Many atheist, agnostic, and progressive scholars, assert that Moses is not the author of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Instead, these critics assert (without evidence), that four other unknown persons wrote these texts.
One of the chief criticisms made by atheists regarding Moses as the true author of the first five books of the Bible, is the idea that he could not have written his own obituary in Deuteronomy 34:
In Deuteronomy 32:48-50, God told Moses he was going to die, to prepare himself. Moses writes his own obituary in Deuteronomy 34:1-5. It’s no mystery how Moses was able to write about his own death. He recorded it before he died.
The question of whether Moses really wrote that Noah existed and a global flood happened, is confirmed by the people of the first century, who knew these things were true:
Did Noah exist? Was there a global flood? Jesus confirms Noah (Mt 24:38, Lk 17:27). Paul confirms Noah (Heb 11:7). Peter confirms Noah (1 Pet 3:20, 2 Pet 2:5). If Moses didn’t write Genesis; if Noah didn’t exist, and there was no flood, why didn’t they know this in the first century?
Although we find that several modern scholars have expressed doubts that Moses is the true author of the Torah, there is really no evidence within these five books that proves this assertion. What you will find are the opinions of these critics, their speculation and conjecture, but no proof whatsoever that what they postulate is actually true.
Moses And The First Five Books, Confirmed By 29 Additional Books
If we found Moses and the evidence for him, only in the first five books of the Bible, there might be some ability to impeach the idea that Moses didn’t exist or write these books. The problem for critics is that Moses is cited by 15 additional Old Testament books, and 14 New Testament books.
One of these examples is made by the prophet Jeremiah, in describing the Exodus of the Hebrew people in his prophecy of a future time when God will place His laws within the heart of the Jews in the last days. Jeremiah writes this prophecy; Paul cites Jeremiah in the New Testament, confirming that Moses, and the Exodus described in the Torah, are absolutely true.
Jeremiah 31:31-32: “The day is coming,” says the LORD, “when I will make a new covenant with the people of Israel and Judah. This covenant will not be like the one I made with their ancestors when I took them by the hand and brought them out of the land of Egypt. They broke that covenant, though I loved them as a husband loves his wife,” says the LORD.”
Paul Cites Jeremiah and Moses In Hebrews 8:8-9: “The day is coming, says the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the people of Israel and Judah. This covenant will not be like the one I made with their ancestors when I took them by the hand and led them out of the land of Egypt. They did not remain faithful to my covenant, so I turned my back on them, says the LORD.”
Evidence That Paul Is The Author Of Hebrews
Later in this essay you will see that there are 15 Old Testament books which cite Moses and the Exodus in similar examples to the texts above, from Jeremiah. The immense body of citations for Moses in the Hebrew scriptures, outside the first five books of the Bible, confirm that Moses wrote these five books. These are extant historical manuscript evidence that Moses and the Exodus, as well as the entire Torah, were written by Moses.
Is The New Testament A Valid Historical Narrative?
In order to believe that Moses did not exist—did not write Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy—we would also have to accept that the entire Bible is wrong. This is because Moses and the books He wrote, are cited throughout the entire Bible.
Since we find 29 additional books throughout the Old and New Testaments which also confirm Moses as the author of the Torah, it is not possible that he and the books attributed to him, are a contrivance.
- Impeaching Yale Professor Joel Baden And His Views On The Documentary Hypothesis
- Proving The Exodus Happened, And Moses Wrote The Pentateuch
Sources For Mosaic Authorship in the Old and New Testament:
Then the Lord said to Moses, “Write this for a memorial in the book and recount it in the hearing of Joshua, that I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.”
Now Moses wrote down the starting points of their journeys at the command of the Lord. And these are their journeys according to their starting points:
Only be strong and very courageous, that you may observe to do according to all the law which Moses My servant commanded you; do not turn from it to the right hand or to the left, that you may prosper wherever you go. This Book of the Law shall not depart from your mouth, but you shall meditate in it day and night, that you may observe to do according to all that is written in it. For then you will make your way prosperous, and then you will have good success.
as Moses the servant of the Lord had commanded the children of Israel, as it is written in the Book of the Law of Moses: “an altar of whole stones over which no man has wielded an iron tool.” And they offered on it burnt offerings to the Lord, and sacrificed peace offerings.(see Exodus 20:24–25)
Therefore be very courageous to keep and to do all that is written in the Book of the Law of Moses, lest you turn aside from it to the right hand or to the left.
|1 Kings 2:3||
And keep the charge of the Lord your God: to walk in His ways, to keep His statutes, His commandments, His judgments, and His testimonies, as it is written in the Law of Moses, that you may prosper in all that you do and wherever you turn.
|2 Kings 14:6||
But the children of the murderers he did not execute, according to what is written in the Book of the Law of Moses, in which the Lord commanded, saying, “Fathers shall not be put to death for their children, nor shall children be put to death for their fathers; but a person shall be put to death for his own sin.”(see Deuteronomy 24:16)
|1 Chronicles 22:13||
Then you will prosper, if you take care to fulfill the statutes and judgments with which the Lord charged Moses concerning Israel. Be strong and of good courage; do not fear nor be dismayed.
They assigned the priests to their divisions and the Levites to their divisions, over the service of God in Jerusalem, as it is written in the Book of Moses.(This is taught in the books of Exodus and Leviticus.)
On that day they read from the Book of Moses in the hearing of the people, and in it was found written that no Ammonite or Moabite should ever come into the assembly of God.(see Deuteronomy 23:3–5)
Yes, all Israel has transgressed Your law, and has departed so as not to obey Your voice; therefore the curse and the oath written in the Law of Moses the servant of God have been poured out on us, because we have sinned against Him.
Remember the Law of Moses, My servant, which I commanded him in Horeb for all Israel, with the statutes and judgments.
And Jesus said to him, “See that you tell no one; but go your way, show yourself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, as a testimony to them.”(see Leviticus 14:1–32)
But concerning the dead, that they rise, have you not read in the book of Moses, in the burning bush passage, how God spoke to him, saying, “I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob”?(see Exodus 3:6)
Abraham said to him, “They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.”
And beginning at Moses and all the Prophets, He expounded to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself.
Then He said to them, “These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me.”
For if you believed Moses, you would believe Me; for he wrote about Me.
Moses therefore gave you circumcision (not that it is from Moses, but from the fathers), and you circumcise a man on the Sabbath.
For Moses truly said to the fathers, ‘The Lord your God will raise up for you a Prophet like me from your brethren. Him you shall hear in all things, whatever He says to you.(see Deuteronomy 18:15)
And certain men came down from Judea and taught the brethren, “Unless you are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved.”
So when they had appointed him a day, many came to him at his lodging, to whom he explained and solemnly testified of the kingdom of God, persuading them concerning Jesus from both the Law of Moses and the Prophets, from morning till evening.
For Moses writes about the righteousness which is of the law, “The man who does those things shall live by them.”(see Leviticus 18:1–5)
But I say, did Israel not know? First Moses says: “I will provoke you to jealousy by those who are not a nation, I will move you to anger by a foolish nation.”(see Deuteronomy 32:21)
|1 Corinthians 9:9||
For it is written in the law of Moses, “You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain.” Is it oxen God is concerned about?(see Deuteronomy 25:4)
|2 Corinthians 3:15||
But even to this day, when Moses is read, a veil lies on their heart.
Source: Bodie Hodge and Dr. Terry Mortenson
Examining The Premise Asserted By Critics
There are 40 writers of the 66 books of the Bible. They wrote these texts over a 1,450 year period of history. Most of the writers never met each other. In spite of these facts, 29 of the writers state emphatically that Moses was a real person and he is the writer of the first five books of the Bible, the Torah.
- Did these men conspire together to fabricate a lie that Moses wrote these books?
- Were they simply deceived that Moses was the writer?
- Did they all write in error, that Moses is the writer?
If these assertions were true, this would be the greatest global conspiracy in the history of the world.
- How could 40 writers, publishing 66 books over a 1,450 year period of time, all conspire together to fabricate a man called “Moses,” and then cite him as the writer of Genesis, Exodos, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy in hundreds of texts?
- How could the Jewish people continue to believe for most of their history, that Moses was the writer of these books, and rely so heavily upon him for such a wide expanse of time?
- The answer is logically, historically, forensically, and practically, they didn’t lie or conspire together; every generation of Jewish scholars were certain that Moses wrote the Torah.
The historical, forensic, and archeological evidence, proves that Moses is a real person, and he did write Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Add to these facts of evidence; there is absolutely no proof anywhere that Moses is a fictitious person, or that he did not write these books. All that you will find in the published books and essays of scholars who assert the Documentary Hypothesis, are their opinions and speculation. These critical scholars are members of a group who don’t believe God exists in the first place, or that the Bible is the Word of God. Exactly why anyone would trust the opinions of persons who don’t believe God exists, while acting as experts concerning the important subjects of God in the Bible, is a conundrum.
The intent of these critical scholars is clearly directed at causing people to not trust the Bible, or believe that God exists. If you are a person who requires evidence to prove what people assert, you will not find any evidence from the people who market the Documentary Hypothesis.
The question of who wrote the first five books of the Bible can be settled within the historical texts of the Old Testament. Moses is cited by authors in 15 other Old Testament books, outside the first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible. There are also 96 contemporaneous citations for Moses as the writer of these five books, documented by the writers of the New Testament.
If Moses was not the true writer of the first five books of the Hebrew scriptures, none of the writers of the New Testament—including Jesus—knew this.
We must ask how it is possible that even the scribes, Pharisees, Sadducees, and religious leaders of Israel early in the first century, didn’t know that Moses was not the writer of the Torah?
What we find in the historical records of the Jews from the first century, is that the Pharisees and Sadducees were certain that Moses wrote the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. There is not a single citation from any Jewish leader in the first century who state that Moses was a fictitious person, and he did not write the five books attributed to him.
What we do find in the early historical records of the Jews in the first century, is evidence where they repeatedly cite Moses and the books he wrote—even though they didn’t believe Jesus was the Messiah.
In Matthew 19:3-7, some of the Pharisees came to Jesus to question Him…“why did Moses say in the law that a man could give his wife a written notice of divorce and send her away?” they asked.” The Pharisees are citing Moses in Deuteronomy 24. Jesus later answers the Pharisees citing Moses in Genesis 2:24.
What we find in the extant manuscript evidence of both the Hebrew scriptures, and the Koine-Greek texts, is that all of the writers of these 66 books, understood and had no doubts, that Moses wrote these the first five books of the Torah.
It seems rather preposterous that all through the history of the Jews, no one knew that Moses was not the author, yet modern scholars living 3,450 years later, believe they know that Moses did not write these books.
It is certain that a confirmation of authorship for Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy does not depend upon the critical scholars of the twenty-first century. In the final analysis of these texts, a thorough reading and study of these books, allows us to see for ourselves—without a scholar—the message that is revealed in these texts. There is no degree of literary or historical scholarship that can replace a simple reading of the entire Bible, as a primary method for determining that Moses is a real person who did write the Torah.
This Essay Provides The Primary Citations For Moses As The Writer Of the Torah, In The 29 Other Books Of The Bible
This essay is provided for the purpose of presenting the visual evidence of contemporaneous sources, which proves Moses is the man who wrote these important books.
Atheists, agnostics, and progressive scholars often assert that there are no contemporaneous sources for the events described in the New Testament Gospels. This is not true, there is a substantial body of contemporaneous, secular, non-biblical sources to prove the events described in the New Testament concerning Jesus.
Non-Biblical Sources For Jesus in the Historical Record
Contemporaneous Sources To Prove Moses Is the Writer Of The First Five Books Of The Bible
It is important to understand what a contemporaneous citation means. By definition, “contemporaneous,” is defined by evidence existing or occurring in the same period of time. It doesn’t necessarily mean that the writer himself lived during the same period, although there are instances where the writers did live during the period of antiquity they write about.
Contemporaneous means that the writers, who had knowledge of the events that concern Moses in the historical record, present us with known facts about Him throughout the historical record since Moses. In 15 books written and placed into the Hebrew Bible, after the first five of Moses, the writers cite Moses, 112 times, as a genuine person, who is the writer of the Torah.
- Joshua: 52 citations
- Judges: 4 citations
- 1 Samuel: 2 citations
- 1 Kings: 4 citations
- 2 Kings: 6 citations
- 1 Chronicles: 9 citations
- 2 Chronicles: 12 citations
- Ezra: 3 citations
- Nehemiah: 7 citations
- Psalms: 8 citations
- Isaiah: 2 citations
- Jeremiah: 1 citation
- Daniel: 2 citations
- Micah: 1 citation
- Malachi: 1 citation
This is contemporaneous evidence from persons who had the ability to know the truth of whether Moses was the writer of the first five books of the Bible.
When we examine Joshua, the first book that follows the five books of the Bible, we find that even Joshua, writes 52 citations for Moses, describing him as receiving all of the words that are recorded in Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, directly from God.
Joshua 8:35 “There was not a word of all that Moses had commanded which Joshua did not read before all the assembly of Israel, with the women, the little ones, and the strangers who were living among them.”
What were the words that Moses had commanded, words that Joshua read to the people of Israel, if not the first five books of the Torah? Joshua had no doubts about who the writer was, because he had walked with Moses and had heard and seen these words spoken by the Lord, to Moses, and recorded in the texts of these five books.
Joshua confirms that Moses was the writer of the Torah, and he cites Moses as directed by the Lord to lead the Hebrew people out of Egypt and into the land He promised them:
Joshua 1:13-17 “Remember what Moses, the servant of the LORD, commanded you: ‘The LORD your God is giving you a place of rest. He has given you this land.’ Your wives, children, and livestock may remain here in the land Moses assigned to you on the east side of the Jordan River. But your strong warriors, fully armed, must lead the other tribes across the Jordan to help them conquer their territory. Stay with them until the LORD gives them rest, as he has given you rest, and until they, too, possess the land the LORD your God is giving them. Only then may you return and settle here on the east side of the Jordan River in the land that Moses, the servant of the LORD, assigned to you.” They answered Joshua, “We will do whatever you command us, and we will go wherever you send us. We will obey you just as we obeyed Moses. And may the LORD your God be with you as he was with Moses.”
The testimony of Joshua in the book that bears his name, is contemporaneous confirmation that Moses is the writer. There is no ambiguity in this truth, only the unprovable assertions of atheist scholars who seek to impugn the truth of the extant texts we have today. Joshua, and the men who wrote the 112 citations about Moses after his death, are the evidence that impeaches the Documentary Hypothesis.
The New Testament As A Contemporaneous Source
I have been told on numerous occasions that there are no contemporaneous, secular, non-biblical sources for Jesus outside the New Testament. I have publishes 134 secular, non-biblical citations for Jesus at this website.
It is important to understand what a contemporaneous citation for Moses means. By definition, contemporaneous, means, existing or occurring in the same period of time. It doesn’t necessarily mean that the writer himself lived during the same period.
Contemporaneous means that the writers, who had knowledge of the events that concern Jesus in the historical records they present, knew the facts of Moses and the first five books of the Bible he wrote. One of these sources is Joshua who walked with Moses, heard him speak to the people of Israel, knew that God had spoke to Moses, and continued the journey with the Hebrew people into the land that God has promised.
This essay begins with the evidence presented to us from the writers of the historical narratives of the New Testament, which provide us with a substantial record that cites Moses in 96 separate places of the Koine-Greek scriptures.
We begin with Jesus who cites Moses as a known and trusted writer of the first five books, and the authority upon which His identity as the Messiah is proven, and all the events that Jesus said and did— recorded in the New Testament.
Jesus Confirms Moses As The Writer Of The Torah
The first question we should ask concerning the testimony of Moses that Jesus cites in the New Testament, is whether Jesus can be relied upon to tell the truth.
The New Testament confirms that Jesus never lied, in fact, Jesus is described as sinless, by the men who walked with Him for three and one-half years.
Peter, 1 Peter 2:21-22 “… Christ suffered for you. He is your example, and you must follow in his steps. He never sinned…”
Paul, Hebrews 4:15 “Jesus, this High Priest of ours understands our weaknesses, for he faced all of the same testings we do, yet he did not sin.”
Paul, 2 Corinthians 5:21 “For God made Christ, who never sinned, to be the offering for our sin, so that we could be made right with God through Christ.”
Jesus said of Himself: John 8:46-47 “Which of you can truthfully accuse me of sin?”
Have you ever known anyone who was sinless? I certainly have not, and realizing that Jesus was perfect in every way, must have come as a tremendous surprise to the men who became His disciples. When Peter realized the sinless, Holy nature of Jesus, he said to Him: ““Depart from me, Lord, for I am a sinful man, O Lord!” ~Luke 5:8
The fact of Jesus perfection become extremely important as we examine what Jesus said and did in the records of the New Testament. One of the relevant facts of Jesus, as we read the narrative about Him in the four Gospels, is the statements He made regarding Moses and the texts from the Hebrew scriptures that Jesus often cited. Jesus repeatedly stated that Moses was a real person, and that He had written the Torah. Understanding that Jesus never lied about anything, it is certain that He told the truth regarding Moses.
The men who said Jesus had never sinned, would not have said this about Him, if they believed that Jesus had lied about Moses being the writer of the texts that He often cited. If the religious leaders of Israel believed that Jesus had cited Moses as the writer of the Torah, when He had not, we would have found evidence of their objection in the extant texts of the New Testament.
We find many objections to Jesus by the Pharisees and religious leaders, but not one regarding a false statement made by Him regarding Moses as the writers of the first five books.
With these things in mind, when we observe Jesus making statements about Moses from various places in the Torah, we can have confidence that Jesus was telling us the truth. In this matter, we also have confidence that scholars today who assert that Moses did not write these texts, are the real liars.
First let us examine what Jesus said about Moses in the four Gospels, which is critical to confirming that Moses was the writer of Genesis. As the Pharisees come to Jesus, they want to try and prove that He is not the Messiah He is claiming to be. These men want to publicly humiliate Jesus before the people. In their attempt to discredit Jesus, they begin to question Him as legal representatives of the Law.
The men who are questioning Jesus are the “Doctors of the Law.” The equivalency of their education and knowledge at that time, was equal to our Doctorates today. Matthew records that when they come to Jesus, their goal is to test Him, and discredit Him by impeaching the answers He presents.
Jesus, Matthew 19:3-8
“The Pharisees also came to Him, testing Him, and saying to Him, “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for just any reason?” And Jesus answered and said to them, “Have you not read that He who made them at the beginning made them male and female,’ and said, For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh’? So then, they are no longer two but one flesh. Therefore what God has joined together, let not man separate.”
Jesus, in proving the texts from Genesis, confirming that God never wanted divorce. In doing this, Jesus cites Moses in the Book of Genesis:
Moses, Genesis 2:24
“Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and they shall become one flesh.”
If you doubt that Jesus is proving that Moses wrote this texts from Genesis, notice what the Pharisees answer back to Jesus:
The Pharisees said to Him, “Why then did Moses command to give a certificate of divorce, and to put her away?” He said to them, “Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, permitted you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it was not so.”
The extant manuscript evidence of the New Testament records that 2,000 years ago, the Pharisees understood that this text Jesus is citing in Matthew chapter 19, was written by Moses.
“They said to Him, “Why then did Moses command to give a certificate of divorce, and to put her away?” Jesus said to them, “Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, permitted you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it was not so. And I say to you, whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and whoever marries her who is divorced commits adultery.”
Jesus answers the Pharisees with a second reference to Moses as the author of Genesis: Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, permitted you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it was not so.”
In Hebrews 7:14, Paul also cites Moses as the writer of Genesis: “For it is evident that our Lord arose from Judah, of which tribe Moses spoke nothing concerning priesthood.” Paul is referencing the text in Genesis 49:10, where Moses writes concerning the Messiah: “The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from his descendants, until the coming of the one to whom it belongs, the one whom all nations will honor.”
Jesus confirms four important facts in His answers:
- Genesis 2:24, is the Word of God.
- Moses is the writer, God is the source of the law.
- The Pharisees believed Moses was the writer of Genesis 2:24, and the text they cite, as from Moses, Deuteronomy 24:1: “When a man takes a wife and marries her, and it happens that she finds no favor in his eyes because he has found some uncleanness in her, and he writes her a certificate of divorce.“
- Jesus is asserting that His authority is greater than the Pharisees, greater than Moses, that He is the actual source of the command that a man and woman should never divorce, as this was never His will for man and woman.
We see this later in Jesus’ statements to the Pharisees, “You have heard that it was said:”
The Pharisees would often quote a greater, well-respected rabbi in making certain points of the law. Jesus did not quote any man; He spoke with the authority of God Himself. In this way, He was indicating that His authority was greater than all of their traditions or the teaching of the greatest rabbis.
“You have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not murder, and whoever murders will be in danger of the judgment.’ But I say to you that whoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment.”~Matthew 5:21-22
“You have heard that it was said to those of old, ‘You shall not commit adultery.’ But I say to you that whoever looks at a woman to lust for her has already committed adultery with her in his heart.” ~Matthew 5:27-28
This method of teaching often confounded the people of Israel because of the authority with which Jesus spoke.
“And so it was, when Jesus had ended these sayings, that the people were astonished at His teaching, for He taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.” ~Matthew 7:28-29
There were two types of teachers of the law in Israel during the time when Jesus taught the people: the Torah teachers, who were only permitted to teach previously accepted interpretations of God’s law by respected rabbis; the second, s’mikhah, those who had developed such great knowledge and proficiency in the law of God, that they were permitted to teach new interpretations of the law. When the leaders of Israel listened to Jesus teach, His authority and knowledge of the law was unmistakable. As a result of Jesus’ interpretations of the law, the chief priests and the elders asked Him where He received His authority to teach these new expositions of the law.
“Now when He came into the temple, the chief priests and the elders of the people confronted Him as He was teaching, and said, “By what authority are You doing these things? And who gave You this authority?” ~Matthew 21:23
All that the leaders of Israel knew about Jesus was that He was the son of the carpenter—Joseph and Mary from Nazareth. In their opinion, Jesus did not have the authority to make such interpretations of the laws of God.
“The Jews then complained about Him, because He said, “I am the bread which came down from heaven.” And they said, “Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? How is it then that He says, ‘I have come down from heaven’?” ~John 6:41
We should not miss the subtlety of this verse from John 6:41, as there is an implied derision in this statement. “Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know?” It was well known amongst the leaders of Israel that Mary was already pregnant with Jesus when she married Joseph. The Pharisees considered Jesus the illegitimate son of an adulterous woman. In their minds, God would never give wisdom in the law of God to a man who came from such a scurrilous background. We know that Jesus was born by the Holy Spirit and that He was born without sin.
In fact, through the Hebrew prophets, God described the Messiah as One who would possess great knowledge in the correct purpose of God’s law.
Jesus informs the leaders of Israel that their understanding of the law was not correct. In saying this, He was elevating His authority above all other authority. Only God has the right to make laws and the ability to correctly interpret those laws. This is a seldom-noticed section of scripture that really speaks to the identity of Jesus. By stating, “but I say to you,” He is claiming that He is God, the maker of all laws.
We see this artifact of the New Testament Gospels throughout the testimony of the men who saw and heard Jesus. Moses was a well-know and genuine person from the early history of the Jews, who Jesus and all the writers of the New Testament, knew was the writer of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
We will see Jesus citing texts from Moses that are written in these Old Testament books, in the following citations by Jesus from the New Testament:
Moses, Leviticus 14:3-4
“And the priest shall go out of the camp, and the priest shall examine him; and indeed, if the leprosy is healed in the leper, then the priest shall command to take for him who is to be cleansed two living and clean birds, cedar wood, scarlet, and hyssop.”
Jesus, Matthew 8:1-4
“When He had come down from the mountain, great multitudes followed Him. And behold, a leper came and worshiped Him, saying, “Lord, if You are willing, You can make me clean.” Then Jesus put out His hand and touched him, saying, “I am willing; be cleansed.” Immediately his leprosy was cleansed. And Jesus said to him, “See that you tell no one; but go your way, show yourself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, as a testimony to them” (Jesus citing Moses in Leviticus 14:3-4).
A leper healed by Jesus is told to go and show himself to the priests, a direct quote from Moses in Leviticus 14:3-4. This is Jesus’ confirmation that Moses is the writer of Leviticus.
Moses, Exodus 20:12
“Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long upon the land which the LORD your God is giving you.”
Moses, Deuteronomy 5:16
“Honor your father and your mother, as the LORD your God has commanded you, that your days may be long, and that it may be well with you in the land which the LORD your God is giving you.”
Jesus, Mark 7:9-13
“Jesus said to them, “All too well you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition. For Moses said, Honor your father and your mother’; and, He who curses father or mother, let him be put to death.’ But you say, ‘If a man says to his father or mother, “Whatever profit you might have received from me is Corban”—’ (that is, a gift to God), then you no longer let him do anything for his father or his mother, making the word of God of no effect through your tradition which you have handed down. And many such things you do.”
The Jews of the first century had manipulated the texts that Moses had written in Exodus 20:12, and Deuteronomy 5:16, that requires every Jew to show honor to their parents in their older years and take care of them, financially, and by personal effort.
The Pharisees changed this law and instituted the tradition of Corban, with said that if a Jew had money that was intended for their parents elderly care, they could classify these funds as “dedicated to God,” and therefore, not have to spend it on their parents.
In this discussion between Jesus and the leaders of Israel, we can confirm that what “Moses said…,” as cited by Jesus here in this text, is a confirmation that Moses was the known writer of Exodus and Deuteronomy, during the first century.
If Moses was not the writer of these texts, it is certain that neither Jesus nor the Pharisees would refer to Moses as the source of these texts. This is again, confirmation that the conclusions and assertions of Yale Professor, Joel Baden, are in error. Moses did write the first five books of the Torah, and the proof is that the doctors of the law (Phd’s) of the first century Jews, confirm Moses as the writer.
Moses, Deuteronomy 25:5
“If brothers dwell together, and one of them dies and has no son, the widow of the dead man shall not be married to a stranger outside the family; her husband’s brother shall go in to her, take her as his wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her.”
Jesus, Matthew 22:23-24
“The same day the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection, came to Him and asked Him, saying: “Teacher, Moses said that if a man dies, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife and raise up offspring for his brother.”
This discussion began as a result of a challenge that was launched by the Pharisees, against Jesus, to try and trap him by the wisdom of these leaders of Israel: “Tell us, therefore, what do You think? Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?” ~Matthew 22:17
“But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, “Why do you test Me, you hypocrites? Show Me the tax money.” So they brought Him a denarius. And He said to them, “Whose image and inscription is this?” They said to Him, “Caesar’s.” And He said to them, “Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.” When they had heard these words, they marveled, and left Him and went their way.” ~Matthew 22:18-22
Because Jesus had impeached the Pharisees with His wisdom, the Sadducees came after the above challenge, to show that they were wiser than the Pharisees, and could easily show that Jesus was a fraud.
In the paradox that the Sadducees presented to Jesus, they believed that Jesus would not be able to solve the difficulty they presented. These men gave authority to their illustration by stating that Moses had said in Deuteronomy 25:5, that the brother of a man who has died, should marry his widow. The Sadducees asked Jesus what would happen if there were seven brothers and they all died, while the surviving brothers would all marry the same women, who would be married to her after the resurrection had taken place.
Jesus solved the problem by showing that the premise of their question was incorrect; there is no marriage in heaven.
This is often a problem that I see with questions asked by atheist about the Bible, in which they think they are presenting an unsolvable conflict. The problem is often in the question they are asking, not is the solution. For example: atheists will often imagine that differences in details presented by the four Gospels, defines them as contradictory. What has actually occurred is that each witness who was at the scene when Jesus said or did a particular thing, remembered details the other witnesses did not mention.
These added details are not contradictions, they can all be true at the same time. In order for a genuine contradiction to be true, details must not be possible at the same time. In every alleged contradiction presented by atheists and critics of the New Testament, all the events described by the witnesses who wrote the four Gospels, can all be true at the same time. The renders every assertion of contradiction, untrue.
The Sadducees had a Cognitive Bias that there is no resurrection, so they formulated a scenario that they thought, would impeach the idea of the Pharisees, who taught that Moses had predicted a resurrection of the faithful who trusted in God.
When our bias is framed incorrectly, by an error of assumption, our view of the texts will also be in error.
The importance of these texts from Deuteronomy 25:4, and Matthew 22:23-24, is that the leaders of Israel cite Moses in seeking to prove their assertion that there is no resurrection from the dead. Even though it was framed as a hostile statement, by using the name of Moses as the writer of Deuteronomy 25:5, they prove that the leaders of Israel during that early period of the first century, knew that Moses was the writer of these texts.
In the texts of Matthew 23:1-3, Jesus is condemning the actions of the scribes and Pharisees who were appointed by God to rule the people of Israel with righteousness. The problem was that these men were religious hypocrites. They taught the people the Law of Moses, but they, themselves, did not do what Moses said.
The texts which support what Jesus is saying the the scribes and Pharisees, came from Ezra, and Nehemiah. These prophets also cited Moses as the true writer of the first five books of the Bible,
Jesus, Matthew 23:1-3, Mark 12:38; Luke 20:45
“Then Jesus spoke to the multitudes and to His disciples, saying: “The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat. Therefore whatever they tell you to observe, that observe and do, but do not do according to their works; for they say, and do not do.
Moses, Deuteronomy 33:3-5
“Yes, He loves the people; All His saints are in Your hand; They sit down at Your feet; Everyone receives Your words. Moses commanded a law for us, A heritage of the congregation of Jacob. And He was King in Jeshurun, When the leaders of the people were gathered, All the tribes of Israel together.”
“This Ezra came up from Babylon; and he was a skilled scribe in the Law of Moses, which the LORD God of Israel had given. The king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the LORD his God upon him.”
“Now all the people gathered together as one man in the open square that was in front of the Water Gate; and they told Ezra the scribe to bring the Book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded Israel. So Ezra the priest brought the Law before the assembly of men and women and all who could hear with understanding on the first day of the seventh month. 3 Then he read from it in the open square that was in front of the Water Gate from morning until midday, before the men and women and those who could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive to the Book of the Law.
So Ezra the scribe stood on a platform of wood which they had made for the purpose; and beside him, at his right hand, stood Mattithiah, Shema, Anaiah, Urijah, Hilkiah, and Maaseiah; and at his left hand Pedaiah, Mishael, Malchijah, Hashum, Hashbadana, Zechariah, and Meshullam. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people, for he was standing above all the people; and when he opened it, all the people stood up. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God.
Then all the people answered, “Amen, Amen!” while lifting up their hands. And they bowed their heads and worshiped the LORD with their faces to the ground.
Also Jeshua, Bani, Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodijah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Hanan, Pelaiah, and the Levites, helped the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place. So they read distinctly from the book, in the Law of God; and they gave the sense, and helped them to understand the reading.
And Nehemiah, who was the governor, Ezra the priest and scribe, and the Levites who taught the people said to all the people, “This day is holy to the LORD your God; do not mourn nor weep.” For all the people wept, when they heard the words of the Law.”
In the texts of Nehemiah, above, we can observe just how important and revered the writing of Moses was to the people of Israel:
- All the people of Israel told Ezra to bring the Book of the Law of Moses, so they could hear it.
- The people were attentive to hear and understand the words Moses had written.
- When Ezra opened the books that Moses had written, all the people stood up.
- The priests who assisted, helped the people to understand the Law of Moses.
- They read distinctly from the books Moses had written.
- Nehemiah the governor, and Ezra the priest, said that day was holy to the Lord.
- All the people wept when they heard the words that Moses had written.
The events that are recorded above in the book of Nehemiah, took place about 1,000 years after Moses wrote the first five books of the Bible. Even so many years after Moses recorded these words, the people of Israel still highly revered the words Moses wrote, and they wept as they were read to them from what Moses said.
Does this sound to you like Moses did not write the Torah? Do these texts that Nehemiah recorded sound to you like there was any confusion over who the writer of these texts were? Does it seem that perhaps Nehemiah and the people of Israel thought four other writers had written Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy?
As you can see in the extant manuscript evidence of the texts from Nehemiah, texts that Jesus is citing before the Scribes and Pharisees, Jesus and all the people of the first century, confirm with the prophets, Ezra and Nehemiah, that Moses is the only writer of the Torah.
The texts from Exodus chapter 3, is an interesting place in the Old Testament that Jesus referred to twice in His discussions with the Pharisees. In chapter 3:1-6, Jesus describes the “Burning Bush,” where God speaks to Moses. Later in
Moses, Exodus 3:1-6
“One day Moses was tending the flock of his father-in-law, Jethro, the priest of Midian. He led the flock far into the wilderness and came to Sinai, the mountain of God. There the Angel of the LORD appeared to him in a blazing fire from the middle of a bush. Moses stared in amazement. Though the bush was engulfed in flames, it didn’t burn up. “This is amazing,” Moses said to himself. “Why isn’t that bush burning up? I must go see it.”
“When the LORD saw Moses coming to take a closer look, God called to him from the middle of the bush, “Moses! Moses!” “Here I am!” Moses replied. “Do not come any closer,” the LORD warned. “Take off your sandals, for you are standing on holy ground. I am the God of your father—the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” When Moses heard this, he covered his face because he was afraid to look at God.”
“But Moses protested, “If I go to the people of Israel and tell them, ‘The God of your ancestors has sent me to you,’ they will ask me, ‘What is his name?’ Then what should I tell them?” God replied to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM. Say this to the people of Israel: I AM has sent me to you.” God also said to Moses, “Say this to the people of Israel: Yahweh, the God of your ancestors—the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob—has sent me to you.”
“This is my eternal name, my name to remember for all generations.“Now go and call together all the elders of Israel. Tell them, ‘Yahweh, the God of your ancestors—the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob—has appeared to me. He told me, “I have been watching closely, and I see how the Egyptians are treating you. have promised to rescue you from your oppression in Egypt. I will lead you to a land flowing with milk and honey—the land where the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites now live.”’
Jesus, Luke 20:37-38
“But now, as to whether the dead will be raised—even Moses proved this when he wrote about the burning bush. Long after Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob had died, he referred to the Lord as ‘the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ 38 So he is the God of the living, not the dead, for they are all alive to him.”
Jesus, John 8:56-59
Your father Abraham rejoiced as he looked forward to my coming. He saw it and was glad.” The people said, “You aren’t even fifty years old. How can you say you have seen Abraham?” Jesus answered, “I tell you the truth, before Abraham was even born, I AM!” 59 At that point they picked up stones to throw at him. But Jesus was hidden from them and left the Temple.
Jesus tells the Pharisees that He is the “I AM,” of Exodus 3:13-17, also confirming that Moses wrote Exodus, and Jesus personally spoke to both Abraham and Moses. This is how Jesus could easily cite Moses in the New Testament. Jesus had met Abraham in Genesis 12 and 15, and in Exodus 3:13-17.
These are stellar confirmations by Jesus that Moses is the true and only writer of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
Hebrews Chapters 8-10, Confirm That Moses Led The Hebrew People Out Of Egypt.
When we examine the texts of Hebrews chapters 8-10, we are awestruck by the number of citations that Paul includes in these texts, confirming that Moses was a real person, and he led the early Hebrew people out of slavery from Egypt.
Paul begins Hebrews 8 by a thorough explanation of how Jesus became our Great High Priest in His entry into our world. It was through Jesus’ death for all sins that He became our High Priest. Paul cites texts from Exodus where God told Moses exactly how to build the Tabernacle in the desert.
Exodus 24:1-4 “Then the LORD instructed Moses: “Come up here to me…Only Moses is allowed to come near to the LORD…Then Moses went down to the people and repeated all the instructions and regulations the LORD had given him…Then Moses carefully wrote down all the LORD’s instructions.”
Exodus 25:40 “Be sure that you make everything according to the pattern I have shown you here on the mountain.”
Paul cites this text in Exodus 24 and 25, in describing the Tabernacle in heaven that Jesus took His own blood after He died for all sins, and placed it upon the True Tabernacle in heaven for all sins.
Hebrews 8:5 “...For when Moses was getting ready to build the Tabernacle, God gave him this warning: “Be sure that you make everything according to the pattern I have shown you here on the mountain.”
Paul was not a man who made mistakes concerning events of History that concerned his people, the Jews. Paul knew that Moses was the writer of the Torah, and that Moses had received precise instructions from the Lord during their exodus from Egypt on how to build the Tabernacle in the desert.
The Lord was very specific to Moses that what he was building was an exact replica of the True Tabernacle that the Lord had built in heaven. After Jesus died and rose again, Paul says that Jesus took His own blood and placed it upon the Altar of this Tabernacle in heaven to pay for the sins of the world.
Hebrews 9:11-12 “So Christ has now become the High Priest over all the good things that have come. He has entered that greater, more perfect Tabernacle in heaven, which was not made by human hands and is not part of this created world. With his own blood—not the blood of goats and calves—he entered the Most Holy Place once for all time and secured our redemption forever.”
It is not possible that Paul made a mistake in citing Moses, the Tabernacle he built in the desert during the Exodus, or that Jesus had carried His own blood into the True Tabernacle for our sins. Paul knew these things were true, and he was certainly qualified to write these texts for us.
It is by what Paul wrote concerning the actions of Moses in the first five books of the Bible, that we have confidence that Moses was a real person who did write these texts, as God had personally dictated these instructions to Moses, and he carried out the Lord’s instructions exactly.
Critics who assert the Documentary Hypothesis, stating that Moses did not write these texts, ignore the massive historical evidence of the extant New Testament manuscripts which confirm Moses as the writer of the Torah. This evidence is impossible to impeach, and it does make the assertions of those who say the first five books are not trustworthy, look foolish.
Paul Cites Moses, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, In His Letter To The Hebrews
One of the most important places in the New Testament that cites Moses and the Torah, was written by Hebrew scholar, Paul. In the text of Hebrews Paul describes the Old Testament sacrifices that Moses gave to the Hebrew people, as incomplete, and not capable of removing sins.
The entire thrust of Hebrews chapters 7-10, was written to explain how the death and resurrection of the Messiah was a new covenant that God gave to the world that does perfectly remove all sins.
In Hebrews 7:14, Paul also cites Moses as the writer of Genesis: “For it is evident that our Lord arose from Judah, of which tribe Moses spoke nothing concerning priesthood.” Paul is referencing the text in Genesis 49:10, where Moses writes concerning the Messiah: “The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from his descendants, until the coming of the one to whom it belongs, the one whom all nations will honor.”
Paul takes careful steps to detail how the Old Testament procedures for animal sacrifices, could not do what God intended—remove sins—because of the weakness of human beings. If the Hebrew people could have perfectly kept the laws that God gave them through Moses, then these animal sacrifices would have accomplished their intended goal.
Because human beings cannot keep the laws of God, the old covenant method of animal sacrifices for sins, failed.
Paul cites Moses and the texts of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, extensively in chapters 7-9 of his letter to the Hebrews. It is the authority of what Moses wrote concerning the Old Testament law, that Paul used these examples to explain how Jesus perfect and sinless life was able to do what these Old Testament laws for sacrifice, could not accomplish.
Paul stated that by Jesus sinless life, He was able to offer to the Father, a perfect sacrifice for all sins, one time, forever. There are several citations for the authority of Moses in his letter to the Hebrews, that validates Moses and the Torah, as written by Moses, as God gave these texts to Moses:
Hebrews Chapters 7-9: We Find 33 Citations From Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy:
In the following citations, first the chapter of Hebrews, then the text from the Torah that Paul cites Moses as the authority for what he writes concerning Jesus.
- Hebrews 7:14/Genesis 49:10
- Hebrews 8:5/Exodus 25:40
- Hebrews 9:1/Exodus 25:8
- Hebrews 9:2/Exodus 25:23-40, 26:1-30, Leviticus 24:5
- Hebrews 9:3/Exodus 26:1-35
- Hebrews 9:4/Exodus 16:33, 25:10-16, 30:1-6, Numbers 17:8-10, Deuteronomy 10:3-5
- Hebrews 9:5/Exodus 25:17-22
- Hebrews 9:6/Numbers 18:2-6
- Hebrews 9:7/Exodus 30:10, Leviticus 16:2,14-15
- Hebrews 9:10/Leviticus 11:2, 25; 15:8,Numbers 6:3; 19:13
- Hebrews 9:13/Leviticus 16:3,14-15, Numbers 9:19,17
- Hebrews 9:18/Exodus 24:6-8, Leviticus 14:4, Numbers 19:6
- Hebrews 9:20/Exodus 24:8
- Hebrews 9:21/Leviticus 8:15, 19
- Hebrews 9:22/Leviticus 17:11
- Hebrews 9:27/Genesis 3:19
These 33 citations from Paul, referencing Moses as the writer of the above texts, is a substantial proof-text to validate that the first five books of the Bible, were written by Moses and no other.
Hebrews Chapter 9, Paul Cites Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, in describing the Tabernacle that Moses erected in the desert. If Moses did not write these texts, but four others are the true source, why didn’t Paul know this? It must have been a tremendous disappointment to Paul to learn that his entire education in the Hebrew scriptures was a complete waste of time (chagrin).
Paul cites Exodus 25:8: in Hebrews 9:1: “That first covenant between God and Israel had regulations for worship and a place of worship here on earth.”
Paul cites Exodus 25:23-40, 26:1-30, Leviticus 24:5, in Hebrews 9:2: “There were two rooms in that Tabernacle. In the first room were a lampstand, a table, and sacred loaves of bread on the table. This room was called the Holy Place.”
Paul cites Exodus 26:31-33, in Hebrews 9:3: “Then there was a curtain, and behind the curtain was the second room called the Most Holy Place.”
Paul cites Exodus 16:33, 25:10-16, 30:1-6, Numbers 17:8-10, Deuteronomy 10:3-5, in Hebrews 9:4: “In that room were a gold incense altar and a wooden chest called the Ark of the Covenant, which was covered with gold on all sides. Inside the Ark were a gold jar containing manna, Aaron’s staff that sprouted leaves, and the stone tablets of the covenant.
Paul cites Exodus 25:17-22, in Hebrews 9:5: “Above the Ark were the cherubim of divine glory, whose wings stretched out over the Ark’s cover, the place of atonement. But we cannot explain these things in detail now.”
Paul cites Numbers 18:2-6, in Hebrews 9:6: “When these things were all in place, the priests regularly entered the first room as they performed their religious duties.”
Paul cites Exodus 30:10, Leviticus 16:2, 14:15, in Hebrews 9:7: “But only the high priest ever entered the Most Holy Place, and only once a year. And he always offered blood for his own sins and for the sins the people had committed in ignorance.”
Paul cites Leviticus 11:2, 25, 15:8, Numbers 6:3, 19:13, in Hebrews 9:10: “For that old system deals only with food and drink and various cleansing ceremonies—physical regulations that were in effect only until a better system could be established.
Paul cites 19 texts from Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, in describing the Tabernacle that Moses erected in the desert. If Moses did not write these texts, and their authorship is in question, why didn’t Paul know this? There was no greater Hebrew scholar in the first century, than Paul. Only his teacher, Gamaliel, knew more about the Hebrew texts of the Torah. Neither Gamaliel, Paul, or any other Hebrew scholar, ever disputed that Moses was the writer of these first five books.
The meticulous detail of Paul in citing the writing of Moses in the Torah, is a sufficient impeachment of all modern scholars who assert that Moses did not write these texts. There is no possibility of impeaching extant manuscript evidence from both the Old and New Testaments that prove Moses is the true author of these texts, and replacing this certainty with the opinions and conjectures of modern scholars.
Greek Physician, Luke, Validates Moses As The Writer Of the First 5 Books
In the text of Luke chapter 16, Jesus tells us a story that no other writer in the New Testament describes. This is primarily due to the diligence of Luke as a Greek Physician of exceptional intelligence and thorough detail.
The opening statement of Luke’s Gospel states at the beginning of His narrative about Jesus, that “many people had set out to record their testimony about what they had seen and heard concerning Jesus.” Luke determined that although he had not been with these men to see Jesus Himself, the men and women who had seen Jesus and heard Him speak, were still alive to be interviewed, and their testimony could be recorded for posterity.
Many critics of the eyewitness testimony of the men who saw and heard Jesus, often say that eyewitness testimony is not reliable. While this may be true in criminal cases, it is not true in matters of history where people saw and heard what was documented in the records of antiquity.
The Reliability of Historical, Eyewitness Testimony
In this regard, eyewitnesses are the highest form of Literary Criticism, considered the best evidence to verify that events really took place. The New Testament is filled with eyewitness testimony. There are 134 statements by the writers of the New Testament, where they say that they saw and heard Jesus. Luke met with these men who had been with Jesus, saw Him, heard what He had said, who had been with Him, “since the beginning of Jesus’ ministry.”
We can discern by what Luke wrote, that he was a man of exceptional character, writing in greater detail about these events, than any other writer of the New Testament. One of the worlds greatest Archeologist said the following about Luke’s skill as a historian:
“Luke is a historian of the first rank; not merely are his statements of fact trustworthy…this author should be placed along with the very greatest historians.”
One of the stunning narratives that Luke records which came directly from Jesus, is the story about two men who had died. One was a rich man, the other poor. The rich man died in his sins, without the provision God made through the Messiah, to forgive all sins, and was taken to the prison of Hell. The poor man died trusting in God, and was taken to paradise. Before Jesus died for all sins and rose from the dead, the Old Testament believers were kept in a place called “Paradise.” After Jesus rose from the dead, all those who died before He came and made His one sacrifice for all sins, were taken by Jesus to heaven. Today when anyone dies trusting in Jesus, they are taken immediately into the presence of the Lord in heaven.
This Is What Happens The Moment You Die
Jesus, Luke 16:19-31: The Rich Man and Lazarus
“There was a certain rich man who was clothed in purple and fine linen and fared sumptuously every day. But there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, full of sores, who was laid at his gate, desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man’s table. Moreover the dogs came and licked his sores. So it was that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels to Abraham’s bosom (Paradise). The rich man also died and was buried. And being in torments in Hell, he lifted up his eyes and saw Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.
“Then he cried and said, ‘Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus that he may dip the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.’ But Abraham said, ‘Son, remember that in your lifetime you received your good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things; but now he is comforted and you are tormented. And besides all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, so that those who want to pass from here to you cannot, nor can those from there pass to us.’
“Then he said, ‘I beg you therefore, father, that you would send him to my father’s house, for I have five brothers, that he may testify to them, lest they also come to this place of torment.’ Abraham said to him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them.’ And he said, ‘No, father Abraham; but if one goes to them from the dead, they will repent.’ But he said to him, If they do not hear Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rise from the dead.’ ”
The significance of these texts, confirming Moses as the writer of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, by Jesus Himself, is significant. The texts of the New Testament are clear that Jesus always told the truth about everything He said. There is not a single place in the New Testament where there is any record that Jesus ever committed any sin. He is described as perfect, spotless, without one blemish:
Jesus claimed He was sinless:
“Which of you convicts Me of sin?” ~John 8:46
Peter said Jesus was sinless:
“Knowing that you were not redeemed with corruptible things, like silver or gold, from your aimless conduct received by tradition from your fathers, but with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot.” ~1 Peter 1:18-19
Paul stated that Jesus was sinless:
“For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin.” ~Hebrews 4:15
Understanding that we have seen several citations by Jesus, for Moses as the writer of the first five books of the Bible, it is not possible that Jesus has lied. There was no greater scholar in Israel during the time that Jesus conducted His public ministry for three and one-half years. Not one of the Doctors of the Law in Israel could defeat the wisdom and knowledge of Jesus concerning the hebrew scriptures.
Even the prophets of the Old Testament had written that when the Messiah arrived, He would have the singular ability to explain all the scripture to us in their true meaning and purpose. This is exactly what we see in the testimony of the men who recorded what Jesus said when the leaders of Israel tried to trap Him with their scriptures. Jesus was far superior to the greatest scholars who were alive during that time. There is no possibility that Jesus made an error when He cited Moses over and over again.
It is clear to anyone who reads these texts, that Jesus was intending to prove to us that Moses wrote the Torah, and no other.
Jesus states in these texts from Luke 16, that it was what Moses wrote in the Torah, that the rich man should have believed—truth that his family should have believed. Jesus tells this man who has no hope of leaving his prison, that “if they do not hear Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded though someone rises from the dead.”
The key here is what Moses wrote, and what Jesus believed about what Moses wrote
If Moses was a fictional character, and what is ascribed to him in the first five books of the Old Testament is fictional—written by other people—why didn’t Jesus know this? The Old Testament is filled with encouragement for the sinner to repent and turn to God, so that they will be a part of the future resurrection from the dead of the righteous.
Jesus answered the rich man in Hell, who asked that someone from that terrible place, be sent to his family to warn them that Hell is real, and it is terrible. Jesus’ answer was a confirmation that He knew Moses was a real person who wrote the texts of the first five books we have today, and that by reading and believing these texts, a person could obtain eternal life.
Moses, Genesis 3:15
“And I will put enmity Between you and the woman, And between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, And you shall bruise His heel.”
Immediately after the fall of man, in chapter 3 of Genesis, God promises a Savior who will make the redemption of all people possible. This is the first prophecy found in the Bible:
Luke 1:35 New Testament Fulfillment:
“And the angel answered and said to her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Highest will overshadow you; therefore, also, that Holy One who is to be born will be called the Son of God.”
“But while he thought about these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take to you Mary your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. 21 And she will bring forth a Son, and you shall call His name JESUS, for He will save His people from their sins.”
Adam was created on the earth as the first man, and subsequently made a wrong choice. Adam’s unfortunate decision to disobey God caused a defect in the perfection of man, which brought about sin and death to all of his descendants.
This first prophecy of the Bible is God’s immediate response to man’s loss of perfection, eternal life, and fellowship with God.
The prophecies of the Bible are a description of how God has made it possible for the descendants of Adam to be redeemed. God would send His Son, perfect and eternal. He would be born on the earth as a human being, arriving as the second Adam. If the Messiah could remain sinless and offer His life in exchange for all human lives, God would have a righteous basis to grant the forgiveness of all sins to any person who would receive it. Jesus died on a Roman cross as a part of this plan of God. Wicked men moved to put Jesus to death, but God planned and purposed every event. Before the universe existed, God planned every second of time so that He could justify everyone who would receive Jesus as their Savior.
David, Psalms 51:1-7
“Have mercy on me, O God, because of your unfailing love. Because of your great compassion, blot out the stain of my sins. Wash me clean from my guilt. Purify me from my sin. For I recognize my rebellion; it haunts me day and night. Against you, and you alone, have I sinned; I have done what is evil in your sight. You will be proved right in what you say, and your judgment against me is just. For I was born a sinner— yes, from the moment my mother conceived me. But you desire honesty from the womb, teaching me wisdom even there. Purify me from my sins, and I will be clean; wash me, and I will be whiter than snow. Truly my soul finds rest in God; my salvation comes from him.”
“Come now, let’s settle this,” says the LORD.“Though your sins are like scarlet, I will make them as white as snow. Though they are red like crimson, I will make them as white as wool.”
When the first words of God were dictated to Moses and he began to write them for the Israelites, there was great excitement, and a tremendous desire to learn and do all that God had said.
Since that time we have ventured far from our enthusiasm over hearing and doing what God said, and today, people write to try and move people away from trusting in the Word of God. In fact, the world is quickly moving into a place where a great number of people don’t think the Bible is the Word of God at all.
How did this happen? Contrary to the assertion of atheists and critics of the Bible who say that secular education has made people smarter, and they realize the Bible is not true, the true reason people have begun to doubt the Bible is that the teaching of the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, has been decreasing in the world since the middle of the twentieth century.
Pastors have stopped learning the entire Bible, and as a result, they can no longer teach the Word of God to people who attend Christian churches around the world. The first books of the Bible are foundational to the rest of the Bible. In Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, Moses recorded the first places where everything that would be presented later in the Bible, is first established.
If we allow critics and atheists to remove the authority of Moses from the first five books, the entire Bible collapses, and nothing that follows has any relevance. This is precisely the reason that satan has directed atheists to attack Moses and the first five books. If a person can be convinced that what God said through Moses at the beginning is not true, everything else that Jesus taught in the New Testament, and all that has been recorded for us concerning His death and resurrection, is rendered irrelevant.
Thankfully there is no evidence that Moses did not write the first five books of the Bible—there is every evidence that he did. We have seen just a sampling of the massive textual evidence that exists in the extant manuscript documents for the Hebrew and Koine-Greek texts of the Bible. I will add additional citations to this essay as time allows.
 William M. Ramsay, The Bearing of Recent Discovery on the Trustworthiness of the New Testament, 1915, page 222.
Categories: Apologetics, Archeological Confirmation, Atheists, Exegesis and Hermeneutics, Forgiveness of Sin, How Salvation Occurs, Joel Baden, Messianic Prophecy Bible, New Testament Criticism, Old Testament Apologetics, Old Testament Transliteration, Principles of Biblical Interpretation, Prophecy, Reliability of the Bible, Religion vs. Relationship, Robert Clifton Robinson, Salvation is a free gift, Salvation through Jesus, The Historical Jesus, Those who stop believing
I’m a Bible-believing Christian who’s hit a bit of a rough patch in his faith. Prayers that God gives me more faith than just a mustard seed. Overall, I agree with a lot of your writings, although, and I mean this respectfully, some of these can be a little stretched out.
Also, you haven’t highlighted or acknowledged any claims or archaeological arguments by scholars concerning the authenticity and authorship of the Pentateuch, other than calling them wrong or quoting scripture. I kinda sped through the middle of this essay, so I could’ve easily overlooked something. Regardless, I was hoping you could help me clarify these doubts.
Thank you, and God bless you for being a selfless man to defend His Word.
Thank you for the kind words.
I understand the difficulties of a continuing faith in Christ. It is hard for all of us living in these Last Days before Jesus returns for us. I have learned over the last 47 years that a daily routine of simply reading Jesus’ words first thing in the morning with my coffee, prepares me for the day and makes my faith stronger.
I study original languages for the Bible, but use the New Living Translation for my morning and daily devotional. I recommend this for every struggling Christian. Read and meditate upon Jesus’ words in John’s Gospel, over and over again and let His words sink deep into your heart.
This is the single method I have used to remain faithful for over four decades. It is the power of God’s Word that changes everything.
As far as the essay you have referenced; this is meant primarily as a reference tool to show the vast number of Old and New Testament references to Moses as the writer of the Torah. Atheist scholars assert that Moses did not write these texts, but the historical surviving manuscript evidence of these texts, proves they are wrong.
The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, have given us even greater confidence in the Old Testament as historically accurate and preserved texts that we can trust. The New Testament exists today because faithful eyewitnesses recorded what they saw and heard Jesus say and do in the 27 books of the NT.
We have 24,593 manuscript copies of these texts, and they have remained unchanged in all of the primary narratives of Jesus life, claim to be God and Messiah, and His miracles and resurrection that prove He told the truth.
We have a historical, archeological, trustworthy faith that is supported by greater evidence than any other event of antiquity. All that Jesus said and did, has been laid before us, and the 400 Messianic Prophecies recorded in the New Testament, were all fulfilled by Jesus, with great precision.
Do not cast off your trust in Jesus now. His return in near. We are about to see our Glorious Lord come from heaven, and then the whole world will know who we are: His redeemed.