium in lakes and rivers if smaller: inadequate removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, leading to climatic instabilities and possible runaway freezing if larger: too much removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, leading to climatic instabilities and possible runaway evaporation of Earth’s liquid water and ice

147. mass of the potential life-support planet if smaller: planet would retain too light of an atmosphere and too small of an atmospheric pressure; planet’s gravity would not be adequate to retain water vapor over a long period of time; pressure in planet’s mantle would be too low, resulting in a loss of mantle conductivity and consequently a level of plate tectonics too weak and too short lived if greater: planet would retain too heavy of an atmosphere and too great of an atmospheric pressure; gravitational loss of low molecular weight gases from the atmosphere would be too low; tectonic activity level would be too short lived

148. quantity of clay production on continental landmasses if smaller: inadequate conditioning of soil for advanced plants; inadequate removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere; inadequate oxygenation of the atmosphere if greater: inadequate aeration of soil for advanced plants; too much removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

149. date for opening of the Drake Passage (between South America and  Antarctica) if earlier: Earth’s surface would have been cooled down prematurely relative to the gradual increasing luminosity of the Sun if later: Earth’s surface would have been cooled down too late relative to the gradual increasing luminosity of the Sun

150. frequency of giant volcanic eruptions if lower: inadequate delivery of interior gases to the atmosphere; insufficient buildup of islands and continental landmasses; insufficient buildup of surface crustal nutrients if higher: too much and too frequent destruction of life


The preceding is from the outstanding work: “Probability Estimates for the Features Required by Various Life Forms,” by Hugh Ross © Reasons To Believe, 2008

See The Following Publications Of Dr. Hugh Ross For Further Information:

The Creator and the Cosmos: How the Latest Scientific Discoveries Reveal God

Why the Universe Is the Way It Is

[1] Ross, Hugh. The Creator and the Cosmos: How the Latest Scientific Discoveries Reveal God (Kindle Locations 3857-3861). RTB Press. Kindle Edition.