The Science Of Cosmology And The Bible

In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered the stunning reality that the universe is expanding. By measuring the rate of this expansion it became possible to determine the age of the universe through calculating the moment when all of the galaxies were in one place.

Hubble determined that at the singularity of the universe, matter was spread out as space was simultaneously stretched to accommodate the ever increasing matter. Prior to this discovery, cosmologists believed that the universe was static and eternal.

Nearly 3,000 years before Edwin Hubble made this startling discovery, Psalms 104 described the universe  as being “stretched out like a curtain.”

O Lord my God, You are very great: You are clothed with honor and majesty, Who cover Yourself with light as with a garment, Who stretch out the heavens like a curtain.  ~Psalms 104:1-2

We might note this as a poetic way for an ancient man to describe what he had no way of knowing, but this is not the end of the story. The book of Job contains the oldest writings of the Bible, predating Moses. In chapter 9, Job writes a similar description of the universe:

God alone spreads out the heavens. ~Job 9:8

Later Job is questioned by God in the 38th chapter whether he understands how God created the universe.

Then the Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind, and said: “Who is this who questions my wisdom by words without knowledge. Now prepare yourself like a man; I will question you, and you shall answer Me. “Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth? Tell Me, if you have understanding. Who determined its measurements? Surely you know! Or who stretched the line upon it? To what were its foundations fastened? Or who laid its cornerstone. ~Job 38:1-6

God asks Job if he was there when He created the universe and laid its foundation. He describes the cosmology of the initial matter when it was stretched out as God drew out his line of measurement to determine its expanse. God speaks of a foundation, or laws, that would determine this rate of expansion and the very cornerstone of how the universe would commence.

All of these scientific facts of the universe are described by God at least 4,000 years before any scientist had the vaguest knowledge of the universe.

The prophet Isaiah wrote 2,600 years before Hubble’s discovery, also describing the universe in correct cosmological terms as ever expanding, where God “stretched out the heavens.”

This is what the Lord says—your Redeemer and Creator: “I am the Lord, who made all things. I alone stretched out the heavens. Who was with me when I made the earth? ~Isaiah 44:24 (NLT)

Similarly, in Isaiah 45:12, we find the same specific description of a universe precisely engineered by God where it was “stretched out,” expanding and increasing in velocity. God said to Isaiah that he “commanded all their host,” speaking of the stars and galaxies which inhabit the universe He made.

I have made the earth, And created man on it. I—My hands—stretched out the heavens, And all their host I have commanded. ~Isaiah 45:12

Once more through Isaiah, God describes the universe in the scientific term we have come to know the universe by, a vast expanse of stars, planets and galaxies who are “stretched out.”

Have you forgotten the Lord, your Maker, who stretched out the heavens and laid the foundations of the earth? ~Isaiah 45:13 (ESV)

In every place where the Bible describes the universe under the creation of God, it is described in the correct cosmological terms as “stretched out.” This is no mere coincidence and every reference to the universe, by all writers, during the whole course of history, all described the universe accurately as “stretched out, or “spread out.”

This is extremely important as it shows that the Bible is no mere work of men, but has an author who is transcendent of time, space, and matter, with knowledge of how the universe began and continues.

The first line of the first chapter in the first book of the Bible states the correct cosmological sequence of the universe.

In the beginning (time) God created the heavens (space) and the earth (matter).

The Hebrew word for “created” is Bara—to make from nothing. According to the words of God, He created everything that exists in the universe from nothing, in single event. This is precisely what science has only recently discovered about the universe, yet the Bible contained knowledge of a universe made from nothing preexistent, from the beginning of its writing.

The Bible And Science

This accurate scientific knowledge of our universe, as found throughout the Bible, is one of the most stunning proofs for the existence of God. How is it possible that mere men who penned the words of Hebrew and Greek scriptures could have intimate knowledge of the operation of the universe and the earth itself? The Bible claims that an infinite and eternal intelligence communicated knowledge to certain men who set themselves apart to receive this communication. The results of this conveyance of information is revealed in various places throughout the Bible.

We are astounded to learn that many of the facts of science that are known today, were recorded in the pages of the Bible hundreds of years before any man knew or understood these principles. The Bible is full of specific and accurate statements about the laws of physics regarding:

  • The nature of our solar system
  • The nature of the earth
  • The life forms on planet earth

The Beginning of the Universe

In May 1964, Dr. Arno Penzias and Dr. Robert Wilson discovered Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation that proved conclusively that the universe had a  sudden and instantaneous beginning.⁠1

The first verse of the Bible speaks of the beginning of Time, Space, and Matter, instantaneously—by the direct creation of God:

In the beginning (Time) God created the heavens (Space) and the earth (Matter). ~Genesis 1:1

Number Of Stars

When the Bible was written, there were no telescopes to determine the number of stars that exist in the universe. During the earlier history of mankind, the total number of stars that could be seen with the naked eye were no more than 3-4,000. Yet, Jeremiah the prophet wrote 2,700 years ago that the actual number is so great, that they cannot be numbered.

As the host of heaven cannot be numbered. ~Jeremiah 33:22

It is impossible that this simple prophet could have known that there are an immense number of stars in the universe, without the aid of a telescope. Where did he learn this? Who told him that the multitude of celestial hosts were too great to number?

Recent discoveries through the use of powerful observational instruments at Keck Observatory in Hawaii, have revealed that small dim stars known as red dwarfs are in far greater numbers than previously believed. This added ability to see so many more stars than was previously possible, has boosted the estimated number of stars in the known universe by three hundred percent to about 300 Sextillion stars or three hundred thousand trillion.⁠2

The Sun Follows A Circuit

Three thousand years ago, the writer of Psalm 19 described the Sun as following a circuit or circular course through the universe.

He has set a tabernacle for the sun, Which is like a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, And rejoices like a strong man to run its race. Its rising is from one end of heaven, And its circuit to the other end; And there is nothing hidden from its heat. ~Psalms 19:4-6

Three thousand years ago, scientists believed that the sun rotated around the earth. They had no idea that the opposite was true—the earth was in fact part of system of planets in which the sun was at the center. During the earlier history of mankind, the concept of our sun moving through a universe of other stars and planets in a circuit was incomprehensible. The sun was first spoken of as the center of the solar system by the Greek Aristarchus in the third century. It was not until the 17th century when Copernicus invented the telescope, that he was able to observe other planets passing between earth and the sun.⁠3

God told us, in His word, that the sun moved through the universe in a circuit, thousands of years before any man knew this fact.

Today, through the use of powerful telescopes, we know that the sun is part of an enormous spiral galaxy called the Milky Way. The sun moves in a circuit or circular course through the universe at speeds of more than 251 kilometers per second or 561,471.009 miles per hour.⁠4 It will take our solar system 225-230 million years to complete one circuit or orbit through the Milky Way Galaxy.⁠5

How did David know these facts 3,000 years ago when he wrote Psalms 19:4-6? Jesus identifies David as a prophet who was given advanced knowledge of details otherwise unknown to men (Mt. 22:43, Mk. 12:36, Lk. 20:42). David also accurately predicted the death and crucifixion of Jesus in Psalm 22, almost 1,000 years before Jesus was born. The Bible claims that God gave transcendent knowledge of the heavens, the earth, and Himself, to certain individuals—by His Spirit.

For prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.  ~2 Peter 1:21

The amazing power of the Living God enables Him to speak to men who have set themselves apart—to be used by Him. These men wrote the words of the Bible under the inspiration of the Spirit of God, and recorded the specific details which He wanted to communicate. It is logical that if there is a Being who has the technology and power to create this vast and complex universe, He is certainly able to cause certain men to record the words that He desires to communicate to us, and preserve these words over time.

The Earth Is A Sphere

From the time that Greek Mathematician, Pythagoras first proposed, in the 6th century B.C., that the earth was a sphere; many scientists and scholars held the spherical earth theory.⁠6 According to author Stephen Jay Gould:

“There never was a period of ‘flat earth darkness’ among scholars (regardless of how the public at large may have conceptualized our planet both then and now). Greek knowledge of sphericity never faded, and all major medieval scholars accepted the Earth’s roundness as an established fact of cosmology.”⁠7

300 years before Jesus was born, the first actual proof that the earth was a sphere was discovered by Eratosthenes who measured the circumference of the Earth.⁠8

The Greek philosophers, Hipparchus and Aristotle, 200 years before Jesus was born—both reached the same conclusion: the earth was really a sphere.⁠9

This is all very interesting since the Bible recorded the fact that the earth was a “circle” nearly 2,800 years ago. This is more than 100 years before the Greek Mathematician Pythagoras proposed that the earth was a sphere. In fact—it is likely that Pythagoras first learned that the earth was a sphere from reading the Hebrew scriptures, which were known to many of the early philosophers of that period. It is from the text of the prophet Isaiah that the world first learned that the earth is a “circle.”

It is He who sits above the circle of the earth, And its inhabitants are like grasshoppers, Who stretches out the heavens like a curtain, And spreads them out like a tent to dwell in. ~Isaiah 40:22

Isaiah described earth’s true nature under the direction of the Holy Spirit, more than a century before any scientist developed this concept. The original Hebrew word that Isaiah used for circle is “khug,” which could be translated as circle or sphere.

Earth Hangs Upon Empty Space

For much of the earth’s early history, it was believed that our planet rested upon Atlas or Hercules. The Hindus said that the earth sat upon a giant elephant or a turtle.

It was this belief by Hindus that noted atheist, Bertrand Russell once compared the Christian belief in God—as also illogical, based on the claim that God has no first cause.

“If everything must have a cause, then God must have a cause. If there can be anything without a cause, it may just as well be the world as God, so that there cannot be any validity in that argument. It is exactly of the same nature as the Hindu’s view, that the world rested upon an elephant and the elephant rested upon a tortoise; and when they said, ‘How about the tortoise?’ the Indian said, ‘Suppose we change the subject.”⁠10

Of course we know today that this argument is fundamentally flawed since scientists fully stipulate that the universe had a beginning. Scientist also believe presently that matter is eternal—with no first cause.⁠11 Therefore, the concept of a person who is eternal with no first cause should not be that difficult to comprehend, unless of course it is only living beings which scientists cannot conceive of as eternal. Something which is eternal has no need of a first cause. By the fact of His eternal existence, God must of necessity—exist uncaused and would, Himself, be the first cause of all things which have a beginning.

The concept of earth floating freely in empty space was a completely unknown and unrealistic idea to all ancient societies. Still, in the oldest book of the Bible, Job provides an incredible piece of scientific information about what actually holds the earth in space.

He stretches out the north over empty space; He hangs the earth on nothing. ~Job 26:7

Not a single person on the earth during the time of Job, had any idea that the earth was suspended by gravity over empty space. It was impossible that Job could have known this by himself. God told Job this fact, and he recorded it for all mankind in the Hebrew scriptures. The problem is that most of the intellectual and highly educated men and women of the world, pay no attention to the Bible.

God placed scientific, mathematical, and astronomical facts about the earth and the universe, in the Bible so that when they were discovered, they would be known as information that came from an intelligence outside of earth, even time and space themselves.

The Invisible World Of The Atom

A scientific discovery that has only been known in the last 100 years, is the atomic structure of the atom. All matter in the universe is made up of invisible materials consisting of atoms—which have smaller internal components called protons, neutrons, and electrons. Within these microscopic parts of the atom are even smaller and completely invisible components called quarks, pions, and gluons.

Almost 2,000 years before scientists discovered the atom and its subatomic components, the Bible contained a verse of scripture that says that “all the things that we can see are made up of things that are invisible.”

By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible. ~Hebrews 11:3

Paul, as the writer of Hebrews, recorded a critical scientific fact of all that exists: all things are made of invisible components. Ancient man did not know anything about the invisible world of the atom, but God communicated this fact to Paul and He wrote this in Hebrews 11:3.

If the Bible was written only by men, how does it contain information that no man knew at the time the books of the Bible were written? How did Paul know about the invisible properties of the atom, almost 2,000 years before any scientist had discovered this fact?

Assuming God Exists

Let us stretch our current thoughts concerning the existence of God for just a moment and postulate that the Cosmos was designed and engineered by a transcendent intelligence of immense power and wisdom. Certainly we can make a reasonable case for such a being given the complexity, beauty, order and design of all that exists. If such a being does exist and we ignore or deny Him throughout our short life, only to discover upon our death that He does exist, we would be the epitome of fools.

Science can tell us how the universe exists, but it cannot tell us why it exists. Science provides us with only two alternatives for the existence of the universe.

One, it is eternal, or two, it began at some point in time.

Albert Einstein spent a great deal of effort in trying to prove, by his general theory of relativity, an equation that would not require a beginning for the universe. Einstein’s static universe theory stated that the universe is infinite and had no beginning. This was the general consensus of the scientific community for many years. According to this theory, stars were drifting around the universe randomly, with no apparent direction—both towards earth and away from earth.

When Hubble established that galaxies were moving away from earth at high velocity, this meant that the universe is expanding, which required that it had a beginning. Einstein renounced his former position of an eternal universe and later described his own curiosity in knowing how God created the universe.⁠1

A universe with a beginning, after an eternity of nothing, requires an explanation.

Science cannot tells us why the universe came into existence, only how and the manner in which it presently exists. For information regarding the reason for the cosmos, we need a source that is transcendent of time, space, and matter. The first line of the first chapter of the Bible describes God as the source of the universe. “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.” This statement is not in conflict with the evidence of science, in fact it confirms all the data that is available. The universe had a stunning and singular beginning when all matter, even time and space themselves came into existence.

Since this first moment, scientists have stated that precise events have taken place, over the course of some 14 billion years, that have made life on earth possible—today. If this duration of time is true, then this would require great engineering and intelligence to form the universe for human habitation.

Anthropic Constants

When we observe the universe, we see that it exists because of very closely controlled parameters. Within the first picosecond of its commencement, the matter that expanded into all that exists today was carefully controlled to exact a specific result. If not for this extreme control, no life would exist on earth today.

We might wonder how events that took place 14 billion years ago could matter to us today. The fact is that a universe which can sustain life must begin in a specific way, or it will not have the capacity for advanced life forms like man much later.

These specific parameters which began at -430th of a second during the origin of our universe have continued to the present day. They exist within such finely adjusted limits that were any one of these 122 constants to change even 1 part in 100 billion, human beings would never have existed on earth.

The Charge Of Electrons And Protons

Everything which exists in the universe consists of atoms. Within every atom there are electrons and protons. The mass difference between a proton and an electron is 1:1836. This means that the proton is precisely 1,836 times larger than an electron. Despite this difference in size, both have the exact same electric charge.

If we were to alter this electric charge by one part in 100 billion, every atom in the universe would self destruct.1

What is the power that created this precise balance to make life possible? What is the power that holds the entire universe together so that it does not change slightly and collapse into a massive heat death?

Paul wrote to the church at Colossae and told them that it was Jesus who is the Creator and source of all that exists and He is the power that holds everything together.

For by Jesus all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him. And He existed before all things, and He holds all creation together. ~Colossians 1:15-17 (RCR)

Jesus is the Power who made the visible world we can see, as well as the invisible atomic world with its delicate balance. John called Jesus the “Word of God.” Paul described Jesus as, One who “framed the worlds” (Hebrews 11:3).

The universe is ordered to make life possible in an intelligent manner. It is by mathematics that the universe becomes intelligible to man. When we examine the manner in which the universe is able to support life, we are struck by the anthropic constants which govern the universe in an orderly fashion. Each of these constants exist within very finely calibrated parameters.

If these physical constants are not all present at the same time and precisely dialed to a specific boundary, no life on earth would be possible. In evolution, all that exists evolved over long periods of time. How could an environment that is inhospitable to life, produce life? Unless all of these anthropic constants were in place first, even evolution would not work. How did this environment know, itself, how to set these precise constants where they will support life?

The obvious answer is, they could not. The material world is not intelligent. Only an intelligence could set these constants to their proper setting before life was placed on earth. This requires a Being like God who has the intelligence to know how to prepare the universe from its inception for life on earth much later.

These constants are not present only on earth, but they began at the commencement of the universe when precise calibrations began that would permit life on one tiny planet much later.

Scientists have observed the existence of these precise events and do not fully understand how or why they took place.

Based upon the calculations for the origin of the universe, we should have ended up with a universe in such chaos that no life would have been possible anywhere.

Dr. Francis Collins, a Geneticist who is a co-discoverer of the Human Genome, describes the unlikely chance that life would have ever taken place anywhere in the universe:

“The chance that all of these constants would take on the values necessary to result in a stable universe capable of sustaining complex life forms is almost infinitesimal. And yet those are exactly the parameters that we observe. In sum, our universe is wildly improbable.”2

Theoretical Physicist, Stephen Hawking, described the impossibility of a universe existing at all as a supernatural event apart from a naturalistic cause.

“The odds against a universe like ours emerging out of something like the Big Bang are enormous. I think there are clearly religious implications.” ⁠3

In the first picosecond (one trillionth of a second) of the universe, the precise balance between gravitational force and the expansion of energy was precisely calibrated within extremely narrow limits—necessary for life to exist on earth billions of years later. The big question is why they were calibrated at all since the models that scientists have developed for how the universe should have expanded reveals a universe drastically different from what actually occurred.

Stephen Hawking describes the models that scientists have developed for a universe which began under conditions that were present at the moment of the Big Bang:

“Why did the universe start out with so nearly the critical rate of expansion that separates models that recollapse from those that go on expanding forever, that even now, 10 thousand million years later, it is still expanding at nearly the critical rate? If the rate of expansion one second after the Big Bang had been smaller by even one part in 100 thousand million million, the universe would have recollapsed before it ever reached its present size.⁠4

In fact, during the first trillionth of a second, during the initial expansion of gases, there were many essential elements and that were required if life would be possible on the earth.

This extremely narrow margin that was set at the beginning of the universe makes it impossible that a precise equilibrium could have taken place by any natural or undirected process.

This is scientific and empirical evidence that allows us to confidently conclude that God was necessary for the universe to exist and human life to be present on earth today.

Empirical Evidence Of A Purposeful Universe

Without the fine tuning of the universe at virtually every crucial point of development—for billions of years—earth would never have been possible. This requires that God was actively involved in the entire preparation of the universe, for a very long time. God did not simply begin the universe and then allow it to evolve as it would. Had this been the case, the elements which were present at the initial moment the universe commenced, would have developed in a drastically different type of universe, unfit for life.

Evidence For Fine-Tuning Of The Universe: 209 Physical Constants That Make Life On Earth Possible

The universe could not have caused itself. All of the evidence which science presents us with—demands and explanation. This evidence is conclusive that an intelligence acted upon the universe to bring it into being. Before the universe began, there was no matter, energy, time, or space—nothing.

Everything cannot come from nothing. The non-theists might argue that God also could not come from nothing. The Bible is unique in that it describes God with no beginning. There never was a moment when God has not existed. This would cause the non-theist to state that the universe also has always existed. The problem with this assertion is that science has already proven that this is not true. The universe did begin, when for an eternity past, it had not existed.

Since God has always existed and the universe has not. When it came into being, it is logical that God, the super intelligence who has always existed, who is adequately capable of creation, is the obvious source of the universe.

Greater than the beginning of the universe, God was necessary to  control the expansion of gases in such a precise manner that the formation of stars, galaxies, and planets was possible.

Earth must be precisely where it is—in order to support intelligent human life. Our location in the universe, the proximity of our galaxy, and the specific place where we exist within our own solar system, were clearly determined by an intelligence. None of these facts can be explained adequately by science.

The ancient Hebrew and Christian scriptures tell us that a super intelligent, all-powerful, and eternal Being has the capacity to make these things possible.

It is incredible that many scientists today believe that given the age of the universe, that certain super intelligent beings must be present in many locations of the universe. These civilizations would be millions of years ahead of us here on earth and would have developed technology that is beyond our imagination. While maintaining this belief, these same scientists insist that a Being who has existed for eternity—possessing unlimited intelligence, is impossible.

It seems that only the Biblical God is impossible for many scientists. The difficulty appears to reside in His demand for repentance from sin, rather than His intellect or eternity.

Given the evidence which presents itself: The universe is not eternal, it had a beginning. It was controlled to exact a specific outcome that would allow human life on earth. This control was required during the entire process of the universe, not just the beginning, this requires God as the source.

How Do We Know God Exists?

The way that we know that a person exists is by the things that they have done. We can look at the words, the work, and the people who know this person, as evidence of their existence.

In the case of God, His existence is validated by the same criteria; His words, His work, and those who have personally known Him.

The most compelling example of God’s existence is the universe itself.

Scientists generally agree that the cosmos had a stunning and sudden beginning. They believe that it came into existence from a tiny, microscopic particle of immensely dense and compacted material, no bigger than an atom. Contained within this particle was all the matter which comprises the universe which presently exists. At -430 seconds, this densely compacted particle, exploded and expanded. Ceasing its expansion, momentarily, this matter began to expand once again in an even distribution of matter, throughout the entire universe.

In order for carbon to exist—which advanced life forms are made from, God had to construct, first and second generation stars and allow them to go through their natural life span. As their gases are burned up and all material within the star is expended, the star dies and its energy is transformed into useful material for life that will be created by God—much later. Supreme engineering and extreme control was exercised during the billions of years of the universe’s existence. If this is all true than it is not Cosmic Evolution, it is great evidence of God’s meticulous care in guiding all of these processes. When God had finished preparing all of the galaxies, stars, and planets, He chose one celestial body to create man upon.

When we examine the processes which were required to bring the universe into a state of readiness where man could be created, we are stunned by the complexity of these processes. It is mathematically impossible for all of the events to have taken place by themselves. Scientists admit that the universe appears to be designed. What is not agreeable, is how this design came about.

Some scientists postulate that there are an infinite number of universes, called “the multiverse.” When we have an unlimited number of universes to choose from, it is certain that at least one will possess all the right requirements for life. These requirements were not the result of intelligence, but blind chance working through an infinite number of possibilities.

Scientific Evidence For God: A Fine-Tuned Universe

The problem with this hypothesis is that we cannot see beyond our present universe, to observe any other universes. Science is based upon observable and testable data, not on conjecture. The extreme hypothesis of the multiverse is really mysticism instead of science. What scientists have formerly accused Christians of espousing; that the universe came into existence by a supernatural intelligence, which no one can see, is now the chosen mantra for all science.

In the opinion of many modern scientists, all that exists, came into reality by blind forces and fortuitous events that have no purpose.

The present scientific evidence does not lead us to the conclusion that we are one of an infinite number of other universes. The data confirms that this universe is the only place where galaxies, stars, and planets exist. The presence of these bodies, confirm that certain extreme events of powerful engineering were necessary to exact an outcome that would guarantee the presence of advance life forms on the earth.

This evidence cannot be explained or validated by any naturalistic process. The reason: these processes required extreme control, balance, and order. These procedures necessitate a power and intelligence of infinite capacity.

A second theory that is postulated by Dr. Lawrence Krauss, describes the universe as coming into existence from nothing, for no reason, and possessing no purpose. This is the most preposterous hypothesis, as it would demand new laws of physics which do not presently exist.

These facts lead us to the rational conclusion that God must exist as a necessity for all other things to exist. We live in a universe that was clearly created for human beings. We learn from the pages of the Bible that this Creator left behind his fingerprints by telling us things about the universe and how He made it, by using scientific terms for the universe that no man knew at the time these things were written.

The science of the universe is that God is the Scientist who conceived, engineered, and created this environment for us because of His love and to show us that He exists and wants to have a personal relationship with us.

The Preceding Is From Two Of My Recent Books: “A Universe From God,” And, “Why Jesus Is God.”










1 Albert Einstein, “Quantum Reality, Beyond the New Physics,” Garden City, New York, by Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1985, page 177.

2. Collins, Francis S. (2006-07-17). The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief (p. 74). Free Press. Kindle Edition. ”

3. Collins, Francis S. (2006-07-17). The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief (p. 75). Free Press. Kindle Edition.

4. I. G. Barbour, When Science Meets Religion (New York: HarperCollins, 2000).

3 Stephen Hawking, A Brief History, Page 138.

4 Ibid, Hawkings

Categories: A Universe From God, Atheists, Empirical Evidence for God, Robert Clifton Robinson, Scientists Who Believe in God, The age of the Universe, The Creation of the Universe, The earth is the Lord's, The Existence of God, The Laws of God, Transcendent Knowledge, Why Jesus Is God And Others Are Not

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