There is no rational explanation for the existence of the universe outside the reality of a transcendent being who possesses unlimited knowledge and power. Every thinking person on this planet understands that all things which have a beginning, have a cause. This would of course exclude God, since He is eternal and has no beginning.
A universe that is vast and complex—yet clearly ordered, balanced, and calibrated to make life possible, must have a source that is infinite and eternal. Scientists know today that life on earth was made possible because of the precise manner in which the universe began. Had it not formed in a specific way, no life would have been possible on earth.
When we look at the earth and consider what is before us we see an environment that is perfectly suited for human beings. Is it likely that evolution would be able produce both aesthetic beauty and human beings with the capacity to enjoy such things?
Consider that precisely seven notes are all that is required to write or play any song. The sounds that can result from putting these seven notes together in a certain way can transport us to another galaxy or bring our emotions into a paradise within that is indescribable. Human beings have near infinite capacity to create anything along with the incredible capacity to enjoy both the work of creation and the finished product.
The feelings that a human heart feels at realizing someone special, really loves them. The emotions that swell within the inner being of a person when they see something of profound beauty or hear music that moves their soul and brings tears to their eyes.
The feeling that the wind leaves upon our face, the sun on our back, the smell of pine in the air on a fresh mountain morning. The taste of coffee or ice cream in all its smooth and sweet textures on our tongue. The soft touch of a finger on the back of our neck or cheek. The smell of a baby after her bath. The fur of a rabbit or new puppy.
So many wonderful and incredible things on earth that all seem to exist for our pleasure. Could any of these come simply by chance or random chaotic events that never should have happened in the first place? Is this all just an accident or did someone really love us and want to show us the marvels of life in such a way that our hearts would nearly burst with joy?
I know, scientifically, none of these things matter. But to the person who experiences the taste of lemonade or turkey on Thanksgiving with pumpkin pie and ice cream, it sure seems as though all we love and enjoy were placed here for us, on purpose.
It certainly seems like our ability to touch, taste, smell, and see are much more than parts of our being that allow us to survive. Could evolution and randomness cause us to feel the overwhelming emotions that often result from our experiences in life? What possible part in adapting or surviving against predators does our consciousness of right and wrong play in evolution? Guilt is not only lacking use in an evolutionary process it is debilitating and irritating at times. How is it that we sense that God must exist although we wonder how a Being who is infinite and eternal is possible? It is no wonder that some people give up believing that God is real, although they sense in their heart and mind that He must exist.
Examining The Facts Of Science
Setting the intrinsic qualities of earth that make being a human being so wonderful, let us move on to the scientific data that exists to show us God must exist. There is a very fine balance that exists on earth that permits human life. Change any one of the physical constants of earth and all human beings can no longer live here. With this in mind, how could evolution produce the delicate balance that is necessary for human life since all of these constants must exist at the same time and already be here before we arrive? If it took millions of years for earth to evolve sufficiently for human life, how did the planet know what we would need before we evolved into the human species?
Our Sun’s Age
It just happens to be that our sun is exactly the right age to support life on earth. If our sun was either slightly older or younger, it would be much brighter and make life impossible. There is an ideal age for a star in which its brightness is perfect for life. We just happen to exist during the perfect age of our sun’s existence.
The Sun’s Mass
If the sun was slightly larger, it would burn its fuel much quicker, making life on earth impossible. If the sun was smaller, it would drastically alter earth’s rotation and make life impossible.
The Color of Our Sun
Our sun is exceptional in that it produces white light as opposed to the light produced by a red or blue star which would not allow for plant growth or life, as we know it on earth.
The Size and Location of Our Moon
The earth has a unusually large moon for the size of our planet, orbiting around it.
a. The moon did not come from the earth itself.
b. It could not have been caused by debris that was captured by the earth’s gravity, because the moon is so large.
The best explanation (other than outright miracle) for the moon’s existence is that a Mars-sized planet crashed into the earth around 4.25 billion years ago. The probability of two planets colliding in the same solar system is extremely remote. The moon is moving away from the earth (currently at 2 inches per year), as it has been moving since its formation. If we calculate the movement of the moon in reverse from its present course, we discover that it must have formed at about 7,300 miles above the earth’s surface. This is indicative of formation by collision from an outside body which struck the earth.
Why the Moon is Important to Life on Earth
Scientists have suggested that perhaps the moon was created by a collision of earth with a Mars-sized planet. This impact resulted in the ejection of the majority of the earth’s original atmosphere which was likely toxic. If this collision had not occurred, our planet would have maintained an atmosphere similar to that of Venus, with a surface temperature of more than 800°F and up to 80 times more dense than the earth’s current atmosphere. By design, our earth was created with a very thin atmosphere that was necessary to maintain our great oceans, contributing immensely to the existence of life.
Size of the Moon
Scientists believe that the earth originally had a rotational period of eight hours. This greatly increased rotational period would have resulted in surface wind velocities in excess of 500 miles per hour. The fact that the moon was introduced at some point later in the formation of earth, caused the planet to slow to 1,000 miles per hour, resulting in 24-hour days. This allowed for a perfect balance of light and darkness necessary to promote plant growth—essential for life.
If our solar system had less hydrogen and helium, the molecules essential for planet formation and life chemistry would never have formed. If the solar system had too much hydrogen and helium, planets would have formed at the wrong time and place for life.
Earth’s Gravity Is Perfectly Balanced
If the gravitational force of Earth were stronger, our planet’s atmosphere would retain too much ammonia and methane for life. If the Earth’s gravity was weaker, the planet’s atmosphere would lose too much water to maintain life.
Earth’s Distance From The Sun
If earth was farther from the sun, the temperature would be too cool for a stable water cycle. If Earth were closer to the sun, the planet would be too warm for a stable water cycle.
The Angle Of Earth’s Orbit
If our orbit around the Sun was longer, the temperature range on the planet’s surface would be too extreme for life.
Earth’s Axial Tilt
If the tilt of Earth’s axis was more than the current 23.5 degrees, surface temperature differences between night and day would be too great to sustain diverse life forms. If our axis tilt was less than 23.5 degrees, the same result.
Earth’s Rotation At 1,000 Miles Per Hour
If Earth rotated at a rate greater than 1,000 miles per hour, the differential temperatures between day and night would be too extreme for life. If earth’s rotation was less than 1,000 miles per hour, surface wind velocity would be too great for life.
The Age Of Earth
If Earth was a younger planet, the rotational velocity would be too rapid for life. If Earth was older than its present age, our rotational velocity would be too slow for life.
How is it that such a fine balance exists to make life possible, all by a random number of unpredictable, and chaotic events? Have you ever seen order come out of disorder? The physical and scientific evidence that we can actually see and observe on earth and in the universe, demand an intelligence to make life possible for human beings on earth.
How The Universe Began:
The vast majority of scientists and cosmologists today admit that the universe had a sudden and stunning beginning. Because the implications of a universe with a beginning is so dangerous to those who adamantly declare that there is no God, an alternative explanation has been crafted to explain the singularity of the “Big Bang.”
Atheist Philosopher, Daniel Dennett, believes that the universe does in fact have a cause: It caused itself. Mr Dennet is joined by many other scientists in this latest tactic—elicited in an effort to explain the existence of the universe by naturally occurring events—apart from a supernatural creation by a transcendent being.
Quentin Smith is a Professor of Philosophy at Western Michigan University. His conclusions for the origin of the universe are summed up in the following statement:
“There is sufficient evidence at present to justify the belief that the universe began to exist without being caused to do so.”
Today, those who put forth these arguments for the non-existence of God and the non-necessity of a Creator, use illogical arguments to make what they claim are logical conclusions.
Let Us Consider Their Premise:
“The universe began to exist on its own, without any first cause.”
We must remember, first of all, that everything that begins to exist has a cause. There is no example anywhere in the universe where we can demonstrate that anything which has a beginning, came into existence on its own. Quentin Smith and Daniel Dennett would have us believe that the universe brought itself into being. This is, of course, impossible. In order for the universe to create itself, it would have to already exist. In essence, the universe would have to exist before it existed. In the words of Dr. William Lane Craig: “This is a logically incoherent argument.”
The logical and reasonable cause of the universe must be a transcendent source outside of the universe that existed before the universe. This source must itself be uncaused, since an infinite set of causes is impossible. There must be an infinite source for the universe—a first cause—which has always existed itself. Otherwise, how is it possible that a finite universe could come into existence apart from an infinite cause?
A Universe Possible Only By Intelligence
Given the conditions that were present at the beginning of the “Big Bang,” the universe we presently observe would have been impossible apart from an intelligence that directed the specific sequence of events—which would make life a reality many billions of years later. Francis Collins describes the unlikely chance that life would have ever taken place anywhere in the universe:
“The chance that all of these constants would take on the values necessary to result in a stable universe capable of sustaining complex life forms is almost infinitesimal. And yet those are exactly the parameters that we observe. In sum, our universe is wildly improbable.”
Theoretical Physicists, Stephen Hawking described the impossibility of a universe existing at all, as a supernatural event apart from a naturalistic cause.
“The odds against a universe like ours emerging out of something like the Big Bang are enormous. I think there are clearly religious implications.”
In the first picosecond (one trillionth of a second) of the universe, the precise balance between gravitational force and the expansion of energy, was precisely calibrated, within extremely narrow limits—necessary for life to exist on earth, billion of years later. The big question is why they were calibrated at all since the models that scientists have developed for how the universe should have expanded, reveal a universe drastically different from what actually occurred.
Stephen Hawking describes the models that scientists have developed for a universe which began under the conditions that were present at the moment of the Big Bang:
“Why did the universe start out with so nearly the critical rate of expansion that separates models that recollapse from those that go on expanding forever, that even now, 10 thousand million years later, it is still expanding at nearly the critical rate? If the rate of expansion one second after the Big Bang had been smaller by even one part in 100 thousand million million, the universe would have recollapsed before it ever reached its present size.”
In fact, during the first trillionth of a second, during the initial expansion of gases, there were many essential elements and that were required if life would be possible on the earth. If, for example, the ratio of electromagnetism to gravity was either increased or decreased by 1040, we would have the wrong type of stars in the universe that would make life impossible on any planet.
Luck Or Providence?
According to many scientists, all of the requirements for life which have existed since the beginning of the universe, are simply lucky breaks that took place as the result of random occurrences. When we carefully examine what is required to allow for human life on the earth, we are stunned by how many important elements had to come together, over billions of years, in order to make life possible.
Described as “fine tuning,” what has actually taken place is elegant engineering—with extreme precision. The Creator of the universe has ordered specific events so that one planet could support life in a remote corner of the Universe.
A Specific Kind of Universe Was Necessary for Life
There are several of these finely-tuned calibrations which were necessary at the beginning of the universe—during its initial expansion, as well as 9 billion years later, when our solar system formed—which made an environment possible to sustain life on earth. These points will be made in detail as this chapter progresses.
These are important facts which are seldom mentioned in a discussion of the existence of the universe and how it began. Many of the details of the first moments of the universe are divided into picoseconds and microseconds. These might seem like insignificant details to us who live within hours, days, weeks, months, and years; but in the subatomic world of particle physics, a picosecond can be a very long period of time. There are some subnuclear particles that require only a trillion-trillionth of a second to complete their decay. This gives us an idea how much was occurring in the just the first second of the expansion of the universe. The details that we are interested in, at this point, is in understanding how many of these tiny details took place in the first moments of the cosmos. Had any one of these processes been altered—even slightly, say 1040, the universe would have been vastly different and would not be able to sustain any advanced life form.
If, for example, the initial expansion of the universe was slightly smaller, it would have immediately collapsed back upon itself; and no universe would have begun. Had the expansion been just slightly larger, the dispersal of gases would have been too rapid to congeal into galaxies.
Most of us understand that an explosion is an unpredictable event. When something explodes, as in the first moments of the Big Bang, these events are not smooth and orderly. There may be slightly more material expanding in one direction, different from the amount of material being dispersed in the opposite direction. We do not see this in our universe. At the initial expansion of the Big Bang, the amount of matter was even in all directions. This is the main reason that the universe looks the same from any given point. We see an even distribution of galaxies in every direction in the universe. This even distribution of matter in all directions could not have occurred without intervention.
Theoretical Physicist Alan Guth, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, put forth the idea, in the 80’s, that in the initial moments of the Big Bang (Moment of Creation), had the explosion not been uniform or controlled; it would have been quite disorderly. A microsecond after the universe began its initial expansion, it jumped in size by ten trillion-trillion (1025). It was then that the entire expansion stopped, and a normal rate of expansion began. This rapid and sudden expansion had the effect of “stretching out” the irregularities of the initial disorderly explosion. This is interesting, considering that 3,000 years ago, God is described as “stretching out” the heavens.
…God…Who stretched out the heavens like a curtain. ~Psalms 104:1 (RCR)
Once the rapid expansion ceased and a normal rate of expansion started again, the material of the universe could develop into an orderly and even universe.
What caused the initial sudden expansion and what force caused it to cease, only to resume itself once again, in an orderly fashion?
Guth’s proposal was that anti-gravity caused the initial sudden and uneven expansion of matter to quickly diminish and then stop. In the universe’s initial inflation, the expansion of gases was far too fast to form galaxies later on in the universe. This problem was solved by the force exerted by antigravity suddenly halting the initial rapid expansion. Incredibly, this all happened in 10-32 seconds (a hundred, trillion-trillion-trillionth of a second).
Most scientists today like this idea of “Inflation” as an answer for the initial expansion of the universe, but no one really understands—at this point, how the expansion ceased. The reason is that antigravity is so powerful; it could have easily overwhelmed the universe at its earliest stages. What caused the universe to extricate itself from this seemingly runaway process?
One of the big questions is where all of the matter that populates the cosmos came from, after this inflation had ended? Scientists think that the heat, which was generated from the inflation phase, is the answer. We see evidence of this thousand, trillion, trillion, degree heat that is estimated to have existed at the initial inflation of the universe—in the form of “Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation” (CMBR). This cosmic radiation is the remnants of the massive inflation which occurred at the beginning of the universe when tremendous heat was generated—producing the 1050 tons of matter that makes up the observable universe.
One of the puzzling questions regarding the origin of the universe and what existed before the Big Bang occurred, is what the conditions were before the moment of this massive inflation—if it did in fact occur. Scientists have postulated that whatever existed before the inflation, was certainly wiped out by the massive expansion and subsequent intense heat that it produced.
Why a Universe at All?
One of the baffling questions in the study of the initial moments of the Big Bang, is why we have a universe which is clearly designed for life, instead of one which would make life impossible. Given the parameters which were present during the first moments of the universe, a vastly different result would be expected. The fine-tuning of the universe, which existed at the beginning of the Big Bang, was so essential for life that even the basic element of carbon—of which all human beings are made—would not exist, had the universe began by any other process.
“It has been frequently argued that there are many curious coincidences in the relations between the constants of Nature upon which life on Earth seems to depend…One of the most striking of such apparent coincidences was revealed with William Fowler’s confirmation of Fred Hoyle’s remarkable prediction of the existence of a particular energy level of carbon which, had it not existed, would have meant that the production of heavy elements in stars would not have been able to proceed beyond carbon, leaving the planets devoid of nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine, sodium, sulphur, and numerous other elements.” —Roger Penrose
This indicates that all of the “coincidences” in the origin of the universe were actually designed, engineered, and constructed in the precise manner necessary for life on earth, much later.
In concluding his estimation of how the universe began, Dr. Penrose moves towards the “miraculous” as the most reasonable explanation for the unique and precise early state of the Big Bang.
“If we do not assume the Second Law, or that the universe originated in some extraordinarily special initial state, or something else of this general nature, then we cannot use the ‘improbability’ of the existence of life as a premise for a derivation of a Second Law that is operative at times earlier than the present. No matter how curious and non-intuitive it may seem, the production of life would (if we do not make a prior assumption of the Second Law) be far less probable to come about by natural means—be it by natural selection or any by other seemingly ‘natural’ process—than by a ‘miraculous’ creation simply out of random collisions of the constituent particles!”
Since a state of extremely low entropy at the beginning of the Big Bang was a primary component in the formation of the early universe—this stands as empirical evidence for design. This initial low entropy most certainly did not happen by chance; as the natural state of the initial universe should have exhibited a very high degree of disorder. The fact that the universe began by a great deal of organization—controlled to exact a specific result that would permit life billions of years later, these details demand an intelligent source.
We should remember that the specific type of universe which developed during the hundred trillion-trillion-trillionth of a second of the initial expansion of the universe, were critically controlled by forces unknown to scientists today. From this point and continuing throughout the expansion of the universe, this control has been continually ordered in such a way that life would be possible in one specific Galaxy, one Solar System, and one planet. At the formation of earth, this design continued in directing the absolute necessary constants of the Solar System and the earth, which would allow human life to dwell upon its surface and prosper.
When we examine all the evidence that exists for the origin of the universe, earth, and human life, we come to only one conclusion: It was by a purposeful design that these things were brought into being, not by accident or chance.
GOD: His Nature