40 Empirical Facts That Prove The Existence Of God

Is there Evidence for God?

Photo By Cameron Grey

I have had many conversations with people who have told me that they have seen no proof for the the existence of God. Surprisingly, when I tell them that God has revealed Himself to us through His Son—they discount Jesus as a “myth” of ancient history. When we describe the universe as empirical evidence for the existence of God, noted scientists tell us that the universe came into existence by itself and does not require God.

Is The New Testament A Valid Historical Narrative?

Stephen Hawking said:

Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing,” he writes. “Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist.”[2]

But is this what the scientific evidence really proves? Hawking has changed his view of the origin of the universe many times. The facts have not changed. Hawking adapted the idea of other universe to allow for a naturalistic explanation for our own. The problem is that we have absolutely no scientific evidence to prove there really are any other universes. All of Stephen Hawking’s conclusions are based on theoretical mathematical equations that cannot be proven. What we discover is that people often change their view of God and the universe depending upon their particular worldview. Those who are seeking to know God and pursue evidence from the universe, find exactly the opposite from Stephen Hawking.

Hawking also said this about the universe:

“The odds against a universe like ours emerging out of something like the Big Bang are enormous. I think there are clearly religious implications.”

See the Noted Ph.D’s And Scientists Who Believe God Created The Universe

According to the Central Intelligence Agency, World factbook, about two percent of people in the world today, do not believe in God—either by ignorance of facts for His existence or through willful denial of these facts.[3] If a person will examine the scientific data for how the universe came into being and the manner in which it is engineered, a reasonable person would conclude that intelligence and design have played an important role in its reality.

An amazing fact of the Bible is that nowhere does God seek to prove to us that He exists.

The 1st chapter of Romans tells us why:

Romans 1:19-20 …because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them. For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse.

First: God created each human being with an inner awareness that He exists (“what may be known of God is manifest in them” Romans 1:19). The evidence for a consciousness of God’s existence is universally observed all over the earth. From the beginning of the human species, worship of God or god’s has been a part of man’s life experience. People may not know specifically who God is—while they instinctively maintain a fervent desire to worship Him.

The Bible claims to be the only credible revelation of the One True God. The Bible is unique in that it portrays man in the reality that we observe him: Capable of incredible creative acts—while maintaining a defect in his moral character. God describes man as “made in His image”—capable of many wonderful creative attributes and morally perfect in the beginning. Rebelling against God’s authority, man set himself apart from God and acquired the defect of sin, which is the inability of moral perfection. The Bible is the story of how God promised a Savior who would redeem man back to his original perfection—by a sacrifice for all sin, through the person of God’s Son.

The first chapter of the book of Hebrews declares that God has proven His existence to us—through His Son, and by whom He made the universe.

Hebrews 1:1-2 God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, 2 has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds.

The “Son,” who is the object of this 50th prophecy of the Old Testament, is the Creator of all that exists. He intended that we might perceive Him—by the things that He has made. Therefore, we can understand God’s reality by examining the evidence for Him in the universe itself.

See The Detailed Page: Evidence For God

The longing of the human heart

We are creatures born with a desire to love and be loved. This is observed by the music that we write which speaks of true and sincere love. Finding a person who will love us unconditionally and to whom we can direct all of our love—this is a driving force within us.

Unknown to many people—it is God whom our heart longs for. Until we find Him, we cannot find ourselves, for it is by Him and through Him that we find our own purpose.

Psalms 42:1-2 As the deer pants for the water brooks, So pants my soul for You, O God. My soul thirsts for God, for the living God.

Acts 17:28 for in Him we live and move and have our being

People will set their affections on many things: a career, possessions, a person, money, drugs, alcohol, food, pleasure, and travel. All these things bring us temporary happiness and relief from the emptiness that we feel but they can never truly satisfy the deepest need of our heart.

God made us for Himself, and it is through our worship of Him that we find our joy and satisfaction. Not until we truly begin to worship the one true God will we find inner peace and contentment. People spend their entire life trying to fill up the emptiness that they feel inside, with everything—except God. The scriptures of the Old and New Testaments assert that any person can satisfy the longing of their heart by coming into a personal relationship with God, through His Son Jesus Christ.

Because we are separated from God by our sins, we are not aware of His nature, nor can we understand Him. The Bible is the only valid means by which a person can discover who God is and what His character is. Because God has placed a desire for Him in our hearts, we live out our lives in search of our purpose—many time unaware that our entire identity originates in Him.

The second point the book of Romans makes; is that evidence for God’s existence is known by the things that we can see all around us—creation (being understood by the things that are made, Romans 1:20).

Evidence for God?

According to the Bible, the universe is such a clear and present revelation of God—we need no further proof of God’s existence. In this regard, even those who have never read the Bible or have been told about Jesus–understand the reality of God, by living beneath the incredible display of the stars and planets which God has made.

The book of Romans also describes a fatal error that many people commit. They observe the universe, the earth, and human life, and imagine that it all occurred by accident. People worship the Cosmos as some sort of mystical father who gave birth to us–while all the evidence points to a Creator.

Romans 1:21-23 because, although they knew God, they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful, but became futile in their thoughts, and their foolish hearts were darkened. 22 Professing to be wise, they became fools, Romans 23 and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man—and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things.

The hardness of the human heart is observed by the response of people to the evidence they see. The nation of Israel received prophet after prophet to inform them of the Messiah’s arrival. When the Son of God finally arrived in Jerusalem, performing all of the works that were predicted of Him–the leaders of Israel rejected and killed Him.

The record of Israel’s rejection of their own Messiah is proof enough of the wickedness of the human heart. In their actions, we observe what human beings are capable of. In the midst of empirical and irrefutable evidence–the Son of God standing in their midst–they hung Him on a cross. Men have never seen the Eternal God except once: When He came to earth as a man. He was Holy, Perfect, abounding in Love, Mercy, and Grace–yet they would not have Him. We must forever remove from our minds, the thought that men will believe in God if they are presented with sufficient evidence. Knowing truth and receiving it are two separate events that are separated always by the human will.

A man’s conscience may be convicted while His heart remains unrepentant. Only the Spirit of God can cause a human heart to understand their sin and fall before Him in sincere repentance and be Born Again as a new creation.

Evidence does nothing–apart from a desire to know truth. God has left us sufficient proof for His existence, by the things that He has made–and finally, by His Son–whom He has sent into the world to die for us. If men cannot find God through the great evidence that we already have, they will never find Him.

By the things which God has made, we observe His wisdom, beauty, power, and skill to direct all things perfectly.

It is unreasonable to imagine that this vast and complex universe came into existence by accident. The first verse of Genesis describes God creating the universe from nothing, in the beginning.

Genesis 1:1-2 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 The earth was without form, and void…

The word “created” was translated from the Hebrew word : “bara,” to create from nothing preexisting.

When this “beginning” occurred, we are not specifically told. Verse 2 describes the earth as formless and void. Clearly, the earth did not exist at the same moment the universe began but was formed later during the natural process of time. Scientists believe that the universe is approximately 13.8 billion years old and the earth forming in our solar system about 4.56 billion years ago. This does not conflict with the first verse of Genesis which declares that in the beginning, at a time undisclosed to us, God made the universe. Genesis chapter 1, verses 3-31 described God forming the earth and making it suitable for human life during six literal days.

Paul wrote in the book of Romans that this is how we understand who God is—by the things which He has made.

Romans 1:19-20 …For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made...

From nothing

A Creation is the most logical and natural explanation for how the universe came into existence. Theoretical Physicists who describe the universe coming from nothing, for no reason, with no purpose—have left us without an adequate explanation for the origin of the Cosmos. Everything cannot come from nothing, this is no answer for the origin of the universe and most people are not satisfied with this explanation. The best answer for where all of came from and why we are here is that God loves us and made us for Himself.

It is interesting that the Hebrew word for created in Genesis chapter 1, is bara, which is descriptive of a creation from non existent materials. Scientists today admit that before the universe began—there was no matter, no space, no time—nothing.

We have very good evidence that there was a Big Bang, so the universe as we know it almost certainly started some 14 billion years ago. But was that the absolute beginning, or was there something before it?” asks Alexander Vilenkin, a cosmologist at Tufts University near Boston. It seems like the kind of question that can never be truly answered because every time someone proposes a solution, someone else can keep asking the annoying question: What happened before that?” The universe had a distinct beginning …before our universe there was nothing, nothing at all, not even time itself.”[4] —Cosmologist Alexander Vilenkin

There is no example anywhere in the universe where anything of complexity, came into existence by itself. Anything of complexity exists by the conception, design, and engineering of intelligent beings. These things are carefully and methodically designed and built for a specific purpose. The earth exists as a unique dwelling for advanced life forms by a narrow and specific system of conditions which came into being by design—not by chance.

Luck or Providence?

According to many scientists, all of the requirements for life which have existed since the beginning of the universe, are simply lucky breaks that took place as random occurrences. When we carefully examine what is required to allow for human life on the earth, we are stunned by how many important elements had to come together, over billions of years, in order to make life possible.

Described as “fine tuning,” what actually has taken place is elegant engineering—with extreme precision. The Creator of the universe has ordered specific events so that one planet could support life in a remote corner of the Universe.[5]

Why a universe at all?

One of the baffling questions in the study of the initial moments of the Big Bang, is why we have a universe which is clearly designed for life, instead of one which would make life impossible. Given the parameters which were present during the first moments of expansion, a vastly different universe would be expected. The fine-tuning of the universe which existed at the beginning of the Big Bang, was so essential for life that even the basic element of carbon—of which all human beings are made—would not exist, had the universe began by any other process.

“It has been frequently argued that there are many curious coincidences in the relations between the constants of Nature upon which life on Earth seems to depend…One of the most striking of such apparent coincidences was revealed with William Fowler’s confirmation of Fred Hoyle’s remarkable prediction of the existence of a particular energy level of carbon which, had it not existed, would have meant that the production of heavy elements in stars would not have been able to proceed beyond carbon, leaving the planets devoid of nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine, sodium, sulphur, and numerous other elements.”[6] —Roger Penrose

This indicates that all of the “coincidences” of the origin of the universe were actually designed, engineered, and constructed in the precise manner necessary for life on earth, billions of years later.

In concluding his estimation of how the universe began, Dr. Penrose moves towards the “miraculous” as the most reasonable explanation for the unique and precise early state the Big Bang.

If we do not assume the Second Law, or that the universe originated in some extraordinarily special initial state, or something else of this general nature, then we cannot use the ‘improbability’ of the existence of life as a premise for a derivation of a Second Law that is operative at times earlier than the present. No matter how curious and non-intuitive it may seem, the production of life would (if we do not make a prior assumption of the Second Law) be far less probable to come about by natural means—be it by natural selection or any by other seemingly ‘natural’ process—than by a ‘miraculous’ creation simply out of random collisions of the constituent particles!”[7]

Since a state of extremely low entropy at the beginning of the Big Bang was a primary component in the formation of the early universe—this stands as empirical evidence for design. This initial low entropy most certainly did not happen by chance; as the natural state of the initial universe should have exhibited a very high degree of disorder. The fact that the universe began by a great deal of organization—controlled to exact a specific result that would permit life billions of years later, demands an intelligent source.

We should remember that the specific type of universe which developed during the hundred trillion-trillion-trillionth of a second in the initial expansion of the universe, was critically controlled by forces unknown to scientists today.[8] From this point and continuing for almost 14 billion years, the expansion of the universe has been continually ordered in such a way that life would be possible in one specific Galaxy, one Solar System, one Planet. At the formation of earth, this design continued in directing the absolute necessary constants of the Solar System and earth, which would allow human life to dwell upon its surface and prosper.

God by empirical evidence

The following are many of the imperative conditions which must have been in place during the 14 billion year history of the Cosmos, in order for for human beings to inhabit the earth today.

Type of universe: Scientists are baffled by the type of universe which exists, having understood what the conditions were at the beginning. This is a primary and often understated reality of the universe. Given the explosion of all matter from the initial moment of the Big Bang, Physicists would have expected a chaotic universe which would continue to be hostile to any form of life. The fact that so many necessary events took place, over such an extremely long period of time—designed to make life a reality and occurring numerous times for billions of years—defines these events as supernatural, not random acts.

Rate of expansion: As the energy of the universe began to move out from its initial expansion, this energy was unevenly distributed. At a point near the beginning, a short burst of energy called “inflation” caused the universe to increase in size enormously by 10²⁵ or ten trillion—trillion times its original size. Had all of the energy from the initial universe been evenly distributed, apart from a sudden inflation and return to normal expansion, it would have been impossible for the existing matter to form galaxies far into the future. Because the universe began with energy unevenly distributed, during the sudden increase in size—this inflation stretched away all of these irregularities, causing an even distribution of galaxies in all directions, which is observable today. Amazingly, this initial expansion appears to have been controlled in such a precise way that it allowed for just the right amount of irregularities to permit a “clumping” of matter that would produce galaxies later on. Computer models show that the energy difference between the peaks and valleys of this density had to be close to 0.00001, or no galaxies would have been able to form. A rate slightly higher or lower, and the matter necessary to form galaxies, stars, and planets much later—would not have been possible. This is profound evidence of controlled design.

Extremely low entropy: Entropy is the rate of heat loss associated with the specific degree of randomness or disorder within a system. In the beginning of the universe there was an unusually low level of disorder related to heat loss—intimating strict control being instituted, which permitted a specific outcome. The universe should not have come into being with a very low rate of entropy. Given the parameters that were present at the commencement of the universe, there was a great degree of certainty that it would have began with a very high rate of degradation. Sir Roger Penrose determined that the presence of an extremely low level of entropy at the Big Bang, is indicative of engineering, rather than random fortuity. The probability that this condition would have been present during the initial expansion of the universe is 1 in 10 to 10¹²³.[9]

In his book, “Cycles of Time, An Extraordinary New View of the Universe,” Dr. Penrose describes the existence of low entropy as an essential precursor to life—from the first moments the universe began.

“The entire fabric of life on Earth requires the maintaining of a profound and subtle organization, which undoubtedly involves entropy being kept at a low level.”[10]

“Let us return to the basic question that we have been trying to address in this part, namely the issue of how our universe happened to come about with a Big Bang that was so extraordinarily special—yet special in what appears to have been a very peculiar way where, with regard to gravity, its entropy was enormously low in comparison with what it might have been, but the entropy was close to maximum in every other respect.”[11]

Dr. Penrose illustrates the high degree of impossibility in which the universe was likely to begin with extremely low entropy by calculating the results of the present universe in reverse—back to the moment the Big Bang began, revealing that the actual level of entropy should have been very high.

“We can get some appreciation of this if we imagine the time-reversed context of a collapsing universe, since this collapse, if taken in accordance with the Second Law, ought to lead us to a singular state of genuinely high entropy.”[12]

In fact, the chances that the precise universe we observe—which began with extremely low entropy—was so astronomically remote, it could not have occurred by chance. In the words of Dr. Penrose, the existence of this condition requires an completely new theoretical explanation.

The probability of finding ourselves in a universe of such a degree of specialness, if it had come about just by chance, has the utterly absurdly tiny value of around 1 in 10, to the 10th, to the 124th power, irrespective of inflation. This is the kind of figure that needs some completely different kind of theoretical explanation!”[13]

The way in which the early universe began under such a low level of entropy, is one of the most puzzling and important questions of science and mathematics today. Described as “aimed with incredible precision,” this defines the origin of the universe as having a supernatural beginning rather than by natural phenomenon.

That picture would have our collapsing pre-Big-Bang phase somehow ‘aimed’ with incredible precision at such a very special ultimate state, of the same extraordinary degree of specialness that we appear to find in our actual Big Bang.”[14]

The rate of expansion for the early universe was just right:[15] If the energy expansion in that first second was slightly larger, then the gravitational forces necessary to form stars and planets would not have taken place. If the expansion of energy was slightly smaller, the universe would have collapsed back on itself. If the initial expansion of energy was greater than the capacity of gravitational forces to pull all of this matter back together and eventually form galaxies and stars, life many billions of years later, would not have been possible. Mathematical physicists have calculated that at the first second of the universe, the expansion of energy and gravitational forces differed by less than 1 part in a million, billion, or 10¹⁵.[16]

The amount of weak nuclear force was just right: The ratio of protons and neutrons was perfect to allow helium to form that would be needed for the formation of stars later.

The amount of strong nuclear forces was just right: This allowed helium to burn precisely slow enough so that elements could form.

The ratio of gravity to electromagnetism are balanced precisely: If the ratio between gravity and electromagnetism was increased by only 1 in 10⁴⁰, only very small stars would have formed. If the ratio were decreased by the same amount, only very large stars would have formed. In order for life to be possible, there must be both large and small stars present in the universe. Large stars produce the element needed for life, small stars burn a the precise rate required to sustain life on a planet, such as earth.[17]

The gravitational force at the beginning of the universe was perfect:[18] If gravity was any stronger at the early formation of the universe, then all stellar matter would bind stronger and stars would use their nuclear fuel at a drastically increased rate, making life impossible on a planet such as earth. If gravity was any weaker, matter would not have likely clumped together to form much larger structures that would later become stars.

The universe has the precise balance of matter and anti-matter: Russian physicist Andrei Sakharov who won the Nobel peace prize in 1975, first showed in 1967 that matter and anti-matter in the universe are not evenly balanced.[19] Had they been evenly distributed, the only remaining energy left in the universe would have been photons, making the universe as we know it, impossible. Because matter is slightly greater than anti-matter, about 1 part in 1 billion, all of the stars and planets in the universe, as well as all life on earth, can exist.

The precise amount of carbon was formed in stars early in the universe:[20] Every human being is made from carbon. This carbon was made in a star that was formed before our solar system came into being. Every carbon nucleus contains six protons and six neutrons, and they are made from three nuclei of helium, constructed in a star.

So that life might be possible, carbon must be scattered into space in the form of dust during the explosion of a star—formed into second or third generation star systems that will develop planets form this dust.[21] The Solar System in which the earth is located is one of these third-generation star systems.

Astrophysicists Edwin Salpeter and Fred Hoyle discovered that in this process of forming carbon, only works by a very unique feature; during a mode of resonance with a finely tuned energy. If any part of this feature was changed, even minutely, say less than one percent in either direction, then no carbon would exist in the universe to make life possible.

Hoyle said:

“A super intellect has monkeyed with physics as well as chemistry and biology to make this possible. In his opinion; “there are no “blind forces in nature worth talking about.”[22]

A finely tuned universe designed for life

The argument for a finely tuned universe is the most compelling evidence to prove the existence of God, because it demonstrates by science and mathematics that an intelligence is behind the universe. Leading atheist and author of “The God Delusion,” Professor Richard Dawkins admits that a finely tuned universe is a “wholly respectable reason for believing” the universe was created:

There may be good reasons for believing in a god, and if there are any I would expect them to come from possibly modern physics, from cosmology, from the observation that (as some people claim), that laws and constants of the universe are too finely tuned to be an accident. That would not be a wholly disreputable reason for believing in some form of supernatural deity.”[23]

The reality that the universe exhibits design characteristics which are only possible by intelligence, demands a rational answer. We cannot satisfy science nor the questions of the existence of life by any other answer except that the universe was created. The “God of the gaps” excuse that was used for many years by creationists in explaining certain phenomenon, is not necessary, for God is the solution to all the questions of how and why the Cosmos came into being and exists in the way that we observe it.

At the present time, we understand that these constants and quantities have to be within very narrow limits, to permit life in the universe. When scientists speak of the “fine tuning” of the universe, this is what they are referring to.

You will often hear objections by certain theoretical physicists that the fine tuning of the universe is a myth. In truth, this neutral fine tuning is without controversy in the world of Physics, having many settled foundations for fine tuning already established.

The following is a compelling list of facts regarding the fine tuning of our universe that demand a designing intelligence as a first cause.[24]

Galaxy Size:

If our Milky Way had been larger, the infusion of gases in the stars would disturb our sun’s orbit and ignite deadly galactic eruptions, incinerating the earth. If the Milky Way was smaller, the infusion of gases would be insufficient to allow a star to exist long enough for life to form on a planet, such as earth.

Galaxy Type:

If the Milky Way was more elliptical, star formation would cease before sufficient heavy elements could form for life chemistry. If our galaxy was more circular, earth’s radiation exposure would be too severe (at times); and life-essential heavy elements would not form.

Galaxy Location:

If the Milky Way was too close to another dense galaxy cluster, the close proximity of this other galaxy would destroy all life on earth.

The Number of Stars in Our Solar System:

If we had more than one star in our solar system, tidal interactions would cause the orbits of life-supportable planets to be unsuitable for life. Most other solar systems do have more than one star. The fact that our solar system has just one star makes it atypical and allows for all life that is present on earth to exist.

Our Sun’s Age:

If our sun was either older or younger, it would be much brighter and make life impossible. There is an ideal age for a star in which its brightness is perfect for life. We just happen to exist during the perfect age of our sun’s existence.

The Sun’s Mass:

If the sun was larger, it would  burn its fuel much quicker, making life on earth impossible. If the sun was smaller, it would drastically alter earth’s rotation and make life impossible.

The Color of Our Sun:

Our sun is exceptional in that it produces white light as opposed to the light produced by a red or blue star which would not allow for plant growth or life, as we know it on earth.

The Size and Location of Our Moon:

The earth has a unusually large moon for the size of our planet, orbiting around it.

1. The moon did not come from the earth itself.
2. It could not have been caused by debris that was captured by the earth’s gravity, because the moon is so large.

The best explanation (other than outright miracle) for the moon’s existence is that a Mars-sized planet crashed into the earth around 4.25 billion years ago. The probability of two planets colliding in the same solar system is extremely remote. The moon is moving away from the earth (currently at 2 inches per year), as it has been moving since its formation. If we calculate the movement of the moon in reverse from its present course, we discover that it must have formed at about 7,300 miles above the earth’s surface. This is indicative of formation by collision from an outside body which struck the earth.

Why the Moon is Important to Life on Earth:

Scientists have suggested that perhaps the moon was created by a collision of earth with a Mars-sized planet.[25] This impact resulted in the ejection of the majority of the earth’s original atmosphere which was likely toxic.[26] If this collision had not occurred, our planet would have maintained an atmosphere similar to that of Venus, with a surface temperature of more than 800°F and up to 80 times more dense than the earth’s current atmosphere.[27]  By design, our earth was created with a very thin atmosphere that was necessary to maintain our great oceans, contributing immensely to the existence of life.

Size of the Moon:

Scientists believe that the earth originally had a rotational period of eight hours.[28] This greatly increased rotational period would have resulted in surface wind velocities in excess of 500 miles per hour. The fact that the moon was introduced at some point later in the formation of earth, caused the planet to slow to 1,000 miles per hour, resulting in 24-hour days. This allowed for a perfect balance of light and darkness necessary to promote plant growth—essential for life.

Hydrogen-Helium Balance:

If our solar system had less hydrogen and helium, the molecules essential for planet formation and life chemistry would never have formed. If the solar system had too much hydrogen and helium, planets would have formed at the wrong time and place for life.

Gravity is Perfectly Balanced:

If the gravitational force of Earth were stronger, our planet’s atmosphere would retain too much ammonia and methane for life. If the Earth’s gravity was weaker, the planet’s  atmosphere would lose too much water to maintain life.

Distance from the Sun:

If earth was farther from the sun, the temperature would be too cool for a stable water cycle. If Earth were closer to the sun, the planet would be too warm for a stable water cycle.

Angle of Orbit:

If our orbit around the Sun was longer, the temperature range on the planet’s surface would be too extreme for life.

Axial Tilt:

If the tilt of Earth’s axis was more than the current 23.5 degrees, surface temperature differences between night and day would be too great to sustain diverse life forms. If our axis tilt was less than 23.5 degrees, the same result.

Rotation of 1,000 Miles Per Hour:

If Earth rotated at a rate greater than 1,000 miles per hour, the differential temperatures between day and night would be too extreme for life. If earth’s rotation was less than 1,000 miles per hour, surface wind velocity would be too great for life.

Earth’s Age:

If Earth was a younger planet, the rotational velocity would be too rapid for life. If Earth was older than its present age, our rotational velocity would be too slow for life.

Earth’s Magnetic Field is Delicately Balanced:

If Earth’s magnetic field was stronger, electromagnetic storms would be too severe.  If it was weaker, our ozone layer would not be sufficient to protect us from harsh solar and stellar radiation.

Earth’s Crust:

If the crust of the Earth was thicker, it would rob the atmosphere of oxygen needed for life. If Earth’s crust was thinner, excessive volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, would make life impossible.

Reflective Light:

If Earth reflected more light, we would experience the presence of constant ice ages. If Earth reflected less light from its surface, we would be in a subtropical sauna.

Asteroid and Comet Collision Rates:

If Earth had experienced a greater number of collisions by asteroids and comet debris in the past, life would not exist today. If Earth had experienced less collisions by celestial bodies in the past, the surface crust of our planet would contain insufficient life-essential elements required for life.

Oxygen to Nitrogen Ratio:

The atmosphere of Earth consists of two primary gases: nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). This happens to be the perfect balance required for human respiration. This precise combination also allows our skies to present the beautiful blue color we all enjoy. If Earth had more oxygen, our atmosphere would catch fire and burn everything on the planet. If our atmosphere had less oxygen, no human life would be possible on earth.

Carbon Dioxide:

If Earth had more carbon dioxide, we would have a runaway greenhouse effect. If we had less carbon dioxide, plants would be unable to grow.

Water Vapor Quantity in the Atmosphere:

If we had more water vapor present in our atmosphere, the temperature of the planet would be too extreme to permit life. The presence of less water vapor in our atmosphere, would inhibit the production of rain, resulting in massive desert regions all over the planet.

Atmospheric Electric Discharge:

If Earth had more electric discharge in the atmosphere, our forests would ignite in spontaneous combustion.

Ozone Quantity:

If earth contained greater amount of ozone in our atmosphere, the temperatures on our planet would be too low to promote ultraviolet radiation necessary for life. If there was insufficient ozone in our atmosphere, surface temperatures on our planet would cause ultraviolet radiation too intense for life.


If we had earthquakes in greater frequency than we currently experience, most life would be destroyed by the resulting damage to our ecosystem. If the earth experienced a lower occurrence of earthquakes, the nutrients found on our ocean floors that come from river runoff would not be recycled by the continents through tectonics, resulting in insufficient carbon dioxide being released from carbonate buildup.

Volcanic Activity:

If earth had a decreased number of volcanic eruptions, there would not be enough carbon dioxide and water vapor returned to the atmosphere, resulting in insufficient soil mineralization required for advanced life support. If Earth had a greater number of volcanic eruptions, most advanced life would be destroyed; and the entire ecosystem of earth would be damaged.

Oceans-to-Continents Ratio:

If the earth had larger oceans, diversity and complexity of lifeforms would be limited. If we had less oceans, no complex life forms could form. If our planet had a lower proportion of land-to-sea ratio, advanced life forms would be impossible. If greater land mass had developed, the resulting changes would be too radical for advanced life to survive.

Distribution of Continents:

If there were too many continents in the southern hemisphere, sea-salt aerosols would be insufficient to stabilize surface temperature and water cycle, resulting in increased seasonal differences that would limit the available habitats for advanced land life.

Gravitational Interaction with the Moon:

If the moon had more gravitational pull on the earth, tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational period would destroy all life by massive waves. If the moon had less gravitational pull on the earth, all weather on earth would change so severely, that life could not exist.

Jupiter’s Distance from the Earth:

If the planet Jupiter was at greater distance from Earth, the beneficial gravitational force which this massive planet exerts in our Solar System would have a significant impact on the number of asteroid and comet collisions which strike the earth. Described as the “vacuum cleaner of the Solar System,” Jupiter’s immense gravity, as well as its precise placement in the Solar System, shields the earth by drawing most larger asteroids and comets that pass through our inner Solar System, into the asteroid belt.[29] Without the specific placement of Jupiter where it is located, it is likely that life on earth would be impossible—as our planet would be repeatedly struck by extinction level asteroids and comets. If Jupiter were any closer to the Earth, its gravitational force would throw off our orbit and kill everyone on the planet.

Orbit Around the Sun:

If the orbits of the planets in our solar system were longer, Earth’s orbit would be radically changed and life could not exist.

The Frequency of Forest and Grass Fires:

If Earth had more forest fires, smoke and soot would choke out all life. If we had less forest fires, the forest would accumulate growth inhibitors that would make soil unsuitable for food production.

Amount of Sea Salt:

If the earth’s seas had greater salt content, this would precipitate greater cloud formation over the oceans, radically disrupting the climate and atmospheric temperature balances. If our seas contained less salt, there would be insufficient clouds formation, resulting in inadequate water cycle, which would significantly disrupt atmospheric temperature balances of the earth.

Stunning Evidence:

When we consider the singular or cumulative effects of all these precise requirements that are necessary for life to exist on earth—we are struck with the reality that these life-giving physical constants of nature were designed to make life possible on our planet. It is inconceivable that every necessary element which allows for an environment—perfect for life—came about by accident. These types of precipitous events do not occur by coincidence. Any one of these 35 necessary constants being altered even slightly, would cause the death of all advanced life on earth.

The total probability that all 35 of these factors could occur by chance—which make life possible on earth: 1:10¹⁴⁸

Creation and probability

The mathematical laws of probability demand that any event which has the chance of occurring—beyond 10⁵⁰ is considered statistically impossible.[30] This defines the 35 precise physical constants that are required to make life possible on earth as purposeful, not accidental. The only viable alternative to happenstance is design. The physical constants necessary for the universe, our solar system, and the earth to support human life, became a reality because they were designed this way by an intelligence. Creative attributes come through a designer. The greater the complexity, the greater the designer. The engineering skill that is required in designing a universe capable of supporting life for one planet in a remote area of the universe, is staggering.

Sir Frederick Hoyle calculated the probability that life could have spontaneously evolved from nothing as 10.⁴⁰‚⁰⁰⁰.[31] According to the laws of probability set forth by Dr. Emile Borel, this would define the origin of life as a supernatural event, not possible by random chance or fortuity.[32]

These are the magnanimous acts of a Creator, not the mindless and purposeless accidents which Godless scientists assert.

It is clear that an intelligence with unlimited power, designed the universe in this manner, with the clear intention of human life being possible on Earth.

Robert Jastrow, American astronomer, physicist and cosmologist said this:

Astronomers now find they have painted themselves into a corner because they have proven, by their own methods, that the world began abruptly in an act of creation to which you can trace the seeds of every star, every planet, every living thing in this cosmos and on the earth. And they have found that all this happened as a product of forces they cannot hope to discover. That there are what I or anyone would call supernatural forces at work is now, I think, a scientifically proven fact.”[33]

“On Earth, a long sequence of improbable events transpired in just the right way to bring forth our existence, as if we had won a million-dollar lottery a million times in a row. Contrary to the prevailing belief, maybe we are special…”

Design” from the world’s most brilliant minds:

One of the world’s great mathematical physicists, Sir Roger Penrose, is a leading contributor to the field of general relativity and cosmology. In 1988, Dr. Penrose received a Wolf Prize jointly with Stephen Hawking for their contributions to human understanding of the way in which the universe operates.[34]

Dr. Penrose has further stated that the odds of our Solar system forming suddenly by a random collision of particles is 1 in 10⁶⁰.[35] This means that the conditions which occurred during the initial formation of the universe, and later, during the formation of our Solar system, did not happen by random acts or happenstance; they occurred by purposeful design.

In the words of Dr. Penrose:

“I think I would say that the universe has a purpose, it’s not somehow just there by chance … some people, I think, take the view that the universe is just there and it runs along – it’s a bit like it just sort of computes, and we happen somehow by accident to find ourselves in this thing. But I don’t think that’s a very fruitful or helpful way of looking at the universe, I think that there is something much deeper about it.“[36]

When physicists calculate backwards what the conditions of the universe were at its beginning, they are stunned. According to the computations of cosmologists, the conditions which existed at the beginning of the universe had to be extremely precise, in order for the Cosmos that we observe today to be in existence. If any of these precise conditions had been changed even slightly, we would have an entirely different universe, where no life could possibly exist. In all of the calculations that have been made thus far for an alternate universe, life would not be possible. In fact, even the formation of galaxies, stars, or planets would be impossible in any other possible universe scenario. Life only works in the specific pattern which we observe in the present universe.

The fact that conditions have presented themselves perfect over the course of the past 13.8 billions years is extraordinary. Here we are, against all odds, living our lives on an exceptional and unique planet, located in a remote area of the vast universe. Every strict requirement that would be necessary for life to exist, was carefully and methodically set into place from the first seconds of the universe, and have continued for close to 14 billion years. Even today, the delicate balance that is required to maintain life on planet earth, continues—by the care, protection, and sovereignty of God.

Most people have the idea that it took the universe billions of years before conditions were right for a planet such as earth to form. In reality, the processes that were necessary for life on earth had to be in existence from the very first moments that the Big Bang took place. Although no one in the scientific community can tell us today what was in existence before the moment of the Big Bang, or even how exactly it took place, they do have the ability to understand what has taken place since that first moment that it began.

Theoretical Physicists, Dr. Freeman Dyson stated:

I do not feel like an alien in this universe, the more I examine the universe and study the details of its architecture, the more evidence I find that the universe in some sense must have known that we were coming.”[37]

Mathematics and Philosophy of Science Professor John Lennox said:

We should note that the preceding arguments are not ‘God of the gaps’ arguments; it is advance in science, not ignorance of science, that has revealed this fine-tuning to us. In that sense there is no ‘gap’ in the science, The question is rather: how should we interpret the science? In what direction is it pointing?”[38].[39]

The evidence for a designed and fine-tuned universe are overwhelming. We are not simply talking about the fine-tuning of our own solar system or the earth itself which has allowed life to exist on this planet. We are speaking of a period of nearly 14 billion years, in which finely-tuned absolutes were necessary from the very first moments of the big bang, that made life possible on earth 13.8 billion years later. Even Physicists who do not believe in God nor a Creation, admit that the universe that we should have—if it developed on its own, with no outside interference, should be vastly different from the one that we presently have. By all rights, the universe should never have developed galaxies, stars, and planets—much less a planet with advanced lifeforms, such as Earth. A transcendent intelligence of unlimited power, wisdom and ability fashioned this universe—so that we could live here on earth—billions of years after He first caused it to come into being.

Science and Cosmology have grown to a place in their knowledge of the universe where they have looked behind the very gateway to the inception of the universe itself, and standing there is a being not unlike us, who has been waiting for us to discover Him, smiling from ear to ear, asking: “what took you so long.” He knew that eventually we would find that He is the intelligence behind the design of this masterful universe. If we simply follow the evidence to it’s conclusion, we must confess that a transcendent being of unimaginable intelligence and power, knew that our pursuits for answers would lead us right to Him.

Accident or purposeful creation?

Nothing ever happens by accident. Everything in this world has a purpose and a plan behind its existence. The Creator of the Universe designed His creation so that His invisible attributes (order, design, beauty, grace and love) can be clearly seen by the things that He has made.

The Lord designed the Earth and the Heavens in such a way that any logically thinking human being would come to only one conclusion: “We have a beautiful, intricately designed, perfectly balanced and ordered Universe; we must have a Creator.”

It is because people do not know the God who created all things that they are unaware of His purpose for their life. People will worship the moon, the stars, the sky, the trees and the earth but not the God who made all these things.

Romans 1:21-25 because, although they knew God (exists), they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful, (as a result they) became futile in their thoughts, (futile: their thoughts have no practical value) and their foolish hearts were darkened. Professing to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man—and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things. Therefore God also gave them up to uncleanness, in the lusts of their hearts, to dishonor their bodies among themselves, who exchanged the truth of God for the lie, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.

If God were to speak to us, what would He want to say?

Chapter 1 of Hebrews declares that God has Spoken. Unfortunately, man for the most part has not been listening.

Hebrews 1:1 Long ago, at many times and in many ways, God spoke to our fathers by the prophets, 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world. (ESV)

The problem for man has always been that God has not spoken to him in a way that man wants to hear. Instead of just listening to the voice of God, as He has already revealed Himself, mankind is constantly trying to define God by human terms and by human understanding. Man has created literally hundreds of religions to try and speak for God.

The Book of Hebrews declares that God Has Spoken. He doesn’t need man’s help to speak for Him. Of the estimated 4,200 religions of the world,[40] only one does not try to speak for God. Instead, this group allows God to speak for Himself. This single company of people base their entire existence on what God has already declared in the Bible. They follow and serve the person known as Jesus because the Bible declares Him to be the Son of God and only Savior of the world.

Within the thousands of religions, only one reveals God in the way that He has spoken of Himself. The Bible is God’s revelation of who He is to man. Holy men were called by God to record His words which reveal who He is and how mankind can have a personal relationship with Him. The Bible reveals through predictive and fulfilled prophecy, that a Messiah will come to the earth who will make this personal relationship with God possible. Those who follow the Messiah or Christ are called Christians.

The Book of Hebrews claims that only one man is qualified to speak for God. Of all the men and women who have claimed to reveal God, only one man has successfully revealed God in the same way that God has revealed Himself in the Bible.

One day Phillip asked Jesus: Show us the Father. In other words: “Show us what God is like.”

John 14:9 Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you so long, and yet you have not known Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father; so how can you say, ‘Show us the Father’?

Jesus claimed that He and God were one and the same. He who has seen me, has seen the Father.

In just 33-1/2 years, Jesus proved that He is the only one qualified to speak for God. He proved this by fulfilling all of the Old Testament prophecies which reveal who the Messiah is. Only Jesus showed us what God is like, what God has to say, what He has done, and what He will do in the future. Jesus proved that He is the only one qualified to speak on behalf of God by demonstrating that He is Himself God. He proved His identity beyond a doubt when He rose from the dead three days after He was crucified.

Jesus is described by the Bible as the One who created the heavens and the earth at the beginning, in Genesis 1:1.

Colossians 1:16-17 For by Jesus all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth

Prophecy 50 describes the fact that the Messiah will have God as His Father. This means that the Messiah will Himself be God. The Book of Hebrews establishes the certainty that Jesus is God and that He is the Son of God.

Hebrews 1:3 (Jesus), who being the 1. brightness of His glory and 2. the express image of His person, and 3. upholding all things by the word of His power, when 4. He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high

1. Jesus is the “the Brightness of His Glory.”

From the Greek words: Apaugasma tees Doxees, – The Outshining of the Glory of God. This is the same expression which would be used to describe the shining of the sun. Jesus is the literal Glory of God Himself in all of His outshining Glory.

1 Timothy 6:15-16 …the King of kings and Lord of lords, who alone has immortality, dwelling in unapproachable light, whom no man has seen or can see, to whom be honor and everlasting power.

2. Jesus is the “Express Image of God.

In Greek: “The Hupostaseoos” – is the Character of God’s Substance which makes God who He is. Jesus has the exact character, nature, and image of God. Jesus is a perfect representation to us of what God is like. The idea behind this Greek word, Hupostaseoos, comes from the imprint that a seal would leave after being pressed into wax. Jesus is an exact imprint of God. He is the exact image and essence of what the Father is. Yet, Jesus is Himself a totally separate and distinct person.

3. Jesus is upholding all things by the Word of His Power.

Jesus spoke: In the Beginning God Created the Heavens and the Earth, and all things were created from nothing. Jesus speaks and everything in the universe is sustained and held together by His Words. (Can He not then also hold your life together?)

4. Jesus had, by Himself, purged our sins.

The English word Purged in the Bible was translated from the original Greek words di autou. In the Old Testament, when an animal was brought as a sacrifice for sins, those sins were only covered, or kofar, in the Hebrew language. When Jesus made His one sacrifice for the sins of every person who has been born on the earth, He purged (di autou) those sins, caused them to cease to exist forever. Jesus’ death and resurrection allows those who believe in His sacrifice for their sins, to be seen by God as perfect, as if they had never sinned.

The true identity of Jesus Christ

The Bible explicitly defines Jesus as being the Eternal God who created all things, made His life a sacrifice for our sins by His death on the cross, and then raised Himself from the dead three days later.

The Father calls Jesus “God”

Hebrews 1:8 But to the Son He says: “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom.

Here, the Father describes his Son as “God.” If there was ever any doubt as to whether the Bible defines Jesus as an ordinary man or as God dwelling in the body of a man, this is one of the most compelling verses of scripture.

Many Bible critics claim that “Jesus Himself never claimed to be God.” The following are a few of the verses of scripture found in the Bible where Jesus is clearly described as God.

The Sunday morning after Jesus has risen from the Dead, Thomas declares that Jesus is “Lord and God.” Jesus does not dispute this declaration, He receives the title of Lord and God from Thomas without correcting Him. If Jesus was not both Lord and God and He allowed men to worship Him with these titles, He would be committing blasphemy and make Himself worthy of death.

John 20:19-29 Then, the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and said to them, “Peace be with you.” When He had said this, He showed them His hands and His side. Then the disciples were glad when they saw the Lord. Now Thomas, called the Twin, one of the twelve, was not with them when Jesus came. The other disciples therefore said to him, “We have seen the Lord.” So he said to them, “Unless I see in His hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and put my hand into His side, I will not believe.” And after eight days His disciples were again inside, and Thomas with them. Jesus came, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, “Peace to you!” Then He said to Thomas, “Reach your finger here, and look at My hands; and reach your hand here, and put it into My side. Do not be unbelieving, but believing.” And Thomas answered and said to Him, “My Lord and my God!” Jesus said to him, “Thomas, because you have seen Me, you have believed. Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed.”

The prophecy of Isaiah 9:6 is that a Son will be given and that His name will be Mighty God.

Isaiah 9:6 For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

Titus encourages every believer to be waiting and watching for the appearing of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ.

Titus 2:13 looking for the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ…

The Jews pick up stones to kill Jesus because He had claimed to be God.

John 10:32-33 Jesus answered them, “Many good works I have shown you from My Father. For which of those works do you stone Me?” The Jews answered Him, saying, “For a good work we do not stone You, but for blasphemy, and because You, being a Man, make Yourself God.”

Paul declares that all things were made by Jesus Christ and that He existed forever, before all things.

Colossians 1:16 For by Jesus all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him. And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist.

Since Jesus is the source of all creation, it is He that Moses is describing in the first chapter and verse of the Bible.

Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

The origin of Jesus

Before time began, before the earth was created, before anything was made, Jesus was already in existence.

John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

If all things were created by Jesus, then He Himself cannot be Created; He is therefore God.

It is important to understand preeminently that Jesus is God and Creator of the universe. Without a correct understanding of Jesus true identity as God, it is impossible to understand what He has said and done in the New Testament scriptures. In order to make it possible for us to obtain the forgiveness of our sins and have eternal life, Jesus had to do something that is absolutely amazing.

The Son became a Servant

The eternal God who is Spirit, who has no beginning and no end, in order to make our salvation possible, would have to permanently take the body of a human being and become one of us. For Jesus to become a man, He had to set aside some of His rights and privileges as God and make Himself a servant to the Father. This is in acknowledgment of the fact that Jesus is equal to God the Father because He is Himself God. As God the Son taking the form of a man, He will make Himself a servant to the Father to accomplish His will in saving all those who will believe in His death for their salvation.

We see various examples of Jesus as God, humbling Himself and making Himself a servant to die for the penalty that all of us were subject to because of our sins.

Philippians 2:6-8 Jesus, who, being in the form of God, did not consider it robbery to be equal with God, but made Himself of no reputation, taking the form of a bondservant, and coming in the likeness of men. And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross.

John 5:30 (Jesus Speaking) I can of Myself do nothing. As I hear, I judge; and My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My own will but the will of the Father who sent Me.

Hebrews 10:5-7 Therefore, when Jesus came into the world, He said: “Sacrifice and offering You did not desire, But a body You have prepared for Me. In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin You had no pleasure.” Then I said, “Behold, I have come—In the volume of the book it is written of Me— To do Your will, O God.”

One of the biggest stumbling blocks for the Jews today in receiving and believing that Jesus is the promised Messiah is His claim to be the Son of God. It is their closely guarded belief that when the Messiah comes, He will be just a man like Moses. It would certainly be okay to believe such a thing if the entire Bible had not clearly defined the Messiah as being the Son of God long before He ever came to earth as Jesus Christ.

See the chapter: The Messiah will be the Son of God.

A valid conclusion

The body of scriptures found in the Old and New testaments, prove that the Messiah will be God in human flesh and that His identity can be no one else except Jesus Christ.

The fulfillment of this 50th Prophecy from 2 Samuel 7:14 is observed by the titles and descriptions of Jesus that He ascribes to Himself, as well as those given to Him by the many witnesses who recorded His words and actions in the narrative of the New Testament.

It is my hope that as a community of people who deeply believe the Bible to be the word of God and infallible, that we will examine the text of these 365 prophecies and come to the obvious conclusion that Jesus is the object of these many predictions. Further, that by teaching these facts to others who do not know Jesus yet as their Savior, they may also come to a saving knowledge of His true identity and surrender their lives to Him.

An Illustration for God’s existence:

A few years ago, a man went to a barbershop to have his hair and his beard cut as was his custom every two weeks. He began a conversation with the barber who attended him. They talked about many and various subjects.

Suddenly, they touched on the subject of God. The barber said: “Look man, I don’t believe that God exists.” “Why do you say that?” asked the client.

“Well, it’s easy, all you have to do is go out in the street to realize that God does not exist” replied the client.

“Oh, tell me, if God existed, would there be so many sick people? Would there be abandoned children? No, if God existed, there would be neither suffering nor pain. I could never consider loving a God who permits this kind of suffering,” the barber stated.

The client stopped down towards the ground for a moment thinking, determining that he would not respond in such a way so as to cause an argument, he decided to say nothing further.

The barber finished his job and the client went out of the shop. Just after he left the barbershop he saw a man on the street with a long hair and beard that looked as if he had neither cut in many years.

The client again entered the barber shop and he said to the barber: “You know what? Barbers do not exist.”

“How can you say they don’t exist?” asked the barber. “Well, I am here and I am a barber.”

“No!” The client exclaimed. “They don’t exist because if they did there would be no people with long hair and a beard like that man who is walking down the street right there!”

Perplexed for a moment, the barber began to speak, “Ah, barbers do exist. What happens is that people do not come to me.”

“Exactly!” Affirmed the client. “That’s the point. God does exist. What happens is people don’t come to Him, they do not seek Him. That’s why there’s so much pain and suffering in the world.”[41]

[1] Baldwin, p. 213; cf. also Gordon, I &II Samuel, p. 236; Brueggemann, First and Second Samuel, p. 257; Carlson, p. 127). Judging from 4QFlor (ilegium), a midrash on 7: 10b- 14a, the Qumran sectarians also detected clear messianic overtones in Nathan’s oracle. (Expositor’s Bible Commentary)
[2] The Grand Design,” Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow, published by Bantam Books, 2010, ISBN 0-553-80537-1
[3] Central Intelligence Agency (2007-04-25). “Intelligence & Analysis – Products”. Retrieved 2010-10-23. “The DI publishes unclassified reference aids that are available to the public. The annual World Factbook is a comprehensive compendium of profiles on more than 260 countries and other entities.”
[4] http://discovermagazine.com/2013/september/13-starting-point
[5] Davies, Paul. 1983. God and the New Physics. London, J M Dent & Sons
[6] Ibid, page 171
[7] Penrose, Roger (2011-09-06). Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the Universe (Kindle Locations 902-910). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
[8] “The Inflationary Universe: the quest for a new Theory of Cosmic Origins, New York, Perseus Publishing, 1998
[9] Roger Penrose, The Road to Reality, The Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.
[10] Penrose, Roger (2011-09-06). Cycles of Time: An Extraordinary New View of the Universe (p. 77). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
[11] Ibid. page 122
[12] Ibid, page 123
[13] Ibid, page 127
[14] Ibid, page 143
[15] Davies, Paul. Cosmic Jackpot: Why Our Universe Is Just Right for Life. Great Britain: The Penguin Press, 2006.
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Robert A. Muller and Gordon J. MacDonald, “Glacial Cycles and orbital inclination,” Nature, 377 (1995), pp. 107-108.
T. R. Gabella and T. Oka, “Detection of H3+ in interstellar Space,” Nature, 384 (1996), pp. 334-335.
Peter D. Moore, “Fire Damage Soils Our Forest,” Nature 384 (1996), pp. 312-313.
Christine Mlot, “Tallying Nitrogen’s Increasing Impact,” Science News, 151 (1997), p. 100.
Wei-jia Su, Adam M. Dziewonski, and Raymond Jeanloz, “Planet Within a Planet: Rotation of the Inner Core of the Earth,” Science, 274 (1996), pp. 1883-1887.
[25] Taylor, G. Jeffrey (31 December 1998). “Origin of the Earth and Moon”. Planetary Science Research Discoveries. Web Site: http://www.psrd.hawaii.edu/Dec98/OriginEarthMoon.htm
[26] Zahnle, K.; Schaefer, L.; Fegley, B. (2010). “Earth’s Earliest Atmospheres”. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology 2 (10): a004895.
[27] Ibid.
[28] Poropudas, Hannu K. J. (1991-12-16). “Using Coral as a Clock”. Skeptic Tank. Web Site: http://www.skepticfiles.org/origins/coralclo.htm
[29] Described as the “vacuum cleaner” Michael Zolensky in an article by: Lovett, Richard A. (December 15, 2006). “Stardust’s Comet Clues Reveal Early Solar System”. National Geographic News. Site: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/12/061215-comet-stardust.html
[30] Emile Borel, Probabilities and Life, Dover 1962, chapters 1-3
[31] Evolution from Space, Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe,J. M. Dent & Sons, 1981, p. 130
[32] Emile Borel, Probabilities and Life, Dover 1962, chapters 1-3
[33] “A Scientist Caught Between Two Faiths: Interview With Robert Jastrow,” Christianity Today, August 6, 1982
[34] Ibid
[35] Roger Penrose, The Road to Reality, The Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2005.
[36] The Movie, “A Brief History of Time”, A Brief History of Time, quote starts at about 1:12:43 in the video
[37] Freeman Dyson, F. 1979. Disturbing the Universe. Harper and Rowe, New York
[38] Lennox, John. 2007. God’s Undertaker. Has Science Buried God? Lion Hudson.
[39] http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2006/08/07-01.html
[40] The Everything World’s Religions Book: Explore the Beliefs, Traditions and Cultures of Ancient and Modern Religions, page 1 Kenneth Shouler – 2010
[41] Adapted from the original story by Devi Nangrani, edited by Rob Robinson for this book.

Categories: Atheists, Agnostics and Skeptics, Jesus is God, The Claims of Jesus, The Creation of the Universe, The Existence of God

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