The universe exists by physical laws which allow us to understand how it exists. These laws do not, at their basic premise, tell us why it exists. Many people have the idea that science understands why the universe came into being in the first place; they do not.
There are several naturalistic explanations which the average person cannot understand, but sound quite intellectual. When we take time to try and understand what scientists are saying about the origin of the universe, we discover shocking realities.
First and most important, all theories for the origin of the universe by a natural process originate from hypothesis that exists only in the theoretical. Mathematical calculations have determined that other universes could exist, which have produced our universe.
The problem with these hypothesis is that they cannot be proven by observation because we cannot see beyond our present universe. All of the evidence that science does have shows that our universe came into existence suddenly, when nothing else existed.
These are the facts of science.
Using only the observable scientific evidence that we do have, and absent a natural cause; the universe came into existence because it was caused.
If it was caused, there must be a supernatural source that is transcendent time, space, and matter because these three did not exist prior to the commencement of the universe.
- How God Created The Universe: Science And The Bible In Symmetry
- Noted Ph.D’s And Scientists Who Believe God Created The Universe
- Evidence For Fine-Tuning Of The Universe: 209 Physical Constants That Make Life On Earth Possible
- The Universe Proves God Exists: 1,978 Quantifiable Characteristics Required For Life On Earth
The physical laws which allow us to understand the universe and govern its function also did not exist before the universe began. As I have previously mentioned, the world’s leading Physicist, Stephen Hawking, said that in the first moments of the universe, there were no physical laws to govern its beginning. Although we can determine that the first microsecond of the universe was controlled to exact a specific outcome, it was not the laws of physics which controlled these processes.
What, then, was the governing power which allowed the universe to begin?
These actions of the universe at its inception and the laws which ensued afterwards stand as empirical evidence of intelligence that allows the universe to function and exist in an orderly fashion, and continue to permit life to exist on earth.
The Physical Laws:
- Gravity and Relativity
- Continuity and Transfer
- Classic Laws of Planetary Motion , Universal Gravitation
- Photonics; Reflection and Refraction
- Quantum Mechanics
- Geophysical Laws.
Man has a difficult time trying to keep all of the machinery of earth operating correctly and efficiently. God has continued to operate the machinery of the universe with such precision, that man has built all of his scientific laws based upon God’s creation.
Gravity And Relativity
When the universe began, the ratio between gravity and electromagnetism were balanced precisely. In order to understand the importance of gravity during the commencement of the universe and how this ratio was set precisely to ensure a life-sustaining universe, we must investigate the circumstances that surrounded this event.
During the initial moments of the universe at 10−43 seconds, had the ratio between gravity and electromagnetism increased by just 1:10^40, only very small stars would have formed. If this ratio was decreased by the same amount, only very large stars would have formed. Human beings were created from carbon. Carbon is produced by second generation stars.
Archimedes estimated that 1×10^63 grains of sand could fit into the entire cosmos.1
In a universe that is 75 percent filled with grains of sand (1:10^40), which is the balance between gravity to electromagnetism, change this balance of gravity to electromagnetism by just one grain of sand, there would be no people on earth.
This illustration helps us understand how a small change in the ratio between gravity and electromagnetism, at the start of the universe, would have ended any chance that our universe could have produced stars that would later make life possible.
Since there were no laws of physics in existence at that time, what controlled this ratio? There is no chance that this happened by accident. This leaves only one possibility—it happened on purpose. Purposeful engineering to exact outcomes is only possible by intelligent beings.
In order for the life on earth to be possible much later, at the beginning of the universe, this fine balance between electromagnetism and gravity must be set precisely so that both large and small stars will be present in the universe.
Large stars produce the elements needed for life; smaller stars burn at the precise rate required to sustain life on a planet like earth.2
If gravity was any stronger at the early formation of the universe, all stellar matter would bind stronger and smaller stars would use their nuclear fuel at a drastically increased rate, eliminating small stars and making life impossible on earth later. If gravity was any weaker at the beginning, matter would not have clumped together to form much larger structures that would later become stars, and no life would exist on earth today.3
The existence of this very narrow ratio between gravity and electromagnetism helps us understand how impossible this environment was at the beginning of the universe.
The fact that this precise ratio was dialed in exactly where it needed to be, for life to be possible on earth nearly 9 billion years later, demands that this ratio was purposely determined before the universe began.
God, knowing the correct ratio between gravity and electromagnetism, set this precisely where it needed to be. This extremely narrow margin that was established at the beginning of the universe makes it impossible that this precise ratio could have taken place by any natural or undirected process.
This is scientific and empirical evidence that allows us to confidently conclude that God was necessary for the universe to exist and human life to be present on earth today.
Perfectly Balanced Gravitation Force And Earth’s Atmosphere
If the gravitational force of Earth was stronger, our planet’s atmosphere would retain too much ammonia and methane for life. If the Earth’s gravity was slightly weaker, the planet’s atmosphere would lose too much water to maintain life.
Gravitational Interaction With The Moon:
If the moon had more gravitational pull on the earth, tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational period would destroy all life by massive waves. If the moon had less gravitational pull on the earth, all weather on earth would change so severely, that life could not exist.
Jupiter’s Distance From Earth:
If the planet Jupiter was at greater distance from Earth, the beneficial gravitational force, which this massive planet exerts in our Solar System, would have a significant impact on the number of asteroid and comet collisions, which strike the earth.
Described as the “vacuum cleaner of the Solar System,” Jupiter’s immense gravity, as well as its precise placement in the Solar System shields the earth by drawing most larger asteroids and comets that pass through our inner Solar System, into the asteroid belt. Without the specific placement of Jupiter where it is located, it is likely that life on earth would be impossible—as our planet would be repeatedly struck by extinction level asteroids and comets. If Jupiter were any closer to the Earth, its gravitational force would throw off our orbit and kill every one on the planet.
Isaac Newton And Gravitational Force
Sir Isaac Newton’s work on the physics of time and space are considered the foundation for all scientific knowledge today. On July 5, 1687, Newton published three books that have been referred to as the “Principia,” a Latin term that describes his “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.”
Newton wrote in his Principia, that the order and design which we observe in time and space are inseparable from the existence of God. In Newton’s view of the evidence presented by the universe through science, mathematics, and astronomy, “this most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.”4
The true God is a living, intelligent, and powerful being. His duration reaches from eternity to eternity; His presence from infinity to infinity.…He governs all things and knows all things that are or can be done. He is not eternity and infinity, but eternal and infinite; he is not duration or space, but he endures and is present. He endures forever, and is everywhere present; and, by existing always and everywhere, he constitutes duration and space.
This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent and powerful Being.…He is omnipresent not virtually only, but also substantially; for virtue cannot subsist without substance. In him are all things contained and moved.”5 ~Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton viewed the evidence for God’s existence as self-evident by the presence of the universe itself. In his observance of all the scientific and mathematical absolutes of the Cosmos, “the Creator cannot be denied in the presence of such a magnificent creation.” Newton found it preposterous that any intelligent person could imagine the universe came into being, without an unlimited intelligence as its first cause. Newton came to these conclusions based on the evidence of science, mathematics, and astronomy.6
Newton observed comets and planets moving in concentric orbits from many different positions, and concluded that this would be impossible apart from the design and engineering of an intelligent Being. Immense, guided power created gravity to act on planets, and cause them to follow the same center point, ordered by the laws of physics.7
Albert Einstein demonstrated that gravity occurs as a result of space-time bending. In the final conclusion of his theories, Einstein confirms Newton’s judgment that orbits follow geodesic trajectories. In other words, both of these great men of science concluded that the universe has a design and a purpose.
Newton determined that without intervention from the Creator of the universe, the stars would collide with each other on a more frequent basis. By apparent design, God has limited the amount of motion that occurs in the universe from decay due to viscosity and friction.8 In many of Newton’s writings, he implies that the force of Gravity was influenced by something immaterial—an intelligence.
“It is inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should, without the mediation of something else which is not material, operate upon and effect matter without mutual contact.”9
It was the final conclusion of Sir Isaac Newton that God was the force that kept the planets in orbit—as they could not sustain such motion by themselves.
“This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being. …This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is wont to be called ‘Lord God’ παντοκρατωρ [pantokratōr], or ‘Universal Ruler.’ … The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, [and] absolutely perfect.”10
One of the baffling questions in the study of the initial moments of the Big Bang is why we have a universe which is clearly designed for life instead of one which would make life impossible. Given the parameters which were present during the first moments of the universe, a vastly different result would be expected. The fine-tuning of the universe, which existed at the beginning of the Big Bang, was so essential for life, that even the basic element of carbon—of which all human beings are made—would not exist had the universe began by any other process.
“It has been frequently argued that there are many curious coincidences in the relations between the constants of Nature upon which life on Earth seems to depend…One of the most striking of such apparent coincidences was revealed with William Fowler’s confirmation of Fred Hoyle’s remarkable prediction of the existence of a particular energy level of carbon which, had it not existed, would have meant that the production of heavy elements in stars would not have been able to proceed beyond carbon, leaving the planets devoid of nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine, sodium, sulphur, and numerous other elements.”10.5 —Roger Penrose, mathematical physicist, mathematician and philosopher of science.
This indicates that all of the “coincidences” in the origin of the universe were actually designed, engineered, and constructed in the precise manner necessary for life on earth much later.
In concluding his estimation of how the universe began, Dr. Penrose moves towards the “miraculous” as the most reasonable explanation for the unique and precise early state of the Big Bang.
“If we do not assume the Second Law, or that the universe originated in some extraordinarily special initial state, or something else of this general nature, then we cannot use the ‘improbability’ of the existence of life as a premise for a derivation of a Second Law that is operative at times earlier than the present. No matter how curious and non-intuitive it may seem, the production of life would (if we do not make a prior assumption of the Second Law) be far less probable to come about by natural means—be it by natural selection or any by other seemingly ‘natural’ process—than by a ‘miraculous’ creation simply out of random collisions of the constituent particles!”10.75
Since a state of extremely low entropy at the beginning of the Big Bang was a primary component in the formation of the early universe—this stands as empirical evidence for design. This initial low entropy most certainly did not happen by chance, as the natural state of the initial universe should have exhibited a very high degree of disorder. The fact that the universe began by a great deal of organization, controlled to exact a specific result that would permit life billions of years later, these details demand an intelligent source.
We should remember that the specific type of universe which developed during the hundred trillion-trillion-trillionth of a second of the initial expansion of the universe were critically controlled by forces unknown to scientists today. From this point and continuing throughout the expansion of the universe, this control has been continually ordered in such a way that life would be possible in one specific Galaxy, one Solar System, and one planet. At the formation of earth, this design continued in directing the absolute necessary constants of the Solar System and the earth, which would allow human life to dwell upon its surface, and prosper.
Why Extremely Low Entropy?
Entropy is the rate of heat loss associated with the specific degree of randomness or disorder within a system. In the beginning of the universe there was an unusually low level of disorder related to heat loss, intimating strict control being instituted, which permitted a specific outcome. The universe should not have come into being with a very low rate of entropy. Given the parameters that were present at the commencement of the universe, there was a great degree of certainty that it would have begun with a very high rate of degradation.
Penrose determined that the presence of an extremely low level of entropy at the Big Bang is indicative of engineering, rather than random fortuity. The probability that this condition would have been present during the initial expansion of the universe is 1 in 10 to 10^123.(11)
In his book, “Cycles of Time, An Extraordinary New View of the Universe,” Dr. Penrose describes the existence of low entropy as an essential precursor to life—from the first moments the universe began.
“The entire fabric of life on Earth requires the maintaining of a profound and subtle organization, which undoubtedly involves entropy being kept at a low level.”12
“Let us return to the basic question that we have been trying to address in this part, namely the issue of how our universe happened to come about with a Big Bang that was so extraordinarily special—yet special in what appears to have been a very peculiar way where, with regard to gravity, its entropy was enormously low in comparison with what it might have been, but the entropy was close to maximum in every other respect.”13
Dr. Penrose illustrates the high degree of impossibility in which the universe was likely to begin with extremely low entropy, by calculating the results of the present universe in reverse, back to the moment the Big Bang began, revealing that the actual level of entropy should have been very high.
“We can get some appreciation of this if we imagine the time-reversed context of a collapsing universe, since this collapse, if taken in accordance with the Second Law, ought to lead us to a singular state of genuinely high entropy.”14
In fact, the chance that the precise universe we observe—which began with extremely low entropy—was so astronomically remote, it could not have occurred by chance. In the words of Dr. Penrose, the existence of this condition requires a completely new theoretical explanation.
“The probability of finding ourselves in a universe of such a degree of specialness, if it had come about just by chance, has the utterly absurdly tiny value of around is 1 in 10 to 10124, irrespective of inflation. This is the kind of figure that needs some completely different kind of theoretical explanation!”15
The way in which the early universe began, under such a low level of entropy, is one of the most puzzling and important questions of science and mathematics today. Described as “aimed with incredible precision,” this defines the origin of the universe as having a supernatural beginning rather than by natural phenomenon.
“That picture would have our collapsing pre-Big-Bang phase somehow ‘aimed’ with incredible precision at such a very special ultimate state, of the same extraordinary degree of specialness that we appear to find in our actual Big Bang.”16
At −430 (seconds) planck time, an event described as the “Grand Unification Epoch” took place. Electromagnetism, the strong interaction, and the weak interaction were unified as the electronuclear force; while gravity was separated from the electronuclear force.17
Theoretical Physicist, Alan Guth, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, put forth the idea in the 80’s, that if during the initial moments of the Big Bang (Moment of Creation), the massive expansion of material was not uniform or controlled, the resulting universe would have been quite disorderly.
Instead, as if by design, a microsecond later, the entire universe jumped in size by ten trillion trillion (10^25). It was then that the entire expansion stopped, and a normal rate of expansion began. This rapid and sudden expansion would have “stretched out” the irregularities of the initial disorderly explosion. Once the rapid expansion ceased and a normal rate of expansion started again, the material of the universe could expand into an orderly and even universe.18
What caused the initial sudden expansion, and what force made it cease and stop, only to resume in an orderly fashion?
Guth’s proposal was that antigravity caused the initial sudden and uneven expansion of matter to be quickly diminished, and cease. In the universe’s initial inflation, the expansion of gases was far too fast to form galaxies later in the universe. This problem was solved by the force exerted by antigravity suddenly halting the initial rapid expansion. Amazingly, this all happened in 10-32 seconds (a hundred trillion-trillion-trillionth of a second).19
If Not Controlled—A Drastically Different Universe
One of the most startling discoveries in the search for evidence of God in the universe was made by Mathematical Physicist, Sir Roger Penrose. Since the Cosmos has a beginning, we understand today that it is winding itself down to a certain heat death in the distant future, when all the available energy in the universe will be used up in about 10^100 years.20
“Try to imagine the phase space… of the entire universe. Each point in this phase space represents a different possible way that the universe might have started off. We are to picture the Creator, armed with a ‘pin’–which is to be placed at some point in the phase space… Each different positioning of the pin provides a different universe. Now the accuracy that is needed for the Creator’s aim depends on the entropy of the universe that is thereby created.
It would be relatively ‘easy’ to produce a high entropy universe, since then there would be a large volume of the phase space available for the pin to hit. But in order to start off the universe in a state of low entropy – so that there will indeed be a second law of thermodynamics – the Creator must aim for a much tinier volume of the phase space. How tiny would this region be, in order that a universe closely resembling the one in which we actually live would be the result?’20
The calculations of Dr. Penrose determined that when God created the universe, the preciseness required to establish a universe balanced for life would be 1 part in 10 to 10^123 power. This is a 1 followed by 10^123 zeros. A number that is so large, it is greater than all of the estimated atomic particles of the entire universe.21
Dr. Penrose is saying that the likelihood that a vastly different universe would have occurred from the one that we have was an absolute certainty. Why then do we have a universe that has developed in such a way that it allows for life?
Many people are under the impression when they hear the term “fine-tuned,” that we are speaking of the earth or our solar system, which was engineered in such a way to make life possible. Not at all. The fine-tuning began in the initial moments of the Big Bang (creation) when at −430 seconds, (Planck time), electromagnetism, the strong interaction, and the weak interaction were unified as the electronuclear force, while gravity separated from the electronuclear force.22
If God had not engineered the precise manner in which the initial expansion of energy unfolded at the beginning of the universe, no stars, galaxies, or planets would have formed. God was working in the moments of one trillion trillion, trillionth of a second to bless our lives—14 billion years into the future. Since He has this capacity to move and work in the trillionth of seconds, it is certain that He is working in all of our lives right now. We can trust Him.
The fine-tuning of the universe began in the first moment of the universe.
God Created a Finely-Tuned Universe Perfect for Life.23
- Evidence For Fine-Tuning Of The Universe: 209 Physical Constants That Make Life On Earth Possible
- The Universe Proves God Exists: 1,978 Quantifiable Characteristics Required For Life On Earth
The Rate Of Expansion For The Early Universe Was Just Right: 24
If the energy expansion in that first second was slightly larger, then the gravitational forces necessary to form stars and planets would not have taken place. If the expansion of energy was slightly smaller, the universe would have collapsed back onto itself.
If the initial expansion of energy was greater than the capacity of gravitational forces to pull all of this matter back together and eventually form galaxies and stars, life, many billions of years later, would not have been possible. Mathematical physicists have calculated that during the first second of the universe, the expansion of energy and gravitational forces differed by less than 1 part in a million, billion, or 1015.(25)
The amount of weak nuclear force was just right:
The ratio of protons and neutrons was perfect to allow helium to form that would be needed to form stars later.
The amount of strong nuclear force was just right
This allowed helium to burn precisely, slow enough that elements could form.
The ratio of gravity to electromagnetism are balanced precisely.
If the ratio between gravity and electromagnetism was increased by only 1 in 10^40, only very small stars would have formed. If the ratio were decreased by the same amount, only very large stars would have formed.
In order for life to be possible, there must be both large and small stars present in the universe. Large stars produce the elements needed for life; small stars burn at the precise rate required to sustain life on planets like earth.26
Physicist and cosmologist, Paul Davies, calculated that the chance this balance could have happened by accident is 1-in-10^40. (26.5)
Try to imagine shooting, from earth, at a coin located at the far side of the universe. The odds that you could hit this coin from a distance of 45 billion light years is equal to 1-in-10^40.(27)
Despite the impossibility that this could have happened, unless this balance between electromagnetism and gravity had occurred when the universe began, earth would never have been able to support human life. 27
We live in an impossible universe that never could have occurred without God. There is no natural process that could ever cause these constants to exist by chance all at once.
Balance Of Electron And Proton
One important example of a fine-tuned universe that is understood by a critical requirement for life is the ratio between the electron and a proton of every atom in the universe.
The ratio of mass between an electron and a proton is 1:1836, meaning that a proton is 1,836 times larger than an electron. Although there is a great degree of difference between the size of these two parts of an atom, both the electron and proton maintain the exact same electrical charge. With this massive difference in size, how is it possible that both still have the same electrical charge? It’s as if someone knew the precise size difference that was necessary before the first atom existed.
If the electrical charge of the electron is altered by just one part in 100 billion, the body of every human being on earth would explode.28
The Law of Biogenesis
Despite the efforts of some people, no one has ever proven that life comes from anything else but other life. Animals, plants, all organisms, all life come from their own kind. In the only case of a claimed spontaneous generation of life, Louis Pasteur proved that this assertion was a hoax.
By scientific evidence, Pasteur proved that life only comes from life that existed previously. There have never been any provable exceptions to this basic law of life, and these findings are precisely what God said about life in the Bible.
Not long after Darwin published his Origin of Species in 1859, Louis Pasteur challenged the idea of spontaneous generation. This hypothesis is the very foundation of evolution as the origin of life. Dr. Pasteur’s simple and elegant “swan-necked flask” experiments impeached the idea of organic life as originating from non-life assertion.
Dr. Pasteur learned that the germs, which were used in the experiment to prove abiogenesis came from microbes that had parent microbes, not from a process of spontaneous generation of life. This discovery brought forth many useful applications such as the need for sterilization, asepsis during surgery, and the theory of germs in applications of disease.
Current claims that spontaneous life is possible are based upon unprovable, theoretical hypothesis. The data that was used to try and prove abiogenesis (spontaneous generation of life), was based upon very large theoretical volumes of fluids that would allegedly contain the necessary elements to permit spontaneous life to emerge. In the real world of science where actual evidence is required, abiogenesis has never been proven by any observable procedure.
In examining the assertions of abiogenesis by atheists, we find that their conclusions are similar to those of the atheistic theoretical physicists hypotheses of the multiverse as an answer for the reason why the universe is fine-tuned for life. Both the physicists and the biologists who use these theoretical hypotheses have no observable empirical evidence to support their conclusions. They both use ideas that require very large test subjects that do not exist and cannot be tested or observed. These ideas exist only in the realm of the theoretical, not in real science.
God created each species. All of these life forms appeared on earth at the same time. When we examine the scientific evidence of the fossil record, this is precisely what we find. Millions of dead animals that all appeared on earth at the same time with no intermediate species which indicated an evolution between species.
The idea that one cell could have evolved into man over a very long process of time, through a great number of uncontrolled and random processes, is the greatest hoax ever perpetrated upon man. There is absolutely no scientific proof that this has occurred, and the very idea itself is a violation of the known laws of biogenesis.
The only scientific facts that have been proven by scientists is that certain species, when placed in harsh environments, have the ability to adapt themselves by certain changes that permit their continued survival.
This type of limited evolutionary process is assumed as evidence that greater evolutionary processes are also possible; inevitably, the evolution of man from the ape species. The idea that all life forms originated from a common ancestor has no scientific evidence to validate that this has actually taken place. All that we can prove as science is the limited evolution of certain species for the purpose of adaptation.
The creatures, plants, and organisms that exist on earth all follow a predetermined course for their existence that is fixed and unchangeable. Every animal appeared on earth fully formed as they now exist. Only under certain rare circumstances has any animal or plant changed slightly for the purpose of adaptation, but never to create a completely new species outside their original species.
The Laws of Chemistry
In order for life to be possible, there are very narrow and specific requirements that are necessary. The human body exists because of incredible chemical reactions that take place and are ordered by the laws of chemistry, as they operate by a uniform process.
The information contained within the DNA of a human being is a digital instruction to each cell for how they must operate and which specific part of the body they will create.
There is a total of 150 Trillion Gigabytes of digital genetic information stored in the human body.29
There is no evolutionary or natural process that can create information. This is only possible by a mind or intelligence. The very existence of the cell with its advanced mechanical operations require tremendous engineering prowess that knew in advance how and why vital elements of a simple cell are necessary for efficient operation.
If any single part of a cell is missing because of the need for an evolutionary process, the cell would die and not have the opportunity to continue in an evolutionary process. The mere existence of the cell with all of its components present at the same time, with the digital instructions contained within DNA, makes evolution impossible.
Irreducibly Complex Machines
Intelligent Design is a scientific theory that asserts that some aspects of life are best explained as a result of design. The strong appearance of design in life is apparent and not imagined. Intelligent design is not based upon any religious belief system or set of convictions.
The design theory of creation is based upon observable, empirical, and physical evidence from nature and the logical inferences of this reality.
Design is the purposeful arrangement of parts when we perceive that these parts have been arranged to fulfill a purpose. The existence of these elements of design, as they are observed, is what defines “design.”
A Biochemical example of design would be the compelling example of the bacterial flagellum. The illustration below is from a college textbook that is used all over the world.
 Bacterial Flagellum
This Flagellum is, by its purest definition, an outboard motor that is used by bacteria to propel themselves. This tiny Flagellum contains machine parts which allow this propulsion to occur.
The top part of the flagellum is the propulsion device of the bacteria. The motor that turns the propulsion device is a rotary mechanism.
When we see the individual parts of this flagellum, we quickly realize that they exist and are ordered in such a way that each part has a very specific purpose. This allows us to accurately define this flagellum as a mechanically designed apparatus. The ability to propel itself in virtually any direction is enabled by 40 different proteins. Amongst the parts of the flagellum are a motor, rings, and a propeller.
This type of system can only exists when every part of the flagellum is present at the same time. If any part were missing, the bacteria could not move and would quickly die.
This type of machine is called an “Irreducibly Complex Device.” There are hundreds of these devices that we find in nature which make life possible. Take away any single part of these Irreducibly Complex machines and they cannot operate.
This means that none of these devices could have come into being by a contingent combination of parts over millions or billions of years. Every part of these devices must be in place at the same time. This disqualifies the idea of evolution for life. The most basic of all life is the cell, and these cells contain parts that must be present all at once before the cell can exist. This means that all the parts of these cells were created at once, they did not evolve over time.
Incredible by design, this bacterial flagellum closely resembles the same type of machines that are built by human beings. Just as a man-made machine must have every part before it can function, so also are these biochemical machines. No one looks at a machine with a motor and rings used to seal fluid and imagines that it evolved by itself. For the same reason, we cannot see the machine parts of a bacterial flagellum and believe they came into existence by accident. All machines are evidence of a creative process where a mind conceived the idea and skill was required to assemble and permit operation.
These Biochemical machines, which have the exact same components as a man-made machine, require that all their individual parts are present at the same time before operation is possible. If we build a machine and take out one of the parts, it will no longer function.
This is also true of every biochemical machine. Unless all the parts are created and installed at once, these machines could not exist.
It is clear in the most basic component of life, a simple cell, that these tiny devices are not so simple after all. Each part of every cell in our bodies must be present all at once, or they will not function. These individual parts could not have evolved since all of the parts which exist in the cell are necessary for its operation. Evolution is not capable of producing every part of a cell all at the same time.
Attempts have been made to refute the irreducibly complex flagellum and the prerequisite of all its parts necessary to function.
A similar Biochemical device has been presented that is similar to the Flagellum. Lacking a few proteins, this second device does not have a propulsion system. Opponents of the irreducibly complex idea say that this second cell is proof that irreducible complexity is not true.
The refutation presented by this second device, although similar to the flagellum, functions well without the rotor or propulsion system. The second device is a bacteria that injects its toxic virus into the host it intends to infect. This device has no need for a rotor or propulsion system, therefore, these parts are not present.
Because both the flagellum and the virus devices are similar in their construction, with the exception of the rotor and propulsion, critics use this as an example to assert that the irreducibly complex flagellum is not evidence to impeach evolution.
This is an illogical comparison because the flagellum and virus devices are two different types of bacteria. Comparing the virus device to the flagellum does not eliminate the requirement for the flagellum to have all the parts of its device before it is able to function. The second device exists for a completely different purpose and does not need the rotor or propulsion mechanism.
This argument does not change the fact that certain cells do have propulsion machine parts and cannot function without all their components existing at once.
If evolution is true then why do we find that nature reveals machine devices which require the complete device before they can operate?
The argument for irreducibly complex machines as evidence against the possibility that evolution is responsible for life’s beginning is compelling and has no logical defects.
The Laws of Planetary Motion
Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician and astronomer. Kepler is known primarily for his discovery of three mathematical laws of planetary motion, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican Astronomy. Kepler’s work supplied the foundation for Isaac Newton’s theory of universal gravitation.
During the period of history when Kepler discovered planetary motion, the sun and planets of our solar system were thought to circle the earth, refereed to as geocentricity. Kepler believed in Jesus Christ and the inerrancy of the Bible, and sought to reconcile the Biblical descriptions of the universe with science.30
Kepler Discovered That Planets In Our Solar System Obey Three Laws
- Planets specifically orbit in ellipses but not perfect circles.
- Kepler discovered that planets sweep out equal areas in equal times, ie., planets speed up as they get closer to the sun within their orbit.
- Kepler discovered the exact mathematical relationship between a planet’s distance from the sun and its orbital period. Planets farther from the sun take much longer to orbit than planets which are closer. This is expressed as p2=a3. Kepler’s laws also apply to the orbits of moons around a planet.
The laws of planetary motion are not fundamental; they are the logical derivation of other laws of nature. Isaac Newton discovered that Kepler’s laws could be derived mathematically from certain laws of physics, specifically the laws of gravity and motion, which Newton had formulated.
Like Newton, Kepler concluded that the evidence presented by the universe and the manner in which it is ordered spoke volumes of its source. There was no doubt in the mind of Kepler that God was the author of the universe, based upon the scientific evidence that was presented to us by observation and a study of the Cosmos.
Kepler is famous for his many quotations of God and science and his earnest desire to show God’s masterful hand in the universe:
(Theologus esse volebam: diu angebar: Deus ecce mea opera etiam in astronomia celebratur.)
“I wanted to become a theologian. For a long time I was restless. Now, however, behold how through my effort God is being celebrated in astronomy.” — Johannes Kepler 31
Based upon the evidence presented by the universe, the movements of the planets as they are held and regulated by gravity, Kepler believed that something more than natural events were ordering these events.
I commence a sacred discourse, a most true hymn to God the Founder, and I judge it to be piety, not to sacrifice many hecatombs of bulls to Him and to burn incense of innumerable perfumes and cassia, but first to learn myself, and afterwards to teach others too, how great He is in wisdom, how great in power, and of what sort in goodness.32
Kepler also said:
Purposely I break off the dream and the very vast speculation, merely crying out with the royal Psalmist: Great is our Lord and great His virtue and of His wisdom there is no number: praise Him, ye heavens, praise Him, ye sun, moon, and planets, use every sense for perceiving, every tongue for declaring your Creator…to Him be praise, honour, and glory, world without end. Amen.33
The Laws Of Physics
The laws of Physics exist as all other laws, by intelligence. These laws describe the fundamental behavior of the universe and allow man to comprehend what is seen.
These Laws Describe:
- How light propagates
- How energy is transported
- How gravity operates
- How mass moves through space
The laws of physics are usually mathematical in nature. A few of the laws of physics are described by a concise formula, such as E=mc2. The simple formula F=ma shows how an object with mass (m) will accelerate (a) when a net force (F) is applied.
Most incredible amongst the laws of Physics is that every object in the universe consistently obeys these rules. The question that can rightly be asked is: Who is the rule maker? If laws exist, there must be a lawgiver who framed the precepts in the first place. Natural origins never have the capacity to form their own laws.
The Hierarchy Within Physics
Some of the laws within physics can be acquired from other laws of physics. For example, Einstein’s famous formula E=mc2 can be obtained from the principles and equations of special relativity. In the same way, there are many laws of physics that cannot be derived from other laws of physics.
Some laws of physics are fundamental and not based upon other laws. These laws exist because God has determined they should exist.
The laws of physics and their associated constants are fine-tuned precisely so that human life is possible. This is referred to as the “anthropic principle.”
The Laws of Mathematics
Johannes Kepler, in describing the reason for his study, said:
“The chief aim of all investigations of the external world should be to discover the rational order which has been imposed on it by God, and which he revealed to us in the language of mathematics.” 33
Describing mathematics as the ability to think God’s thoughts, Kepler and Galileo imagined that the Creator had given men their reason and intellect, so that by mathematics he could understand what God had created.
Galileo believed in the God of the Bible, and never ventured from this firm trust. It was his thought that ‘the laws of nature are written by the hand of God in the language of mathematics’ and that the ‘human mind is a work of God and one of the most excellent’.
As we examine Newton’s theories for the universe, we find that by mathematics our universe is intelligible. The very fact that the universe has a mathematical nature to begin with is quite extraordinary. That God created man with the ability to understand His universe by mathematics is one of the greatest proofs for God.
Scientists tend to ignore the usefulness of mathematics to distinguish the reality of God in their understanding of the universe because they have become so accustomed to its daily use. When we consider that the fundamental laws of the universe are mathematical and go no further to ask “why,” we miss the entire point of mathematics.
Did the planets orbit in a different manner before Kepler discovered that p2=a3? In this regard, mathematical laws are not something that human beings created but have merely discovered. God created a universe that can be understood by mathematics as a tool to reveal Himself to us.
For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse. ~Romans 1:20
Mathematics is the language of creation that most clearly proves to us that God must exist.
The Laws of Logic
God must certainly love intelligence and logic because the world He created is understood by logical deduction of the evidence He left to us.
When man seek to understand the magnificence of the universe by natural processes, he looks quite foolish. All of the scientific and mathematical qualities of the universe clearly reveal that the Cosmos exists as a result of the infinite and intelligent engineering prowess of a limitless Creator.
It has always perplexed me how men and women of great educational genius can deny the most obvious and stellar evidence that is constantly before them. Instead of following the intelligible evidence of creation to its logical end, they invent other universes which cannot be tested or observed—evolutionary theories that have no evidence to support, and extremely complicated ideas that do nothing more than confuse and cloud the clear evidence that God made all that exists.
The laws of Logic were certainly created by God to help us understand the evidence that we plainly see. If we use these laws rightly, we find that everything makes perfect sense when God is plugged into the equation at the start of every search for knowledge.
The preeminent fact remains that in order to conclude that God does not exist, the atheist has to ignore evidence from the scientific community, which presents compelling proof that God is the source of the universe.
The stunning reality that Mathematicians and Physicists have discovered reveals a universe which displays clear characteristics of engineering. After an unknown quantity of eternity past, suddenly everything comes into existence during one singularity. The manner in which the universe begins without any laws to guide it, yet displays that it was directed, demands an intelligence behind the scenes to ensure it started by a precise process.
These are but a few of the arguments from logic that exist because God created logic to help us sort out who He is and to understand His existence.
The Uniformity of Nature
The primary characteristic of nature’s laws are their self-evident existence. It does not take a Ph.D. to determine that something is not natural or according to nature. All human beings are endowed by their Creator with the innate ability to observe and determine things which are contrary to nature.
Nature is uniform and never arbitrary. Exhibiting characteristics of order and design exhibited throughout the universe, earth, and human life. We are able to see one common source for nature, and that it exists by plan and purpose. Natural laws are like God; they never change. What was good and right, natural and orderly, was true in ancient history as it is today. It is only man who sees fit to change the natural order of life and thereby cause his own calamity.
The natural order is extremely important to science. Without the uniformity of nature, science would be impossible. Had earth and the universe existed by constantly changing parameters, we would never be able to determine reliable results for the future.
The permanent and firm attributes of nature are not in existence by a natural process as in “Mother nature,” but as a result of careful planning and engineering of God.
If nature existed by a natural process of evolution, then nature would be constantly changing and science could never establish a permanent basis for reliable results. We can trust the laws of nature because the God who created these laws is also trustworthy and does not change. He manages and orders the universe so that it is solid and sure, reliable, lasting, for the benefit of all His creation.
1 Archimedes’ in the third century estimated that 1×1063 grains of sand fit into the universe in “The Sand Reckoner” (Greek: Ψαμμίτης, Psammites).
2 Davies, Paul. 1983. God and the New Physics. London, J M Dent & Sons
3 1. Hoyle, Fred. “The Universe: Some Past and Present Reflections.” Engineering and Science (1981): 12.
2. Polkinghorne, John. “The Anthropic Principle and the Science and Religion Debate (PDF).” Faraday Papers, no. 4 (2007).
4 Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953.
5 Flynn, David (2008-09-08). Temple At The Center Of Time: Newton’s Bible Codex Finally Deciphered and the Year 2012 (Kindle Locations 331-336). Defender Publishing LLC. Kindle Edition
6 Webb, R.K. ed. Knud Haakonssen. “The emergence of Rational Dissent.” Enlightenment and Religion: Rational Dissent in eighteenth-century Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 1996. p19
7 Newton, 1706 Opticks (2nd Edition), quoted in H. G. Alexander 1956 (ed): The Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, University of Manchester Press
8 H.W. Alexander 1956, p. xvii
9 Newton to Bentley, 25 Feb 1693
10 Principia, Book III; cited in; Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selections from his writings, p. 42, ed. H.S. Thayer, Hafner Library of Classics, NY, 1953.
10.5 Penrose, Roger. Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the Universe (p. 170). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
10.75 Penrose, Roger. Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the Universe (pp. 53-54). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
11 Roger Penrose, The Road to Reality, The Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.
12 Penrose, Roger (2011-09-06). Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the Universe (p. 77). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
13 bid. page 122
14 Ibid, page 123
15 bid, page 127
16 bid, page 143
17 Allday, Jonathan (2001). Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang. Institute of Physics Publishing. ISBN 0-7503-0806-0
18 “The Inflationary Universe: the quest for a new Theory of Cosmic Origins, New York, Perseus Publishing, 1998
20 Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole, Don N. Page, Physical Review D 13 (1976), pp. 198–206. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.13.198. See in particular equation (27).
21 1. The Emperor’s New Mind, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1989 p. 344.
2. Lennox, John (2011-02-18). God’s Undertaker (p. 71). Lion Hudson. Kindle Edition.
22 Allday, Jonathan (2001). Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang. Institute of Physics Publishing. ISBN 0-7503-0806-0
23 Davies, Paul. 1983. God and the New Physics. London, J M Dent & Sons
24 Davies, Paul. Cosmic Jackpot: Why Our Universe Is Just Right for Life. Great Britain: The Penguin Press, 2006.
25 1. Hoyle, Fred. “The Universe: Some Past and Present Reflections.” Engineering and Science (1981): 12.
2. Polkinghorne, John. “The Anthropic Principle and the Science and Religion Debate (PDF).” Faraday Papers, no. 4 (2007).
26 Davies, Paul. 1983. God and the New Physics. London, J M Dent & Sons
26.5 Davies, Paul. 1983. God and the New Physics. London, J M Dent & Sons
29 a. Comparing the genome to computer data storage: In order to represent a DNA sequence on a computer, we need to be able to represent all 4 base pair possibilities in a binary format (0 and 1). These 0 and 1 bits are usually grouped together to form a larger unit, with the smallest being a “byte” that represents 8 bits. We can denote each base pair using a minimum of 2 bits, which yields 4 different bit combinations (00, 01, 10, and 11). Each 2-bit combination would represent one DNA base pair. A single byte (or 8 bits) can represent 4 DNA base pairs. In order to represent the entire diploid human genome in terms of bytes, we can perform the following calculations: 6×10^9 base pairs/diploid genome x 1 byte/4 base pairs = 1.5×10^9 bytes or 1.5 Gigabytes, about 2 CDs worth of space! Or small enough to fit 3 separate genomes on a standard DVD!
b. Data storage across the whole organism: Some interesting question could follow. For example, how many megabytes of genetic data are stored in the human body? For simplicity’s sake, let’s ignore the microbiome (all non-human cells that live in our body), and focus only on the cells that make up our body. Estimates for the number of cells in the human body range between 10 trillion and 100 trillion. Let us take 100 trillion cells as the generally accepted estimate. So, given that each diploid cell contains 1.5 GB of data (this is very approximate, as I am only accounting for the diploid cells and ignoring the haploid sperm and egg cells in our body), the approximate amount of data stored in the human body is: 1.5 Gbytes x 100 trillion cells = 150 trillion Gbytes or 150×10^12 x 10^9 bytes = 150 Zettabytes (10^21)!!! Source: https://bitesizebio.com/8378/how-much-information-is-stored-in-the-human-genome/
30 This illustration has been released into the public domain by its author, LadyofHats. This applies worldwide.
31 Kepler’s Mysterium Cosmographicum (The Cosmographic Mystery, the first published defense of the Copernican system) is devoted to reconciling heliocentrism with biblical passages that seem to support geocentrism.
32 Letter to Michael Maestlin (3 Oct 1595). Johannes Kepler Gesammelte Werke (1937- ), Vol. 13, letter 23, l. 256-7, p. 40. As translated in Owen Gingerich, ‘Johannes Kepler’ article in Charles Coulston Gillespie (ed.) Dictionary of Scientific Biography(1973), Vol. 7, 291. Also seen translated as “I wanted to become a theologian; for a long time I was unhappy. Now, behold, God is praised by my work even in astronomy.”
33 “Epilogue Concerning the Sun, By Way of Conjecture,” ibid.
 Morris Kline, Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty, (Oxford University Press, New York, 1980, p. 31.
34 The Testimony of the Evangelists: The Gospels Examined by the Rules of Evidence Administered in Courts of Justice by Simon Greenleaf. Chapter : “An examination of the testimony of the Evangelists”. Published by Kregel Classics, a division of Kregel, Inc., P.O. Box 2607, Grand Rapids, MI 49501. ISBN 0-8254-2747-9
35 Ibid, Simon Greenleaf.
36 Jesus: An Historian’s Review of the Gospels by Micjhael Grant 2004 ISBN 1898799881 page 200
37 Ibid, Locations 464-467
38 Ibid, Locations 532-534
39 Stephen Hawking, A Brief History, Page 138.
Categories: Agnostics and Skeptics, Empirical Evidence for God, Evolution of Species, How Salvation Occurs, Jesus Cross and Wisdom, No one is "good", Origin of the Universe, Physical Constants, Religion vs. Relationship, Robert Clifton Robinson, Salvation is a free gift, Science and the Bible, Scientists Who Believe in God, The Existence of God, What is required for Heaven?