The Historical Record of Jesus Life from Secular Sources

Posted: May 11, 2014 in Secular Sources for Jesus
Tags: , , ,

COPYRIGHT WARNING

No credible Biblical scholar today believes that Jesus was not a real person of history. The evidence for His existence is so overwhelming, that to deny Jesus lived in Galilee at the time depicted in the New Testament would place any writer in a classification of incompetency.[1]

All opposition to the existence of Jesus has now been refuted; and the fact that He lived and conducted Himself in the events described by the four Gospels of the New Testament, is incontrovertible.

Professor Michael Grant, who translated the writings of the Roman historian Tacitus in 1956, stated in regards to the historical Jesus:

“In recent years, no serious scholar has ventured to postulate the non historicity of Jesus or at any rate very few, and they have no succeeded in disposing of the much stronger, indeed very abundant, evidence to the contrary.”[2]

Dr. Richard A. Burridge—Dean of Kings College in London, England; also the professor of Biblical Interpretation, as well as the Director of New Testament Studies in 2007, and appointed to a personal Chair in Biblical Interpretation in 2008—states:

“There are those who argue that Jesus is a figment of the Church’s imagination, that there never was a Jesus at all. I have to say that I do not know any respectable critical scholar who says that any more.”[3]

The fact that nearly all scholars, who are found to be competent in their evaluation of the historical record, which substantiates Jesus as a real person of antiquity, does not define all of these scholars as believers that Jesus is also God. The gap between evidence and faith has been bridged by the historical record—while the chasm between willful ignorance and intellectual honesty will never be conquered. Although it is certain that all of the texts which record Jesus’ actions in the New Testament, are reliable and actual accounts of the events they describe—no amount of evidence will ever be sufficient to convince a person who does not want to believe.

Any person who is sincerely searching for truthful answers to the question of God’s existence and whether Jesus Christ is God, can find great and compelling evidence to substantiate such a faith. The problem with many human beings is that the will often overcomes the heart’s desire for truth and subdues it until it can search no further.

When the human mind does not want to believe something—either due to an agenda that has attached itself to the will, or by a desire to continue in a certain lifestyle—unhindered by any outside influence, it is quite impossible to convince this person of truthful facts concerning God.

One-time evangelical scholar Bart Ehrman, who now claims to be an agnostic, said regarding the historical Jesus:

“He certainly existed, as virtually every competent scholar of antiquity, Christian or non-Christian, agrees.”[4]

Self-proclaimed “Christian Atheist” Robert M. Price denies the existence of Jesus, while agreeing that his views are in direct conflict with the historical record and the majority of scholars.[5]

How is it possible that a man or woman who has spent their entire life studying the evidence for the existence of God and the historical validation of the man Jesus of Nazareth could come to the place where they now claim to no longer believe? It is really very simple: They had never placed their heart in the hands of Jesus by faith to receive Him as their Lord and Savior in the first place. There was no moment of realization that they were a sinner who was in desperate need of a Savior. They did not come to Jesus in repentance for their sins, and seek to be forgiven and granted eternal life by placing their entire life under His control. They continued in their studies and research, until they were confronted with a point of decision where they decided that they could not believe. The reason they could not place their trust in Jesus is no different from any other person in the world who refuses to believe: They simply chose not to.

Just because a person goes to a Christian University and studies Theology and religion—does not make them a Christian. In fact, a Christian education will irritate a person who does not want to believe, to the point where they will eventually become a great adversary to the cause of Christ. This is the case with Dr. Bart Ehrman, Robert Price, and many others who write years after their experience with Christianity, that they can no longer believe. The fact is that—they, very likely, never did believe.

1 John 2:19 They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us; but they went out that they might be made manifest, that none of them were of us.

Extra-Biblical evidence from the historical record:

Many critics of the New Testament and those who question whether Jesus of Nazareth actually existed, often claim that the only evidence for Jesus is the New Testament. Roman historian and senator, Tacitus, wrote of Jesus Christ and His execution by Pontius Pilate as well as the existence and formation of the earth Christian church in Rome, in his “Annals,” Book 15, Chapter 44.[6]

All credible scholars today describe the writings of Tacitus as authentic and of great historical value when it comes to authenticating the execution of Jesus of Nazareth by an independent Roman historical source.[7]

The certainty of Jesus’ existence and His life, death, crucifixion, and resurrection are established today by reliable historical records other than the Bible. The writings of Tacitus proves beyond any doubt that Jesus was a real man, who was crucified by Pontius Pilate under Roman authority.[8]

The fact that Tacitus and the history of the Roman government records the same events occurring during the same period of history that the four Gospels record these events of Jesus’ life, death, and resurrection—should cause any serious historian to conclude they are authentic. There is no contradictory evidence in any of the writings of Tacitus that controverts the New Testament narrative of Jesus Christ.

Further writings of the Emperor Trajan, Pliny the Younger, and Josephus—all affirm the accounts, given by Tacitus, of the events that took place at Jesus’ crucifixion before Pontius Pilate. [9]

Tacitus displayed no favoritism nor sympathy towards Jesus or the new Christian church. The tone in which Tacitus describes Christians is both hostile and negative—so much so, any reader would never conclude that Tacitus was trying to record events to assist the Christian message, nor authenticate or validate Jesus as the Messiah, whom the Christian church claimed Him to be.[10]

Dr. Robert E. Van Voorst, Professor of New Testament Studies at Western Theological Seminary, describes the writings of Tacitus in regards to proving the authenticity of Jesus as illustrated in the New Testament, as follows:

“Of all the Roman writers, Tacitus gives us the most precise information about Christ.”[11]

John Dominic Crossan, an Irish-American New Testament scholar and historian of early Christianity, writes:

“That He (Jesus) was crucified is as sure as anything historical can ever be, since both Josephus and Tacitus… agree with the Christian accounts on at least the basic facts.”[12]

Even Dr. Bart Ehrman, who denies that Jesus is God, confirms the historical record that Jesus is a real person from history who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, as the New Testament details:

“Tacitus’s report confirms what we have known from other sources, that Jesus was executed by order of the Roman governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate, sometime during Tiberius’s reign.”[13]

Due to the compelling testimony of a non-Biblical source which validates from the historical record that Jesus of Nazareth was a real person who died under the Roman governor Pontius Pilate, the writings of Tacitus have come under great criticism and scrutiny. According to Clarence W. Mendell, John Wilson Ross, and Robert Van Voorst, who have written extensively on Tacitus—regarding a 19th century hypothesis—which claims that the Annals of Tacitus were fabricated by 15th century Italian author, Poggio Bracciolini, is false and never proven credible by any recognized Biblical scholar.[14]

No other controverting evidence has ever been shown to diminish or impeach the testimony of Tacitus to the present date.

Evidence from the writings of the Jewish Talmud:

The following are specific references to Jesus of Nazareth, as found in the Talmud under passages on execution in Sanhedrin 43 a-b.[15]

Herzog 1: On the eve of Passover, they hanged Jesus the Nazarene.
Vatican 130: He went and brought up Jesus the Nazarene.
Vatican 140: He went and brought up Jesus.
Munich 95: On the eve of the Passover, they hanged Jesus of Nazareth.
Firenze 11.1.8-9: On the Sabbath eve and the eve of Passover, they hanged Jesus the Nazarene.
Karisruhe 2: On the eve of Passover, they hanged Jesus the Nazarene.
Barco: On the eve of Passover, they hanged Jesus of Nazareth.

Some Rabbis, to the present day, dispute whether the Jesus named in the above references of the Talmud are in fact the Jesus described in the New Testament. However, these objections have not been found to be credible, as Dr. Richard Baukham—widely published scholar in historical theology and the New Testament—has shown that the name Yeshu is a legitimate and rare form of the name for Jesus. Proof of his statements are found in recent discoveries of an ossuary that contains both of the names Yeshu and Yeshua ben Yosef, that proves that this name was not invented by the Rabbis, to avoid pronouncing the real name of Jesus of Nazareth.[16]

Peter Schafer, Professor of Religion and the Ronald P. Perelman Professor of Judaic Studies at Princeton University—in his book “Jesus in the Talmud,” identified the following references in the Talmud that refer to Jesus, regarded as the Messiah of Christianity:[17]

• Jesus, as a sorcerer with disciples (b Sanhdrin 43a-b)
• Healing in the name of Jesus (Hul 2:22f; AZ 2:22/12; y Shab 124:4/13; QohR 1:8; b AZ 27b)
• As a torah teacher (b AZ 17a; Hul 2:24; QohR 1:8)
• As a son or disciple that turned out badly (Sanh 193a/b; Ber 17b)
• As a frivolous disciple who practiced magic and turned to idolatry (Sanh 107b; Sot 47a)
• Jesus’ punishment in hell (b Git 56b, 57a)
• Jesus’ execution (b Sanh 43a-b)
• Jesus, as the son of Mary (Shab 104b, Sanh 67a)

The above information is a sample from the massive amount of evidence that can readily be found on the historical existence of Jesus of Nazareth. Critics can no longer claim that Jesus is a myth created by the Christian religion. He is a real person from history who lived on the earth 2,000 years ago. He healed the sick, raised the dead, died on a Roman cross under Pontius Pilate, and was raised from the dead three days later, in fulfillment of the many Old Testament prophecies, that are detailed throughout the extensive work “365 Prophecies.”

Jesus was seen by over 500 eyewitnesses, over a period of 40 days after He rose from the dead. Every word of prophecy that was written regarding the coming Messiah, including the numerous Old Testament predictions detailing His death and resurrection, are all perfectly fulfilled by the man known as “Jesus of Nazareth.”

The Facts of the Crucifixion, as a Matter of History:

The facts of Jesus’ scourging and crucifixion are intricately attested to by the four Gospels of the New Testament. The certainty that these events took place is firmly established in history as indisputable and actually occurring.

By the vast number of Old Testament prophecies, some 365 in this book, we have compelling evidence that the events of the Messiah’s scourging and His subsequent crucifixion, was well known and widely understood by the Old Testament scriptures. By the prophecies of Isaiah 53 and Psalm 22, we have 55 detailed predictions of every possible aspect of the crucifixion of the Messiah (see Prophecy 242).

When we arrive at the New Testament and discover that both the Bible and Secular history authenticates that Jesus of Nazareth was scourged and then crucified, in stunning fulfillment of the many Old Testament references, we have great confidence that Jesus is the Messiah who is described by these prophecies.

Today, the world’s leading scholars agree that the crucifixion of Jesus is an established fact of history that is certain and indisputable.[18] In truth, the events of the scourging and crucifixion are described as ranking so high in certainty that they are considered by experts as impossible to deny and the very basis for a foundation that Jesus of Nazareth lived, died, and rose from the dead, as the New Testament records.[19] The reason that these facts are certain is that we have the corroboration of not only the Bible but secular history. The orders of Pontius Pilate to have Jesus scourged and crucified is documented by one of the greatest Roman historians ever to write on this period—Tacitus.[20]

As early as the second century, Tacitus writes in his “Annals” of the Roman Empire, 116 A.D. (Annals 15,44) that under Caesar Nero, Pilate ordered the execution of Jesus of Nazareth by crucifixion.[21]

“Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus.”

This record of Jesus’ execution by crucifixion under Pontius Pilate, written by Tacitus, is of immense value for the historicity of Jesus Christ. Being an independent source from both the Roman government and the Biblical text, Tacitus authenticates the narrative of the four gospels—that Jesus was scourged and crucified exactly as the Gospels describe.[22] Tacitus further describes the fact that the Christians of this time believed that by drinking the blood and eating the body of Jesus of Nazareth, who was described as the Christ—those who believed could live forever.[23]

Scholars today confirm that the crucifixion of Jesus is a matter of historical fact, equal to any other event of antiquity.[24] Even those who are regarded as scholars who do not believe in the deity of Jesus Christ regard the scourging and crucifixion as actual events that can be proven from extra-biblical sources.[25]

A surprising source for Jesus’ crucifixion comes from the Babylonian Talmud-Sanhedrin 43a, Soncino edition. The scriptures of the Jews confirm that a record of history was noted in their scrolls regarding the events described in the four gospel accounts of the disciples of Jesus. [26]

“On the eve of the Passover Yeshu was hanged. For forty days before the execution took place, a herald went forth and cried, ‘He is going forth to be stoned because he has practised sorcery and enticed Israel to apostasy. Anyone who can say anything in his favour, let him come forward and plead on his behalf.’ But since nothing was brought forward in his favour he was hanged on the eve of the Passover!”[27]

About 93 A.D., renowned Jewish historian, Josephus, wrote that Jesus was crucified under Pontius Pilate, in the “Antiquities of the Jews,” 18.3.[28]

“Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, …. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles… And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross.”

Josephus writes that Jesus rose from the dead:

“Now there was about this time Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man; for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure. He drew over to him both many of the Jews and many of the Gentiles. He was [the] Christ. And when Pilate, at the suggestion of the principal men amongst us, had condemned him to the cross, those that loved him at the first did not forsake him; for he appeared to them alive again the third day; as the divine prophets had foretold these and ten thousand other wonderful things concerning him. And the tribe of Christians, so named from him, are not extinct at this day.”[29]

This text from Josephus is further validated by the fourth century writer Eusebius, who quotes the words of Josephus that Jesus “appeared to the disciples alive again the third day,” verbatim.[30] Because this testimony by Josephus—that Jesus did raise from the dead—has such a profound extra-biblical record of importance, it has been widely criticized as being a forgery. This claim has never been proven; and the fact that the entire record of the early church never disputes the gospel accounts of the resurrection, the testimony of Josephus or the quote of Josephus by early church apologist Eusebius remains as substantial proof that the church considered all of this testimony absolutely true and reliable.

Josephus was born in 37 A.D. and died in 100 A.D. It is certain that he was aware of the writings of the the Gospels which described the scourging, crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. We know today that by recent discoveries of New Testament papyrus that have been dated as being written while Matthew was still alive, that Matthew and Josephus were contemporaries.[31] Josephus certainly had the opportunity to dispute the resurrection of Jesus; yet, he not only does not dispute Matthews account of the resurrection, he writes to confirm that Jesus did in fact—rise from the dead.

See: “The Certainty of the Resurrection,” for detailed form more information of the important facts of Jesus Resurrection.

See: “The Resurrection of Jesus,” for detailed information on the Papyrus fragments of Matthew’s gospel, dated during the time in which the Apostle lived, confirming that this earliest record of the Gospel is now confirmed—between the time of the Crucifixion at 32 A.D, and the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.

The Crucifixion confirmed by the secular record:

A substantial record from the Roman orator Julius Africanus and the Christian theologian Origen tells of a Greek historian, by the name of Phlegon, who recounts that during the time that Jesus was being crucified, there was a lunar eclipse.[32]

“This eclipse was visible from Jerusalem at moonrise…. first visible from Jerusalem at about 6:20pm (the start of the Jewish Sabbath and also the start of Passover day in A.D. 32) with about 20% of its disc in the umbra of the earth’s shadow …. The eclipse finished some thirty minutes later at 6:50pm.”

Julius Africanus records that according to Roman historian Thallus, the darkness that took place during Jesus’ crucifixion could not have been caused by a solar eclipse. The feast of Passover is always observed on the 14th day of Nissan, during a full moon. A solar eclipse can only occur when the moon is new (not full) and under the sun. It is scientifically impossible for a total eclipse of the sun to occur concurrent with a full moon.[33]

Tertullian, an early Christian church defender of the faith, described the darkness surrounding the crucifixion as occurring exactly at the time of day that Jesus was upon the cross.

“In the same hour (as the crucifixion), too, the light of day was withdrawn, when the sun at the very time was in his meridian blaze. Those who were no aware that this had been predicted about Christ, no doubt thought it an eclipse. You yourselves have an account of the world portent still in your archives (Phlegon’s account).”[34]

The secular record of history states that during the time when Jesus was being crucified, the moon was full; and there was a lunar eclipse that took place from 6:20 p.m. to 6:50 p.m. This would make a solar eclipse impossible during the time when Jesus was dying on the cross from 12-3 p.m. The darkness that occurred during that time was supernatural and not from any known natural event.

See Prophecy 278 for detailed information on the actual events which were fulfilled on the day that Jesus was crucified—when the skies turned dark as Jesus died on the cross.

Jesus and history

This website contains substantial records from secular history which are in direct confirmation of the entire testimony of the four gospels. As you proceed through the pages of each particular prophecy that is listed, you will find many references to a historical confirmation of a prophetic event which is described in the New Testament. History does not serve to validate the text of the New Testament, it stands only as a companion and intellectual friend to the facts which are already substantially confirmed by the writers of Jesus gospel. In reality, the Bible needs no confirmation by secular history. It stands alone as a book which is authenticated by the record of predictive and fulfilled prophecy. It was by the words which God spoke in advance of their fulfillment, that He intended we might be able to authenticate the testimony which is given, concerning His Son, Jesus Christ. For the person who is diligently seeking truthful answers to life’s greatest questions—the testimony of all that Jesus said and did, while offering up His life for our sins—finally raising Himself from the dead, are facts sufficient to cause anyone to place their trust in Jesus for their eternal life.

NEXT: See the following articles which continue your discover of the facts regarding Jesus of Nazareth and the certainty that He lived, died, and rose from the dead.

The Historical Record of Jesus Life from Secular Sources
Historical Evidence For Jesus Resurrection
The Overwhelming Empirical Evidence for Jesus Death and Resurrection
The New Testament Passes Every Literary Test of History
Empirical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ
Empirical Integrity of the New Testament


NOTES:
[1] Robert E. Van Voorst Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence Eerdmans Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 page 16 states: “biblical scholars and classical historians regard theories of non-existence of Jesus as effectively refuted”
James D. G. Dunn “Paul’s understanding of the death of Jesus” in Sacrifice and Redemption edited by S. W. Sykes (Dec 3, 2007) Cambridge University Press ISBN 052104460X pages 35-36 states that the theories of non-existence of Jesus are “a thoroughly dead thesis”
The Gospels and Jesus by Graham Stanton, 1989 ISBN 0192132415 Oxford University Press, page 145 states : “Today nearly all historians, whether Christians or not, accept that Jesus existed”.
[2] Jesus: An Historian’s Review of the Gospels by Micjhael Grant 2004 ISBN 1898799881 page 200
[3] Jesus Now and Then by Richard A. Burridge and Graham Gould (Apr 1, 2004) ISBN 0802809774 page 34
[4] Bart Ehrman, 2011 Forged : writing in the name of God ISBN 978-0-06-207863-6. page 285
[5] Robert M. Price “Jesus at the Vanishing Point” in The Historical Jesus: Five Views edited by James K. Beilby & Paul Rhodes Eddy, 2009 InterVarsity, ISBN 028106329X page 61
[6] P.E. Easterling, E. J. Kenney (general editors), The Cambridge History of Latin Literature, page 892 (Cambridge University Press, 1982, reprinted 1996). ISBN 0-521-21043-7
A political history of early Christianity by Allen Brent 2009 ISBN 0-567-03175-6 pages 32-34
Robert Van Voorst, Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence, Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2000. p 39- 53
[7] Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies by Craig A. Evans 2001 ISBN 0-391-04118-5 page 42
Mercer dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Roger Aubrey Bullard 2001 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page 343
Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation by Helen K. Bond 2004 ISBN 0-521-61620-4 page xi
Tradition and Incarnation: Foundations of Christian Theology by William L. Portier 1993 ISBN 0-8091-3467-5 page 263
[8] Eddy & Boyd (2007) The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition Baker Academic, ISBN 0-8010-3114-1 page 127 states that it is now “firmly established” that there is non-Christian confirmation of the crucifixion of Jesus
[9] Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation by Helen K. Bond 2004 ISBN 0-521-61620-4 page xi
[10] Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 30-32
The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 pages 109-110
Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus, Doubleday: 1991. vol 1: p. 168-171
[11] Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 30-32
[12] Crossan, John Dominic (1995). Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. HarperOne. ISBN 0-06-061662-8 page 145
[13] The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings by Bart D. Ehrman 1999 ISBN 0-19-512639, page 212
[14] Clarence W. Mendell, Tacitus: The Man And His Work (Yale University Press/Oxford University Press, 1957) page 219.
John Wilson Ross, Tacitus and Bracciolini: The Annals Forged In The XVth Century ISBN 978-1-4068-4051-3. Originally published London: Diprose and Bateman, 1878.
Robert Van Voorst Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence 2000 ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 page 42
[15] English translations of the Talmud from Peter Schäfer, pp 133–140
[16] Bauckham, Richard, “The Names on the Ossuaries”, in Quarles, Charles. Buried Hope Or Risen Savior: The Search for the Jesus Tomb, B&H Publishing Group, 2008, p. 81
[17] Peter Schäfer, Jesus in the Talmud, Princeton University Press, 2007.
[18] Jesus Remembered by James D. G. Dunn 2003 ISBN 0-8028-3931-2 page 339
Jesus of Nazareth by Paul Verhoeven (Apr 6, 2010) ISBN 1583229051 page 39
[19] Jesus Remembered by James D. G. Dunn 2003 ISBN 0-8028-3931-2 page 339
[20] Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence Eerdmans Publishing ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 39-42
Backgrounds of early Christianity by Everett Ferguson 2003 ISBN 0-8028-2221-5 page 116
A Brief Introduction to the New Testament by Bart D. Ehrman 2008 ISBN 0-19-536934-3 page 136
[21] Theissen 1998, pp. 81-83
Green, Joel B. (1997). The Gospel of Luke : new international commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Mich.: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co.. p. 168. ISBN 0-8028-2315-7
[22] Jesus as a figure in history: how modern historians view the man from Galilee by Mark Allan Powell 1998 ISBN 0-664-25703-8 page 33
Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies by Craig A. Evans 2001 ISBN 0-391-04118-5 page 42
Ancient Rome by William E. Dunstan 2010 ISBN 0-7425-6833-4 page 293
Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation by Helen K. Bond 2004 ISBN 0-521-61620-4 page xi
Van Voorst, Robert E (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence Eerdmans Publishing ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 39-42
Eddy, Paul; Boyd, Gregory (2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition Baker Academic, ISBN 0-8010-3114-1 page 127
[23] Tacitus’ characterization of “Christian abominations” may have been based on the rumors in Rome that during the Eucharist rituals Christians ate the body and drank the blood of their God, interpreting the symbolic ritual as cannibalism by Christians. References: Ancient Rome by William E. Dunstan 2010 ISBN 0-7425-6833-4 page 293 and An introduction to the New Testament and the origins of Christianity by Delbert Royce Burkett 2002 ISBN 0-521-00720-8 page 485
[24] Crossan, John Dominic (1995). Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. HarperOne. p. 145. ISBN 0-06-061662-8. “That he was crucified is as sure as anything historical can ever be, since both Josephus and Tacitus…agree with the Christian accounts on at least that basic fact.”
[25] Eddy, Paul; Boyd, Gregory (2007). The Jesus Legend: A Case for the Historical Reliability of the Synoptic Jesus Tradition Baker Academic, ISBN 0-8010-3114-1 page 127
[26] Jesus in the Talmud by Peter Schäfer (Aug 24, 2009) ISBN 0691143188 page 141 and 9
Van Voorst, Robert E. (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.. ISBN 0-8028-4368-9 pages 177-118
[27] Ibid.
[28] Theissen 1998, pp. 81-83
[29] Flavius Josephus, Whiston & Maier 1999, p. 662.
[30] Louth, Andrew (1990). “The Date of Eusebius’ ” Historia Ecclesiastica””. Journal of Theological Studies 41 (1): 111–123.
Maier, Paul L. (2007). Eusebius: The Church History. ISBN 0-8254-3307-X.
Mason, Steve, ed. (2001). Flavius Josephus: Translation and Commentary, Volume 9, Life of Josephus, Translation and Commentary by Steve Mason. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-11793-8.
McGiffert, Arthur Cushman (2007). “Paragraph 7 of “Chapter XI.—Testimonies in Regard to John the Baptist and Christ” from Book I of Eusebius’ “The Church History.””. In Schaff, Philip. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series II, Vol. 1. ISBN 978-1-60206-508-6. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
[31] Thiede, Carsten Peter & D’Ancona, Matthew, The Jesus Papyrus, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1996
[32] Origen. “Contra Celsum (Against Celsus), Book 2, XXXIII”
[33] Donaldson, Coxe (1888). The ante-Nicene fathers. 6. New York: The Christian Literature Publishing Co.. p. 136.
[34] Tertullian. “Apologeticum”

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