In The Strict Sense Of The Word, “Atheist,” These Persons Do Not Exist.
The definition of an atheist is often stated as, “a person who disbelieves or lacks belief in the existence of God or gods.” Although this defines these persons, it does not explain how they arrived at their decision to conclude that God or gods do not exist.
Most intelligent people make decisions in their life based upon information, evidence, or facts. The atheist, does not use facts to decide that God does not exist, he uses his feelings.
The reason that this is absolutely true is understood by an investigation into how a person arrived at their decision. A majority of atheists will tell you that they have “seen no evidence for a God or gods.” When this statement is questioned further, we discover that the actual search for whether there is evidence, was either non existent, or very limited.
The idea that any person could investigate all the available evidence in the world, is preposterous. No person has this capacity, nor has anyone ever accomplished such a search. At best, all that any honest person can say is that they don’t know if God exists. This is an Agnostic, not an Atheist. For this reason, a true Atheist cannot exist, being defined by the evidence itself.
Most atheists, decide that they will not believe that God exists, strictly because they choose not to believe, not because they have conducted an extensive search.
When you hear an atheists claim that there is no evidence for God, understand that this is a disingenuous statement. The person who is making this affirmation has not done the work necessary to make an informed decision. They have simply decided they don’t want to believe.
The actual evidence for God is quite substantial.
- The universe exists as empirical evidence for God.
- The Bible exists as empirical evidence for God.
- The arrival of Jesus on earth exists as empirical evidence for God.
The Universe As Evidence For God:
Since everything which exists has an explanation for its existence, there must also be a reason for the universe. Because all things temporal have a cause and the universe came into being at some point, the universe must have a cause.
As it is impossible for anything to cause itself, therefore the universe is caused by a power that is transcendent of time and space. By the complexity, laws, and fine-tuning of the universe, we perceive that it has a purpose, to sustain life.
In order for a universe to exist by the precepts we scientifically observe, an intelligence and power of unlimited capacity was necessary.
There Are Two Types Of Things That Exist
- Things that exist by necessity.
- Things which are caused.
Mathematics exists by necessity. It is not caused to exist by anything else; it exists by its own by necessity.
The universe does not need to exist. It exists because it was caused. Since the universe was caused, the power necessary to bring it into existence is necessarily greater than our present ability to understand that power.
God exists by necessity because without Him there is no rational explanation for a universe that began out of nothing. God cannot be caused since He has always existed and is the cause of all other things.
The reason that science looks for natural explanations for things that are profoundly complicated is because the ability to understand forces unknown to scientists today prohibit the acceptance of a non-material explanations.
A non-contingent, non-material, eternal and unlimited Spirit Being is beyond the capacity of mortal men to comprehend. This is, of course, unless He chooses to reveal Himself to us.
First: we know that God exists—by the things that He has made. The universe does not exist by happenstance or as the result of chance. In the first picosecond (one trillionth of a second) of the universe, the precise balance between gravitational force and the expansion of energy was precisely calibrated within extremely narrow limits—necessary for life to exist on earth billions of years later (if it is billions of years old).
The big question is why these forces were calibrated at all since the models that scientists have developed for how the universe should have expanded reveal a universe drastically different from what actually occurred.
- The universe as we know it, cannot be explained by natural forces.
- The finely-tuned universe, as empirical proof for the existence of God, has no formal logical defects.
- The only current explanation for the existence of the universe—which can be tested and verified is the finely-tuned and designed evidence of the universe.
- Our universe contains the precise physical constants that have the exact values that are required to allow for complex structures, such as galaxies, stars, planets, and people to exist.
A Naturally Caused Universe Is Impossible
The universe cannot be explained apart from an intelligent source. It is far too complex, exceedingly super-engineered, and masterfully balanced.
Every star that exists amongst the 300 sextillion that we think exists came into being because of several early processes in the initial expansion of the universe. These processes demanded extreme power and control in order to spread out the material of the initial mass unevenly, so that matter would be disbursed across the expanse of space. This would be similar to a person blowing air into a large balloon until it reached a critical point where it exploded and began to eject material outward from the pressure that had been exerted internally upon it.
As time is slowed to near cessation, a person could act independent of time and walk throughout the room, placing the balloons ejected material in patterns in every direction.
This is similar to the phenomenon that scientists have observed in their mathematical calculations of the first picosecond of the universe. No one knows for certain what process caused this unequal distribution of matter throughout the universe—which allowed the clumping of matter that provided the perfect environment for stars to form much later.
Whether it was inflation, antimatter, or some other unknown phenomenon, it is certain that extreme intelligence caused this control to exist in the first place.
In seeking to understand who God is, we must begin with an awareness that He intended that we would be able to comprehend His nature by examining the things He made.
The fact of the Universe’s existence leaves us with a rational basis that God must exist. As we examine the manner in which the universe is ordered and tuned for life, we understand that its purpose was for life so that we might be able to live on the earth and know God.
- The evidence of science confirms that before the universe there was nothing. There was no matter to make a universe, no space for it to reside in, and no time to mark its history.
- Consider an eternity-past had already existed when suddenly and without warning, the material for the universe came into being and was directed to expand in a predetermined manner.
- Since matter is not eternal and cannot create itself from nothing, something outside of the material realm must have brought matter into existence.
- The non-existence of anything prior, with a sudden beginning, requires a cause that must have existed before the moment creation began.
- Since there was also no space or time before matter expanded, the source of the universe must be transcendent all things material.
- The environment in which the universe began requires a supernatural origin since science confirms that in nature, matter and energy are neither created nor destroyed. Scientists refer to this fact as the First Law of Thermodynamics.
- Science has determined that the universe is not eternal since it came into existence, began to expand, and is clearly winding down. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that matter and energy become less usable over time. This has led most scientists to conclude that the Universe has not always existed, for if it had, by this time it would have used all of its usable energy.
- In the material universe every physical effect must have an adequate antecedent or simultaneous cause. This is the Law of Cause and Effect.
- The existence of matter requires an action that has a source which is transcendent of time, space, and matter.
- Since matter could not create itself, it has a cause. The evidence demands that the cause of the Universe is inexplicable without an antecedent power that existed before all other things.
- The atheistic answer that our universe created itself from nothing is an unscientific and irrational explanation. This assertion is made by hypothesis which posits the idea that other universes caused our universe. This is a theory which cannot be scientifically confirmed because we do not have the ability to see beyond our own universe.
- All of the scientific evidence which presently exists confirms that the universe came into existence by impossible circumstance. This demands a supernatural source who is not constrained by time, space, or matter, and requires that this source is a non-physical Being.
- The Law of Biogenesis states that in nature life only comes from previous life of its own kind. Scientist, Louis Pasteur proved that the idea of spontaneous generation of life is not possible. Evolutionist John Sullivan stated, in 1933, that “life never arises except from life.” In 2017, the evidence of science is still the same. If we are going to base our conclusions strictly on scientific evidence, then Biogenesis is the only conclusion that is viable. Life has never been proven to arise from non-life. A living cell has always and exclusively been the product or offspring of another cell.
- Since life is not possible by any spontaneous process and requires prior life before it can exist, there must be an eternal cause that has always existed without a cause itself.
- The same transcendent, antecedent source for the universe, is also the reason for life on earth. There are only two possibilities for the origin of life, spontaneous generation or supernatural creation. Antony Flew was a preeminent atheist leader for over fifty years. At the end of his life, having thoroughly investigated all the evidence, Dr. Flew stated: “The only satisfactory explanation for the origin of such ‘end-directed, self-replicating’ life as we see on earth is an infinitely intelligent Mind”
- God does not require a cause, for He exists eternally as a non material Spirit Entity. In order for all things to exist, there must be a cause that was before all other things and is eternal.
- The only rational and scientific explanation for the universe and all life is a Creator from beyond time, space, and matter who personally engineered a universe to support life and placed life on earth.
“Gerald Schroeder points out that the existence of conditions favorable to life still does not explain how life itself originated. Life was able to survive only because of favorable conditions on our planet. But there is no law of nature that instructs matter to produce end-directed, self-replicating entities.” ~Antony Flew, There Is a God: How the World’s Most Notorious Atheist Changed His Mind
When we observe the universe, we see that it exists because of very closely controlled parameters. Within the first picosecond of its commencement, the matter that expanded into all that exists today was carefully controlled to exact a specific result. If not for this extreme control, no life would exist on earth today.
We might wonder how events that took place 14 billion years ago could matter to us today. The fact is that a universe which can sustain life must begin in a specific way, or it will not have the capacity for advanced life forms like man much later.
These specific parameters which began at -430th of a second during the origin of our universe have continued to the present day. They exist within such finely adjusted limits that were any one of these 209 physical constants to change even 1 part in 100 billion, human beings would never have existed on earth.
The Charge Of Electrons And Protons
Everything which exists in the universe consists of atoms. Within every atom there are electrons and protons. The mass difference between a proton and an electron is 1:1836. This means that the proton is precisely 1,836 times larger than an electron. Despite this difference in size, both have the exact same electric charge.
If we were to alter this electric charge by one part in 100 billion, every atom in the universe would self destruct.
What is the power that created this precise balance to make life possible? What is the power that holds the entire universe together so that it does not change slightly and collapse into a massive heat death?
Paul wrote to the church at Colossae and told them that it was Jesus who is the Creator and source of all that exists and He is the power that holds everything together.
For by Jesus all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him. And He existed before all things, and He holds all creation together. ~Colossians 1:15-17 (RCR)
Jesus is the Power who made the visible world we can see, as well as the invisible atomic world with its delicate balance. John called Jesus the “Word of God.” Paul described Jesus as, One who “framed the worlds.”
By faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that the things which are seen were not made of things which are visible. ~Hebrews 11:3
We might wonder how a first century man like Paul could have known that everything which exists is made up of atomic elements that are invisible?
The universe is ordered to make life possible in an intelligent manner. It is by mathematics that the universe becomes intelligible to man. When we examine the manner in which the universe is able to support life, we are struck by the anthropic constants which govern the universe in an orderly fashion. Each of these constants exist within very finely calibrated parameters.
If these physical constants are not all present at the same time and precisely dialed to a specific boundary, no life on earth would be possible. In evolution, all that exists evolved over long periods of time. How could an environment that is inhospitable to life, produce life? Unless all of these anthropic constants were in place first, even evolution would not work. How did this environment know, itself, how to set these precise constants where they will support life?
The obvious answer is, they could not. The material world is not intelligent. Only an intelligence could set these constants to their proper setting before life was placed on earth. This requires a Being like God who has the intelligence to know how to prepare the universe from its inception for life on earth much later.
These constants are not present only on earth, but they began at the commencement of the universe when precise calibrations began that would permit life on one tiny planet much later.
Scientists have observed the existence of these precise events and do not fully understand how or why they took place.
Based upon the calculations for the origin of the universe, we should have ended up with a universe in such chaos that no life would have been possible anywhere.
Dr. Francis Collins, a Geneticist who is a co-discoverer of the Human Genome, describes the unlikely chance that life would have ever taken place anywhere in the universe:
“The chance that all of these constants would take on the values necessary to result in a stable universe capable of sustaining complex life forms is almost infinitesimal. And yet those are exactly the parameters that we observe. In sum, our universe is wildly improbable.”
Theoretical Physicist, Stephen Hawking, described the impossibility of a universe existing at all as a supernatural event apart from a naturalistic cause.
“The odds against a universe like ours emerging out of something like the Big Bang are enormous. I think there are clearly religious implications.” 
In the first picosecond (one trillionth of a second) of the universe, the precise balance between gravitational force and the expansion of energy was precisely calibrated within extremely narrow limits—necessary for life to exist on earth billions of years later. The big question is why they were calibrated at all since the models that scientists have developed for how the universe should have expanded reveals a universe drastically different from what actually occurred.
Stephen Hawking describes the models that scientists have developed for a universe which began under conditions that were present at the moment of the Big Bang:
“Why did the universe start out with so nearly the critical rate of expansion that separates models that recollapse from those that go on expanding forever, that even now, 10 thousand million years later, it is still expanding at nearly the critical rate? If the rate of expansion one second after the Big Bang had been smaller by even one part in 100 thousand million million, the universe would have recollapsed before it ever reached its present size.”
In fact, during the first trillionth of a second, during the initial expansion of gases, there were many essential elements and that were required if life would be possible on the earth.
This extremely narrow margin that was set at the beginning of the universe makes it impossible that a precise equilibrium could have taken place by any natural or undirected process.
This is scientific and empirical evidence that allows us to confidently conclude that God was necessary for the universe to exist and human life to be present on earth today.
See The 209 Physical Constants Required For Life On Earth
A Universe Made For Life
The following is a compelling list of Anthropic Constants that prove that our universe is fine-tuned to make life on earth possible.
If our Milky Way had been larger, the infusion of gases in the stars would disturb our sun’s orbit and ignite deadly galactic eruptions, incinerating the earth. If the Milky Way was smaller, the infusion of gases would be insufficient to allow a star to exist long enough for life to form on a planet, such as earth.
If the Milky Way was more elliptical, star formation would cease before sufficient heavy elements could form for life chemistry. If our galaxy was more circular, earth’s radiation exposure would be too severe (at times) and life-essential heavy elements would not form.
If the Milky Way was too close to another dense galaxy cluster, the close proximity of this other galaxy would destroy all life on earth.
The Number of Stars in Our Solar System
If we had more than one star in our solar system, tidal interactions would cause the orbits of life-supportable planets to be unsuitable for life. Most other solar systems do have more than one star. The fact that our solar system has just one star makes it atypical and allows for all life that is present on earth to exist.
Our Sun’s Age
If our sun was either older or younger, it would be much brighter and make life impossible. There is an ideal age for a star in which its brightness is perfect for life. We just happen to exist during the perfect age of our sun’s existence.
The Sun’s Mass
If the sun was larger, it would burn its fuel much quicker, making life on earth impossible. If the sun was smaller, it would drastically alter earth’s rotation and make life impossible.
The Color Of Our Sun
Our sun is exceptional in that it produces white light as opposed to the light produced by a red or blue star which would not allow for plant growth or life, as we know it on earth.
The Size And Location Of Our Moon
The earth has an unusually large moon for the size of our planet, orbiting around it.
- The moon did not come from the earth itself.
- It could not have been caused by debris that was captured by the earth’s gravity, because the moon is so large.
The best explanation (other than outright miracle) for the moon’s existence is that a Mars-sized planet crashed into the earth around 4.25 billion years ago. The probability of two planets colliding in the same solar system is extremely remote. The moon is moving away from the earth (currently at 2 inches per year), as it has been moving since its formation. If we calculate the movement of the moon in reverse from its present course, we discover that it must have formed at about 7,300 miles above the earth’s surface. This is indicative of formation by collision from an outside body which struck the earth.
Why The Moon Is Important To Life On Earth
Scientists have suggested that perhaps the moon was created by a collision of earth with a Mars-sized planet. This impact resulted in the ejection of the majority of the earth’s original atmosphere which was likely toxic. If this collision had not occurred, our planet would have maintained an atmosphere similar to that of Venus, with a surface temperature of more than 800°F and up to 80 times more dense than the earth’s current atmosphere. By design, our earth was created with a very thin atmosphere that was necessary to maintain our great oceans, contributing immensely to the existence of life.
Size Of The Moon
Scientists believe that the earth originally had a rotational period of eight hours. This greatly increased rotational period would have resulted in surface wind velocities in excess of 500 miles per hour. The fact that the moon was introduced at some point later in the formation of earth caused the planet to slow to 1,000 miles per hour, resulting in 24-hour days. This allowed for a perfect balance of light and darkness necessary to promote plant growth—essential for life.
If our solar system had less hydrogen and helium, the molecules essential for planet formation and life chemistry would never have formed. If the solar system had too much hydrogen and helium, planets would have formed at the wrong time and place for life.
Gravity Is Perfectly Balanced
If the gravitational force of Earth were stronger, our planet’s atmosphere would retain too much ammonia and methane for life. If the Earth’s gravity was weaker, the planet’s atmosphere would lose too much water to maintain life.
Distance From The Sun
If earth was farther from the sun, the temperature would be too cool for a stable water cycle. If Earth were closer to the sun, the planet would be too warm for a stable water cycle.
Angle Of Orbit
If our orbit around the Sun was longer, the temperature range on the planet’s surface would be too extreme for life.
If the tilt of Earth’s axis was more than the current 23.5 degrees, surface temperature differences between night and day would be too great to sustain diverse life forms. If our axis tilt was less than 23.5 degrees, the same result.
Rotation At 1,000 Miles Per Hour
If Earth rotated at a rate greater than 1,000 miles per hour, the differential temperatures between day and night would be too extreme for life. If earth’s rotation was less than 1,000 miles per hour, surface wind velocity would be too great for life.
If Earth was a younger planet, the rotational velocity would be too rapid for life. If Earth was older than its present age, our rotational velocity would be too slow for life.
Earth’s Magnetic Field Is Delicately Balanced
If Earth’s magnetic field was stronger, electromagnetic storms would be too severe. If it was weaker, our ozone layer would not be sufficient to protect us from harsh solar and stellar radiation.
If the crust of the Earth was thicker, it would rob the atmosphere of oxygen needed for life. If Earth’s crust was thinner, excessive volcanic eruptions and earthquakes would make life impossible.
If Earth reflected more light, we would experience the presence of constant ice ages. If Earth reflected less light from its surface, we would be in a subtropical sauna.
Asteroid And Comet Collision Rates
If Earth had experienced a greater number of collisions by asteroids and comet debris in the past, life would not exist today. If Earth had experienced less collisions by celestial bodies in the past, the surface crust of our planet would contain insufficient life-essential elements required for life.
Oxygen To Nitrogen Ratio
The atmosphere of Earth consists of two primary gases: nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%). This happens to be the perfect balance required for human respiration. This precise combination also allows our skies to present the beautiful blue color we all enjoy. If Earth had more oxygen, our atmosphere would catch fire and burn everything on the planet. If our atmosphere had less oxygen, no human life would be possible on earth.
If Earth had more carbon dioxide, we would have a runaway greenhouse effect. If we had less carbon dioxide, plants would be unable to grow.
Water Vapor Quantity In The Atmosphere
If we had more water vapor present in our atmosphere, the temperature of the planet would be too extreme to permit life. The presence of less water vapor in our atmosphere would inhibit the production of rain, resulting in massive desert regions all over the planet.
Atmospheric Electric Discharge
If Earth had more electric discharge in the atmosphere, our forests would ignite in spontaneous combustion.
If Earth contained greater ozone in our atmosphere, the temperatures on our planet would be too low to promote ultraviolet radiation necessary for life. If there was insufficient ozone in our atmosphere, surface temperatures on our planet would cause ultraviolet radiation too intense for life.
If we had earthquakes in greater frequency than we currently experience, most life would be destroyed by the resulting damage to our ecosystem. If the earth experienced a lower occurrence of earthquakes, the nutrients found on our ocean floors that come from river runoff would not be recycled by the continents through tectonics, resulting in insufficient carbon dioxide being released from carbonate buildup.
If earth had a decreased number of volcanic eruptions, there would not be enough carbon dioxide and water vapor returned to the atmosphere, resulting in insufficient soil mineralization required for advanced life support. If Earth had a greater number of volcanic eruptions, most advanced life would be destroyed and the entire ecosystem of earth would be damaged.
If the earth had larger oceans, diversity and complexity of life forms would be limited. If we had less oceans, no complex life forms could form. If our planet had a lower proportion of land-to-sea ratio, advanced life forms would be impossible. If greater land mass had developed, the resulting changes would be too radical for advanced life to survive.
Distribution Of Continents
If there were too many continents in the southern hemisphere, sea-salt aerosols would be insufficient to stabilize surface temperature and water cycle, resulting in increased seasonal differences that would limit the available habitats for advanced land life.
Gravitational Interaction With The Moon
If the moon had more gravitational pull on the earth, tidal effects on the oceans, atmosphere, and rotational period would destroy all life by massive waves. If the moon had less gravitational pull on the earth, all weather on earth would change so severely, that life could not exist.
Jupiter’s Distance From The Earth
If the planet Jupiter was at greater distance from Earth, the beneficial gravitational force which this massive planet exerts in our Solar System would have a significant impact on the number of asteroid and comet collisions which strike the earth. Described as the “vacuum cleaner of the Solar System,” Jupiter’s immense gravity, as well as its precise placement in the Solar System, shields the earth by drawing most larger asteroids and comets that pass through our inner Solar System into the asteroid belt. Without the specific placement of Jupiter where it is located, it is likely that life on earth would be impossible—as our planet would be repeatedly struck by extinction level asteroids and comets. If Jupiter were any closer to the Earth, its gravitational force would throw off our orbit and kill everyone on the planet.
Orbit Around The Sun
If the orbits of the planets in our solar system were longer, Earth’s orbit would be radically changed and life could not exist.
The Frequency Of Forest And Grass Fires
If Earth had more forest fires, smoke and soot would choke out all life. If we had less forest fires, the forest would accumulate growth inhibitors that would make soil unsuitable for food production.
Amount Of Sea Salt
If the earth’s seas had greater salt content, this would precipitate greater cloud formation over the oceans, radically disrupting the climate and atmospheric temperature balances. If our seas contained less salt, there would be insufficient clouds formation, resulting in inadequate water cycle which would significantly disrupt atmospheric temperature balances of the earth.
When we consider the singular or cumulative effects of all these precise requirements that are necessary for life to exist on earth we are struck with the reality that these life-giving physical constants of nature were designed to make life possible on our planet. It is inconceivable that every necessary element which allows for an environment—perfect for life—came about by accident. These types of precipitous events do not occur by coincidence. Any one of these 35 necessary constants being altered, even slightly, would cause the death of all advanced life on earth.
The total probability that all 35 of these factors could occur by chance—which make life possible on earth: 1:10^148
Creation And Probability
The mathematical laws of probability demand that any event which has the chance of occurring—beyond 10^50 is considered statistically impossible.
This defines the preceding 34 precise physical constants that are required to make life possible on earth as purposeful, not accidental. The only viable alternative to happenstance is design.
The physical constants necessary for the universe, our solar system, and the earth to support human life became a reality because they were designed this way by an intelligence. Creative attributes come through a designer. The greater the complexity, the greater the designer. The engineering skill that is required in orchestrating a universe capable of supporting life for one planet in a remote area of the universe is staggering.
Sir Frederick Hoyle calculated the probability that life could have spontaneously evolved from nothing as 10^40,000. According to the laws of probability set forth by Dr. Emile Borel, this would define the origin of life as a supernatural event, not possible by random chance or fortuity.
We should remember that the specific type of universe which developed during the hundred trillion-trillion-trillionth of a second in the initial expansion of the universe was critically controlled by forces unknown to scientists today.
From this point and continuing for almost 14 billion years, the expansion of the universe has been continually ordered in such a way that life would be possible in one specific Galaxy, one Solar System, one planet.
At the formation of earth, this design continued in directing the absolute necessary constants of the Solar System and earth, which would allow human life to dwell upon its surface, and prosper. These are the magnanimous acts of a Creator, not the mindless and purposeless accidents which Godless scientists assert.
It is clear that an intelligence with unlimited power designed the universe in this manner, with the clear intention of human life being possible on Earth.
Robert Jastrow, American astronomer, physicist, and cosmologist, said this:
“Astronomers now find they have painted themselves into a corner because they have proven, by their own methods, that the world began abruptly in an act of creation to which you can trace the seeds of every star, every planet, every living thing in this cosmos and on the earth. And they have found that all this happened as a product of forces they cannot hope to discover. That there are what I or anyone would call supernatural forces at work is now, I think, a scientifically proven fact.”
“On Earth, a long sequence of improbable events transpired in just the right way to bring forth our existence, as if we had won a million-dollar lottery a million times in a row. Contrary to the prevailing belief, maybe we are special…
Despite all of the scientific evidence today that proves intelligence acted upon the universe, beginning at -430th of a second, and continued throughout the 14 billion year history of the universe, atheists deny this evidence and insist that the universe came about by accident.
See Part 2: “Atheists Do Not Exist:” The Bible
The Preceding Is From The Book: “Why Jesus Is God, And Others Are Not.”
And “How Intelligence Acted Upon The Universe: Observable Facts Of Science.”
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4 Ibid, Hawkings
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9 Poropudas, Hannu K. J. (1991-12-16). “Using Coral as a Clock”. Skeptic Tank. Web Site: http://www.skepticfiles.org/origins/coralclo.htm
10 Described as the “vacuum cleaner” Michael Zolensky in an article by: Lovett, Richard A. (December 15, 2006). “Stardust’s Comet Clues Reveal Early Solar System”. National Geographic News. Site: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/12/061215-comet-stardust.html
11 Emile Borel, Probabilities and Life, Dover 1962, chapters 1-3
12 Evolution from Space, Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe,J. M. Dent & Sons, 1981, p. 130
13 Emile Borel, Probabilities and Life, Dover 1962, chapters 1-3
14 “The Inflationary Universe: the quest for a new Theory of Cosmic Origins, New York, Perseus Publishing, 1998
15 “A Scientist Caught Between Two Faiths: Interview With Robert Jastrow,” Christianity Today, August 6, 1982
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