When Peter stood before a great crowd of people gathered on the Feast of Pentecost, he cited 25 prophecies from the Hebrew scriptures that describe the Messiah. Every one of these prophecies Peter applied to Jesus in proving that the entire Old Testament predicted Jesus long before He arrived.
“But David was a prophet, and he knew God had promised with an oath that one of David’s own descendants would sit on his throne. David was looking into the future and speaking of the Messiah’s resurrection. He was saying that God would not leave him among the dead or allow his body to rot in the grave. “God raised Jesus from the dead, and we are all witnesses of this. Now he is exalted to the place of highest honor in heaven, at God’s right hand. And the Father, as he had promised, gave him the Holy Spirit to pour out upon us, just as you see and hear today.” ~Acts 2:30-33
What is interesting about this text from Acts 2-4 is that many atheists and critics of the New Testament write that Peter was illiterate and incapable of reading and writing. The evidence left to us by the extant manuscript copies of the New Testament, refutes this assertion. Clearly Peter was proficient in recalling and stating the texts from the Hebrew prophets that predicted a Messiah exactly like Jesus. Peter said that Jesus is the Messiah whom all the prophets predicted.
Was David Also A Prophet?
Many people are not aware that David was also a prophet, from whom the Holy Spirit spoke and enabled David to record prophecies about the Messiah. If we search the scriptures from the Old Testament we see that near the end of David’s life he said:
These are the last words of David: “David, the son of Jesse, speaks—David, the man who was raised up so high, David, the man anointed by the God of Jacob, David, the sweet psalmist of Israel. “The Spirit of the LORD speaks through me; his words are upon my tongue.” ~2 Samuel 23:1-2
David writing under the inspiration and power of the Holy Spirit, wrote many important facts concerning the Messiah. One of the most important of these prophecies is found in Psalms 110. In this texts David said that the Messiah will “sit at the right hand of God.” This fact was well known in Israel by the Pharisees and teachers of the laws of Moses.
Biblical Inerrancy: Is The Bible Accurate And Trustworthy?
When Jesus was being questioned by the Pharisees regarding who He was claiming to be, without hesitation Jesus cited David’s prophecy of the Messiah in Psalms 110 as a proof-text for Himself.
Whose Son Is the Messiah?
“Then, surrounded by the Pharisees, Jesus asked the Pharisees a question: What do you think about the Messiah? Whose son is he?” They replied, “He is the son of David.” Jesus responded, “Then why does David, speaking under the inspiration of the Spirit, call the Messiah ‘my Lord’? For David said, ‘The LORD said to my Lord, Sit in the place of honor at my right hand until I humble your enemies beneath your feet.’ Since David called the Messiah ‘my Lord,’ how can the Messiah be his son?” No one could answer him. And after that, no one dared to ask him any more questions.” ~Matthew 22:41-46
The answer of the Pharisees proves that these men knew and understood that the Messiah would be a descendant of king David. The reason they were certain about this is that David had recorded in 2 Samuel chapter 7:14: “I will be his father, and he will be my son.”
The teachers of the Law understood that the Messiah would be from the line of David, referenced by the words of David. What is interesting about this statement from David is that it also proves David knew the Messiah would be the Son of God. The statements David recorded in 2 Samuel 7:14, are the words of God as they were spoken to him.
When we arrive at Psalms 110, we find David confirming this fact as Jesus cites the words of David before the Pharisees in proving His identity. Jesus asks these men: “Since David called the Messiah ‘my Lord,’ how can the Messiah be his son?”
In other words, Jesus asks, “How can the Messiah be a son of David, a human being, but also be called “Lord, Adonai?”
Jesus is making it clear that David was writing about Him, and stating that when the Messiah comes, He will be both Adonai, and Messiah. This is Jesus proof-text from the Old Testament that the Messiah will be God in human flesh. Jesus uses Psalms 110 to prove He is God, and this encounter with the Pharisees is found in all three Synoptic Gospels.
Why Psalms 110 Is Important To Jesus’ Identity
If you read the books of atheist New Testament scholars, and those of modern Progressive Christian scholars, you will quickly learn that many of these men and women state that Jesus never claimed to be God in the Synoptic Gospels. They say that only John records any reference by Jesus that He is God. This assertion is impeached by the above text from Matthew 22:41-46.
This same encounter with the Pharisees where Jesus cites Psalms 110 as proof that He is God, is also found in Mark 12:35-37, and Luke 20:41-44 
Evidence That Jesus Claimed To Be God
This exchange between Jesus and the Pharisees is important because it establishes the fact that Jesus was not being evasive about who He was claiming to be. Jesus was speaking to Jews who used the scriptures to prove every important fact in the life of a Jew. The texts that David wrote in Psalms 110 about the Messiah, were the way that Jesus proved to these men that He was coming in fulfillment of what David and all the prophets had written concerning the Messiah.
Jesus would not have stated, “I Am God,” He would declare His identity by fulfilling the prophecies of the Messiah recorded in the Hebrew scriptures. This is how the prophets wrote that Messiah would prove Himself.
Jesus is seeking to teach these men that it was clear in all the prophecies of the the Hebrew scriptures that the Messiah would be the Son of God, equal to God, a fulfillment of what David said in Psalms 110.
See The 400 Hebrew Messianic Prophecies
Examining The Text Of Psalms 110:
The LORD (Yahweh) said to my Lord (Adonai), “Sit in the place of honor at my right hand until I humble your enemies, making them a footstool under your feet.” ~Psalms 110:1
Jesus used a familiar method for debate with other Jews, proving a point by asking a question. Jews of that time, and even today, do not make direct statements in debating scripture, they ask a question. By asking a question about what David wrote, it forces the other persons in the debate to look at the texts of 2 Samuel 7:14, and Psalms 110:1.
Jesus is using the Hebrew scriptures, written by David, a prophet of God, to prove that He is God in human flesh. Jesus asserts that this is what David meant in his words.
Hebrew Scholar, Paul, Said That Jesus Is The Object Of Psalms 110
When Stephen was stoned to death in the book of Acts, a young man called Saul was standing with others in the crowd, giving his approval.
Just before Stephen died he said to the leaders of the Jewish leaders were infuriated by his accusation, and they shook their fists at him in rage. But Stephen, full of the Holy Spirit, gazed steadily into heaven and saw the glory of God, and he saw Jesus standing in the place of honor at God’s right hand. And he told them, “Look, I see the heavens opened and the Son of Man standing in the place of honor at God’s right hand!” Then they put their hands over their ears and began shouting. They rushed at him and dragged him out of the city and began to stone him. His accusers took off their coats and laid them at the feet of a young man named Saul. As they stoned him, Stephen prayed, “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.” He fell to his knees, shouting, “Lord, don’t charge them with this sin!” And with that, he died. Saul (Paul) was one of the witnesses, and he agreed completely with the killing of Stephen.” ~Acts 7:54-8:1
Later Paul, recited the words of Stephen in the book of Colossians and Romans, that just as Psalms 110:1 states, Jesus is now sitting at the place of honor at God’s right hand, after He rose from the dead and ascended back to heaven.
“Since you have been raised to new life with Christ, set your sights on the realities of heaven, where Christ sits in the place of honor at God’s right hand” (Psalms 110:1).
“Who then will condemn us? No one—for Christ Jesus died for us and was raised to life for us, and he is sitting in the place of honor at God’s right hand, pleading for us”(Psalms 110:1).
Who Was Paul?
Before he wrote a majority of the text in the New Testament Paul was known as Saul, a member of the distinguished Sanhedrin of Israel.
Paul Received His Training In The Scriptures From Gamaliel
“I am indeed a Jew, born in Tarsus of Cilicia, but brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, taught according to the strictness of our fathers’ law, and was zealous toward God as you all are today.” ~Acts 22:3
The term at the feet of Gamaliel was a common phrase of that day in referring to a long tradition of those who were carefully trained in the scriptures. These students sat on chairs that were close to the ground; while the rabbis who taught them sat on higher chairs, signifying their authority in the scriptures.
Rabban Gamaliel was a Pharisee and expert in the scriptures. During this period of history these teachers of the scriptures were referred to as Doctors of the Law. Today we would say that he has a Doctorate in Scriptures. Gamaliel was referred to as the “thirty-fifth receiver of the traditions.” Gamaliel, having received the “Cabala” (Kabbalah) that came from Moses at Mount Sinai, is described as dying 18 years before Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 A.D.
It is clear from the instruction Paul received from Gamaliel that he was also an expert scholar in the Old Testament scriptures. Paul was perhaps more familiar with the Old Testament prophecies concerning the coming Messiah than any other person who was alive at that time. Paul was convinced that Jesus was the fulfillment of these many Messianic Prophecies, including Psalms 45:6. When Paul penned the words, in Hebrews Chapter 1:8—But to the Son He says: “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom,”—he was pointing to the fact that not only was Jesus the Messiah but He was and is the Living God.
Jesus, The Messiah, Verified By A Venerated Hebrew Scholar:
These facts are of particular importance concerning Paul who was one of the most highly respected Hebrew scholars of that day, trained by the esteemed Rabbi Gamaliel. It was Paul’s judgment that Jesus was the object of every Hebrew prophecy of the Messiah.
Then Paul, as his custom was, went in to them at Thessalonica, and for three Sabbaths reasoned with them from the Scriptures, explaining and demonstrating that the Christ had to suffer and rise again from the dead, and saying, “This Jesus whom I preach to you is the Messiah.” ~Acts 17:2-3
It is significant that the verses of scriptures Paul used to convince the Thessalonians that Jesus is the Messiah are the very same scriptures contained within the 4,042 page book I wrote, “Prophecies of the Messiah, and “These Things Were Written.” In these two publications I detail 400 Hebrew prophecies of the Messiah and how Jesus met every requirement of these scriptures.
How Paul Proves Jesus Is The Messiah From The Hebrew Prophets:
If we simply read through the first chapter of Hebrews we immediately see that Paul believed that Jesus is the fulfillment of all the Hebrew Prophets wrote. Notice in the text, how Paul relates what is written in the Hebrew scriptures to Jesus as he applies the specific prophecies that were written for Messiah.
Paul displays an incredible ability to know and apply scriptures from the Tanakh to Jesus, precisely, to demonstrate from the Tanakh that Jesus is the Messiah.
The Book Of Hebrews And Paul’s Commentary On Jesus
In Hebrews 1:8 Paul writes his commentary on the well known prophecy of the coming Messiah from Psalms 45:6. Paul wrote in the first chapter of Hebrews that this Messianic prophecy was written for Jesus:
Hebrews 1:8-9 “But to the Son (Jesus) He says: “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom. You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness; Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You With the oil of gladness more than Your companions.”
Psalms 45:6-7 Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom. You love righteousness and hate wickedness; Therefore God, Your God, has anointed You With the oil of gladness more than Your companions.
It is clear that Paul believed that Psalms 45:6 was written for the Messiah, and specifically, Jesus Christ. Paul’s quotation of Psalms 45:6 in context with Hebrews 1:8 defines for us accurately who Jesus is:
- The “Son” is Jesus Christ.
- The Son is “God.”
- Psalms 45:6 was a prophecy written for Jesus Christ.
- Jesus Christ is the Messiah promised by the Old Testament.
Paul was convinced that Jesus was the fulfillment of every Messianic Prophecy of the Hebrew scriptures, including Psalms 45:6. When Paul penned the words in Hebrews Chapter 1:8—But to the Son He says: “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom”—he was pointing to the fact that not only was Jesus the Messiah but He was and is the Living God.
Not only do we learn from Psalms 45:6 that God intended from the foundation of the world, that the Messiah would be God but also that Jesus was the person to whom this prophecy was written.
Paul: Former Persecutor Of Jesus And His Followers
This view of Paul concerning Jesus is of particular interest because Paul was formerly known as Saul who vehemently denied that Jesus was the Messiah and did everything possible, by the power of the Sanhedrin, to arrest and put to death—every person who followed Jesus.
Meanwhile, Saul was uttering threats with every breath and was eager to kill the Lord’s followers. So he went to the high priest. He requested letters addressed to the synagogues in Damascus, asking for their cooperation in the arrest of any followers of the Way he found there. He wanted to bring them—both men and women—back to Jerusalem in chains. As he was approaching Damascus on this mission, a light from heaven suddenly shone down around him. He fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to him, “Saul! Saul! Why are you persecuting me?” “Who are you, lord?” Saul asked. And the voice replied, “I am Jesus, the one you are persecuting! Now get up and go into the city, and you will be told what you must do.” ~Acts 9:1-6 (NLT)
As Paul he later commented on this period of his life when he did not understand who Jesus was, he said that he did these things in ignorance:
I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who has given me strength to do his work. He considered me trustworthy and appointed me to serve him, even though I used to blaspheme the name of Christ. In my insolence, I persecuted his people. But God had mercy on me because I did it in ignorance and unbelief. Oh, how generous and gracious our Lord was! He filled me with the faith and love that come from Christ Jesus.
This is a trustworthy saying, and everyone should accept it: “Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners”—and I am the worst of them all. But God had mercy on me so that Christ Jesus could use me as a prime example of his great patience with even the worst sinners. Then others will realize that they, too, can believe in him and receive eternal life. All honor and glory to God forever and ever! He is the eternal King, the unseen one who never dies; he alone is God. Amen. ~1 Timothy 1:12-17 (NLT)
There are many dear Jews in the world today who have taken the words of the ancient Rabbis that Jesus is not the Messiah, but have never really studied the New Testament for themselves.
A Rare Look At True Scholarship
As Paul writes the first chapter of Hebrews, he begins by laying a foundation for his thesis by showing us what the Hebrew prophets wrote about the coming Messiah that God promised.
Step by step Paul lays out several Old Testament verses of scripture and applies each of these to Jesus:
Paul Writing In Hebrews 1:1-4
1 God, who at various times and in various ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets, 2 has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds; 3 who being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, and upholding all things by the word of His power, when He had by Himself purged our sins, sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4 having become so much better than the angels, as He has by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.
Paul begins his thesis of Jesus by telling us that his book of Hebrews is predicated upon the Hebrew scriptures of the Old Testament which describes the Messiah that God promised. Here, Paul states that God has spoken to the world of human beings many time already, by the creation of the universe (Colossians 1), and through the Hebrew scriptures which reveal God. Finally, God has spoken to every person by the presence of His Son, Jesus, who came to earth to show us precisely what God is like. Paul states that it was Jesus who made all that exists, and then He came to earth and died for our sins and has made eternal life possible for anyone who will believe what God said.
Paul Writing In Hebrews 1:5a
For to which of the angels did He ever say: “You are My Son, Today I have begotten You”?
Paul Quotes Hebrews 1:5a From Psalms 2:7
“I will declare the decree: The Lord has said to Me, ‘You are My Son, Today I have begotten You.
Paul’s Writing In Hebrews 1:5b:
And again: “I will be to Him a Father, And He shall be to Me a Son”?
Paul Quotes Hebrews 1:5b From 2 Samuel 7:14
“I will be his Father, and he shall be My son.”
Paul Writing In Hebrews 1:6
“But when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says: “Let all the angels of God worship Him.”
Paul Quotes Hebrews 1:6 From Deuteronomy 32:43
“Rejoice, O Gentiles, with His people; For He will avenge the blood of His servants, And render vengeance to His adversaries; He will provide atonement for His land and His people.”
Now here is where this text that Paul wrote in Hebrews becomes very interesting. What I am about to show you is something that a majority of people in the world will never know. This demonstrates the proficiency of Paul in the Hebrew and Greek scriptures.
Notice that the verse from Deuteronomy 32:43, does not have the text that Hebrews 1:6 states, “Let all the angels of God worship Him.” This is because Paul was quoting from the LXX, or Septuagint Version of the Hebrew scriptures for Deuteronomy 32:43. The Septuagint was written about 300 years before Jesus came to earth. Seventy Hebrew scholars were commissioned to translate the Hebrew scriptures into Greek. This is the version that Paul is quoting from. It is interesting that this Septuagint version of Deuteronomy 32:43 that includes the text, “Let all the angels of God worship Him,” is in the Dead Sea Scrolls that were discovered in 1946.
In the Septuagint Version (LXX), the text that Paul stated in Hebrews 1:6 says:
“Rejoice, O Gentiles, with His people; For He will avenge the blood of His servants, And render vengeance to His adversaries; He will provide atonement for His land and His people. Let all the angels of God worship Him.” ~Deuteronomy 32:43
This means that Paul was such a great scholar that he knew the text of the Septuagint and was able to quote this text for us in the New Testament book of Hebrews 1:6.
For the scholarly who read this, the following is the entire commentary regarding this Septuagint Version of Deuteronomy 32:43:
The text: “Let all the angels of God worship Him,” is the Hebrew: והשׁתחוו לו כל בני אל, and the Greek Translation: καὶ ἐνισχυσάτωσαν αὐτῷ πάντες υἱοὶ Θεοῦ. Literally translated: “and let all the sons of God strengthen themselves in him”; and cf. the use of בני אל, “sons of God.”
Now that you have seen the empirical evidence that Paul was an exemplary scholar in the Hebrew and Greek scriptures, it should give you great confidence that he knew for certain that Jesus had correctly fulfilled all of the Messianic Prophecies of the Messiah from the Old Testament. This is precisely what we see demonstrated in the text of the first chapter of book of Hebrews. This proficiency also proves that only Paul could have written Hebrews. There was no other who wrote like this in the early first century of the Christian church.
Psalms 110 Is Conclusive: It Was Written For Jesus The Messiah
The Lord (Yahweh יהוה) said to my Lord (Adonai אדני), Sit at My right hand…
Verses 1, David calls the Messiah by the name “Lord,” in Hebrew, “Yahweh-Jehovah-God,” who said to my Lord, “Adonai-Lord God Almighty.”
The terms Adonai is not a title that is less than Yahweh, but speaks of the Messiah’s might as He rules over the world.
In one of the original manuscripts, the text reads: “Jehovah said to my Jehovah.”
Because the ancient scribes so highly revered the name of Jehovah (Yahweh), it is possible that the scribes substituted “Adonai” for Jehovah in 134 Old Testament scriptures, including Psalms 110:1.
The name Jehovah should have been retained in these places because this is the correct meaning of these scriptures. Father, Son, and Spirit are all equally One God, Yahweh.
The name Adonai is Lord-Yahweh-Almighty, which carries the same definition as God. The confusion that has resulted from changing Yahweh to Adonai is that some people mistook this change as meaning that Jesus is not Jehovah, as with the Jehovah’s Witnesses Church. Even if Adonai is used, this does not diminish Jesus as less than God but supports Him as equal to God.
In the New Testament, there are several occurrences where the Greek word for God, Theos, is used. Most often, this word is used only in describing the Father. However, there are several places in the New Testament where Theos is also used to describe Jesus Christ.
In the beginning was the Word (Jesus) , and the Word was with God, and the Word was God (Theos). ~John 1:1
…of whom are the fathers and from whom, according to the flesh, Christ came, who is over all, the eternally blessed God (Theos). Amen. ~Romans 9:5
But to the Son (Jesus) He says: “Your throne, O God (Theos), is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom.~Hebrews 1:8
In the Old Testament, the term Lord in Hebrew is Yahweh.
In the New Testament, the word Lord in Greek is Kyrios. When it is used in relation to Jesus, it always means Yahweh or Jehovah.
Kyrios is often used as a polite way to address a person, such as when we call a man, sir. It can also mean Master, as in one who rules over a servant or slave. The Greek translation of the Old Testament called “the Septuagint,” was widely used during the time when Jesus was here on earth. The word Kyrios or Lord was understood by those speaking Greek, as Yahweh or Jehovah. The Greek Old Testament translates Kyrios as Lord 6,814 times.
When we arrive at the New Testament, there are also many occasions where Lord (Kyrios) is used to describe Jesus. This is for good reason. The writers of the New Testament were attributing the title of Jehovah-God to Jesus Christ unmistakably.
It was well understood at the writing of the New Testament that Jesus Christ is Yahweh or God Himself. Why the Jehovah’s Witness church has claimed that Jesus Christ is not Jehovah-God is a great mystery. They did not come to this conclusion by the evidence of the Old and New Testament scriptures.
The translators of the New Testament understood that Jehovah-God and Jesus are one and the same person. Further, it is clear that those who knew Jesus understood and believed that He is the eternal Jehovah-God or Yahweh of the Old Testament.
And Thomas answered and said to Him, “My Lord and my God!”~John 20:28
…looking for the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ… ~Titus 2:13
But to the Son He says: “Your throne, O God, is forever and ever.~Hebrews 1:8
The scriptures of the Old Testament are in complete agreement with the scriptures of the New Testament. They are really just one narrative, of one man, Jesus, the Son of God, The Messiah.
 From Peter’s Dissertation Of Acts Chapters Two And Three:
The first reference in the following are the scriptures from Acts. The reference that follows is the text Peter is quoting from in the Old Testament. No uneducated fisherman would ever be capable of teaching through these 25 verses and apply them to Jesus as the fulfillment of the Old Testament texts. This is, of course, unless he was empowered by the Holy Spirit.
- Acts 2:17-21~Joel 2:28-32
- Acts 2:18~Numbers 11:29
- Acts 2:25-28~Psalms 16:8-11
- Acts 2:29~1 Kings 2:10
- Acts 2:30~2 Samuel 7:12-14
- Acts 2:30~Psalms 89:4
- Acts 2:30~Psalms 132:11
- Acts 2:31~Psalms 16:10
- Acts 2:34-35~Psalms 110:1
- Acts 2:39~Isaiah 43:3
- Acts 2:39~Isaiah 57:19
- Acts 2:40~Deuteronomy 32:5
- Acts 3:13~Exodus 3:6, 15
- Acts 3:18~Psalms 22;
- Acts 3:18~Psalms 41:v9
- Acts 3:18~Psalms 69:4, 21
- Acts 3:18~Isaiah 50:6
- Acts 3:18~Isaiah 53:4-11
- Acts 3:18~Zechariah 12:10
- Acts 3:18~Zechariah 13:7
- Acts 3:22~Deuteronomy 18:15, 18
- Acts 3:23~Leviticus 23:29
- Acts 3:23~Deuteronomy 18:19
- Acts 3:25~Genesis 22:18
- Acts 3:25~Genesis 26:4
 Mark 12:35-37 Later, as Jesus was teaching the people in the Temple, he asked, “Why do the teachers of religious law claim that the Messiah is the son of David? For David himself, speaking under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, said in Psalms 110, ‘The LORD said to my Lord, Sit in the place of honor at my right hand until I humble your enemies beneath your feet.’ Since David himself called the Messiah ‘my Lord,’ how can the Messiah be his son?” The large crowd listened to him with great delight. Luke 20:41-44 Then Jesus presented them with a question. “Why is it,” he asked, “that the Messiah is said to be the son of David? 42 For David himself wrote in the book of Psalms 110: ‘The LORD said to my Lord, Sit in the place of honor at my right hand until I humble your enemies, making them a footstool under your feet.’ Since David called the Messiah ‘Lord,’ how can the Messiah be his son?”
Categories: Agnostics and Skeptics, All Israel will be saved, Atheists, Agnostics and Skeptics, Bart Ehrman, Common objections by Atheists, Defending the Gospel, Empirical Evidence for the Resurrection, Exegesis and Hermeneutics, Israel in the Last Days, Jesus confirmed by secular sources, Jesus is God, Jesus is the Messiah, Jews reject Jesus, Messianic Prophecies, Messianic Prophecy Bible, New Testament Criticism, Origin of the four Gospels, Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus, Psalms 110:1, Resurrection Proven by Secular Sources, Richard Baukham, Robert Clifton Robinson, Salvation through Jesus, Secular sources for Jesus, The Historical Jesus, The Miracles of Jesus, The prophecies of Isaiah 61, The Prophecies of the Messiah, The Prophecy of Daniel 9
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