Crucifixion is described as one of the most horrific ways to put a man to death. Reserved for only the worst of criminals, what had Jesus done that warranted such vicious treatment?
As we read the accounts of His life in the four gospels, we see a man who is full of love and compassion. Every sick person who came to Jesus—He healed. Every hurting man or woman, Jesus loved and encouraged. Every lost sinner who came to Him in sorrow for their sins, Jesus forgave and bestowed a new life.
Jesus stood against injustice, religious hypocrisy, and pretentiousness by those who claim to know God. When the woman at the well sought to turn the discussion to religion, Jesus turned her back to a relationship with God.
Everything that Jesus did, was good, righteous, and Holy.
The testimony of those who had been with Him every day of His three and one-half year ministry, described Him as perfect and without sin (Prophecy 21). None of the people from Nazareth came to Jerusalem when Jesus proclaimed Himself as the Messiah and opposed Him on grounds that He was a sinful man. Every person who listened to Jesus and watched the way that He treated people was struck by His grace.
This was no ordinary man, this was no sinner, this was not a man who deserved to die by crucifixion.
Crucifixion is by design, intended as agonizing torture. The first Crucifixion recorded in the Bible is described by King Darius about 520 B.C., as noted in the Book of Ezra Chapter 6:1-11.
(King Darius) Also I issue a decree that whoever alters this edict, let a timber be pulled from his house and erected, and let him be hanged on it; and let his house be made a refuse heap because of this. —Ezra 6:11
Crucifixion was considered by Greek culture as an undesirable method of execution for its graphic and cruel nature. However, Greek historian Herodotus records that a Persian general was put to the cross by the Athenians near 479 B.C.
“They nailed him to a plank and hung him up … this Artayctes who suffered death by crucifixion…. They crucified him with hands and feet stretched out and nailed to cross-pieces...”
Alexander the Great brought crucifixion back with him from his campaign in conquering the nations surrounding Greece. Later, the Romans perfected the technique that was being used at the time Jesus was crucified. The Term “Crucifixion” comes from the word “Excruciating.” The agony that was experienced in dying by crucifixion was described by the Roman orator, Cicero, to be “a most cruel and disgusting punishment.”
￼There were three primary charges against Jesus; all were false:
- Jesus perverted the nation of Israel.
- He opposed paying taxes to Caesar.
- Jesus claimed to be a king, which was considered sedition against Roman Authority. This was the most serious crime that Jesus was accused of, as far as the Roman Government was concerned.
￼The arrest of Jesus at the Garden of Gethsemane was at night, so as to not attract the attention of the good people of Israel who would stand in opposition to the unjust actions of evil men on the Sanhedrin. The trial of Jesus began late at night, while all of the members of the Sanhedrin who favored Jesus would be unaware of the arrest and actions to convict Jesus of crimes worthy of death.
When we examine the narrative of the six trials of Jesus, we find that the leaders of Israel did not follow the normal legal procedure that was required to convict a man of a capital crime and put him to death.
The Six Trials Of Jesus
A record of antiquity that remains in the archives of the Jews today, is the arrest and trial of the zealot named Jesus of Nazareth. The Talmud repeatedly makes reference to Jesus, either directly, or by inference through familiar facts that correspond to the New Testament Gospels. In the text of: “Evidence from the Jewish Talmud,” there are various references to the arrest, condemnation, crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
Before Jesus was condemned to die on a Roman cross, He endured six trials, beginning shortly after His arrest at the Garden of Gethsemane, and continuing throughout that night. When we examine the procedures of these trials, we discover that very few, if any, of the required courses of actions that must be performed during a capital crime, were followed.
According to Daniel chapter 9, Jesus would be killed on April 14, 32 A.D., at 3:00 in the afternoon.
There were six trials that were conducted the night before Jesus was crucified. All of these proceedings were illegal, based on the rule of law in effect at the time these events took place.
1. Before Annas (Matthew 18:12-14)
2. Before Caiaphas (Matthew 18:19-24)
3. Before the Sanhedrin (Matthew 27:1-2)
4. Before Pilate (Matthew 18:28-38)
5. Before Herod (Luke 23:6-11)
6. Before Pilate (Luke 18:39-19:16)
There have been many books written on this subject; and therefore, the number of possible laws that were violated by the Sanhedrin in condemning Jesus to death also varies from 8 to 21. In this chapter, I will examine just 12 points of the illegal indictment of Jesus, showing how the laws of the Sanhedrin were ignored, making it possible to put Jesus to death quickly.
Two Old Testament prophecies, which describe the Messiah as unjustly accused, and condemned by false testimony and improper procedure, are:
One: The Messiah will be arrested and confined by evil men who will commit unjust legal action against Him.
He was taken from prison and from judgment —Isaiah 53:8a
Two: The Messiah’s trial will be unjust, with false testimony and improper procedure.
…And who will declare His generation? —Isaiah 53:8b
Today in our justice courts of America, a person is considered innocent until he is proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Therefore, from the beginning of the trial, the presumption of innocence must continue throughout the entire trial. According to the law, the accused is afforded a fair and just legal process whereby certain procedural rules must be followed. If any of these rules are violated, a legal indictment cannot be brought against the accused, and a trial may not proceed.
If reasonable doubt persists after the presentation of all of the evidence and all witnesses have testified, then the court must construe doubt in favor of the defendant and find them “not guilty.”
The Sanhedrin in Israel was the High Court of Justice for the Jews. The membership of this tribunal was said to be as many as 71 or a few as 23. The minimum number that was permitted was 10. Each member sat in judgement over each case that was brought before them for a decision.
Above the Sanhedrin itself was the “Great Sanhedrin.” Any case appealed to their judgement was without appeal upon their final decision. The Great Sanhedrin maintained the right of final judgement in all civil, criminal, political, social, and religious matters.
It Was To The Sanhedrin That Jesus Was Brought For Judgement.
The matter before the court was whether Jesus of Nazareth was culpable in the crime of blasphemy, which carried the penalty of death—should He be found guilty of committing this act.
The laws of Israel were formulated from the laws of Moses as well as the Talmud, which contained the traditions and the interpretations of the teachers of the law—the Rabbis.
Very few of the public knew most of the laws from the Talmud, as these many traditions of the elders were kept private between the members. The Talmud itself was over 400 volumes. In order to correctly interpret these many laws and traditions, expertise was required.
The Sanhedrin would consider the accusation of Blasphemy, while the criminal indictment against the government of Rome was for treason. In order for a trial to be proper, an indictment must be formalized in the correct manner. Four rules must be followed:
1. Certainty in the indictment
2. Publicity in the discussion
3. Full freedom granted to the accused
4. Assurance against all danger of errors of testimony
As we review just twelve points of the indictment, we will see clearly that many of the laws set forth by the Sanhedrin were violated; and therefore, Jesus should have been released immediately.
First Illegal Procedure
No part of the proceeding could occur during the evening.
This became a huge problem for the court that was to hear the trial of Jesus, because He was arrested and tried at night, which was illegal. By this fact alone, the entire case against Jesus should have been thrown out due to illegal procedure.
“A capital offense must be tried during the day and suspended at night.” -Mishna.
“Criminal cases can be acted upon by the various courts during the daytime only.” -Mendelsohn
Second Illegal Procedure
When Jesus was brought before Caiaphas, He was being judged by a solitary agent. This was illegal according to the Mishna.
“Be not a sole judge, for their is no sold judge but One”.
A further definition of this fact: Caiaphas, as the High Priest, was not allowed to examine anyone who has been accused of a capital crime—by himself. He must be accompanied by other members of the Grand Sanhedrin.
“An accused man must never be subjected to private or secret examination, let in his perplexity, he furnish damaging testimony against himself.”
Jesus was questioned privately before His trial even began. The Apostle John records the fact that the High Priest questioned Jesus about the details of His crimes before the trial began. This was illegal.
The high priest then asked Jesus about His disciples and His doctrine. —John 18:19
Third Illegal Procedure
In the case of Jesus being accused of Blasphemy, the Sanhedrin itself originated the charges against Him. According to Jewish law, this is not allowed:
“The Sanhedrin could not originate charges; it could only investigate those brought before it“
According to the law, the basis for all charges against an accused comes from the testimony of at least two witnesses. Unless these witnesses agreed in their testimony and were willing to testify publicly, no indictment could be formulated, and no charges made.
“The only prosecutors were the witnesses in the crime. The witnesses constituted the charge. There was no formal indictment until these witnesses spoke in the public assembly. When they spoke, and the evidence of two agreed together, it formed the legal charge, libel, or indictment.” 
The form of indictment made against Jesus was illegal because it did not meet any of the requirements set forth by the law. The indictment must define the specific acts that were committed in the crime. None of these requirements were met in Jesus’ case.
Fourth Illegal Procedure
According to the Talmud, no session of any court could transpire before the morning offering. In the case of Jesus, the Sanhedrin convened before the morning offering, making the proceedings illegal.
“The Sanhedrin was to set from the close of the morning sacrifice to the time of the evening sacrifice.”  -Mendelsohn
“No session of the court could take place before the offering of the morning sacrifice.” -M.M. Lemann
“The morning sacrifice is offered at the dawn of day. The Sanhedrin is not to assembly until the hour after that time.” -The Mishna
Fifth Illegal Procedure
Jewish law required that no legal proceeding should be conducted on the day before the Sabbath, the first day of the feast of Unleavened Bread, or the eve of Passover. Jesus’ trial was conducted in violation of all three of these laws.
“Court must not be held on the Sabbath, or any holy day.“ -Betza
“They shall not judge on the eve of the Sabbath, nor on that of any festival” -The Mishna
“No court of justice in Israel was permitted to hold sessions on the Sabbath or any of the seven Biblical holidays. In cases of capital crime, no trial could be commenced on Friday or the day previous to any holiday, because it was not lawful either to adjourn such cases longer than over night, or to continue them on the Sabbath or holiday.” -Rabbi Wise
Sixth Illegal Procedure
The entire trial of Jesus for a capital crime which resulted in His death by crucifixion—took just 24 hours. Beginning with three illegal trials at night before Annas, Caiaphas, and the Sanhedrin, and continuing with the trial before Pilate that took place early in the morning—no allowance was made for Jesus to be represented by a lawyer. There was also no notification made to any of His friends who could have testified in His favor.
“A criminal case resulting in the acquittal of the accused may terminate the same day on which it began. But if a sentence of death is to be pronounced, it cannot be conducted before the following day.“ -Mishna
According to Jewish law, Jesus could be accused on the first day; but if He should be found guilty and condemned to death, He could not be executed until the following day. The leaders of Israel wanted a quick trial and execution of Jesus, before any of His disciples, friends, or followers had a chance to defend Him and thereby delay or remove the chance of His conviction and execution.
Seventh Illegal Procedure
An interesting requirement of the Sanhedrin was that at least one judge, out of the minimum required of at lest 10, had to stand to defend the accused. If all of the judges voted unanimously to condemn Jesus, the law stated that they must grant an acquittal of all charges.
“A simultaneous and unanimous verdict of guilt rendered on the day of the trial has the effect of an acquittal.”  -Mendelsohn
“If none of the judges defend the culprit, i.e. all pronounce him guilty, having no defender in the court, the verdict guilty was invalid and the sentence of death could not be executed.“ -Rabbi Wise
Eighth Illegal Procedure
According to the law, the accused cannot be compelled to incriminate himself.
Today in the United States, a person accused of a crime is protected from self-incrimination by the 5th amendment to the constitution. A similar law was in existence at the time that the High Priest questioned Jesus. It was illegal to compel Jesus to incriminate Himself. The Jews violated this law and then convicted Him because He would not answer.
“No one can bring an accusation against himself. Should a man make confession of guilt before a legally constituted tribunal, such confession is not to be said against him unless properly attested by two witnesses.“ -Maimonides
“No attempt can be made to lead a man on to self-incrimination. Moreover, a voluntary confession on his part is not admitted in evidence, and therefore, not competent to convict him, unless a legal number of witnesses minutely corroborate his self-accusation.“ -Mendelsohn
It has been my personal opinion that when Jesus refused to answer the High Priest and Pilate, He had done so because He was representing you and I at the trial for our sins. Because we are guilty and can offer no defense for our actions, Jesus therefore said nothing. As we examine Jesus’ silence from a legal standpoint, we may also conjecture that Jesus did not answer the High Priest because He was aware of the law that He was not required to answer to incriminate Himself.
And the high priest stood up in the midst and asked Jesus, saying, “Do You answer nothing? What is it these men testify against You?” —Mark 14:60
Isaiah 53:7 predicts that the Messiah will remain silent before His accusers.
He was oppressed and He was afflicted, Yet He opened not His mouth… —Isaiah 53:7
The High Priest continues to press Jesus for an answer. Whatever Jesus said from that point, should have been inadmissible because the very judge who was to impartially examine the evidence had himself pressured Jesus to answer him.
But He kept silent and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked Him, saying to Him, “Are You the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?” Jesus said, “I am. And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.” —Mark 14:61-62
The Sanhedrin eventually condemns Jesus to death on evidence that was obtained illegally and therefore inadmissible.
Jesus was originally charged with sedition (treason) before the Roman government. This charge was later found unsubstantiated by Pilate.
Then the whole multitude of them arose and led Him to Pilate. 2 And they began to accuse Him, saying, “We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to pay taxes to Caesar, saying that He Himself is Christ, a King. —Luke 23:1-12
The Jews then changed their indictment to Blasphemy, seeking to convict Jesus based on their own laws. The problem with this change of venue for the Sanhedrin—the Roman government had taken away the right of the Jews to condemn a man to death by their own laws. In reality, all of the laws of the Sanhedrin were null and void from a true legal perspective, based on the loss of their authority being a conquered nation. See: The One God Sent
Though the Sanhedrin had no real authority, and Caiaphas had sought diligently to force Jesus to incriminate Himself illegally, the procedure continued.
Now the chief priests and all the council sought testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, but found none. For many bore false witness against Him, but their testimonies did not agree. Then some rose up and bore false witness against Him, saying, “We heard Him say, ‘I will destroy this temple made with hands, and within three days I will build another made without hands.’ ” But not even then did their testimony agree. —Mark 14:55-59
Ninth Illegal Procedure
At least two witnesses were required—who both agreed in their testimony, before a person could be convicted of a capital crime.
“One witness shall not rise against a man concerning any iniquity or any sin that he commits; by the mouth of two or three witnesses the matter shall be established.”
The Sanhedrin was not able to find the two who were required to convict a person. Without credible testimony from at least two witnesses who agreed, there was no basis for a trial or a conviction.
Psalms 27:12, predicts that the Messiah will be convicted by false testimony:
Do not deliver me to the will of my adversaries; For false witnesses have risen against me, And such as breathe out violence. —Psalms 27:12
The Trial Of Jesus Before Pilate
Jesus is returned to Pilate who asks the leaders of the Sanhedrin to define what their accusations were.
Pilate then went out to them and said, “What accusation do you bring against this Man?” They answered and said to him, “If He were not an evildoer, we would not have delivered Him up to you.” —John 18:29-30
Pilate requested a specific charge that they had brought against Jesus. They were reluctant to answer, knowing that any violation against their laws would require Jesus to be tried under the Sanhedrin. Having not previously found any witnesses nor credible evidence to convict Jesus, the Jews were hoping that a conviction could be found under Roman law.
Then Pilate said to them, “You take Him and judge Him according to your law.” Therefore the Jews said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death…” —John 18:31
Because the Roman government had taken away the right of the Jews to put a man to death, they were now faced with a new dilemma: How could they legally put Jesus to death? Pilate, learning that the Jews believed Jesus to be so dangerous that He was worthy of death, seeks to question Jesus further.
Then Pilate entered the Praetorium again, called Jesus, and said to Him, “Are You the King of the Jews?” Jesus answered him, “Are you speaking for yourself about this, or did others tell you this concerning Me?” Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered You to me. What have You done?” —John 18:33-35
Pilate was not specific in His question, whether he wanted to know personally if Jesus was the promised Messiah, or if he was asking if Jesus’ purpose was to set up His kingdom at that time. Jesus gives an answer that would satisfy both questions.
Jesus answered, “My kingdom is not of this world. If My kingdom were of this world, My servants would fight, so that I should not be delivered to the Jews; but now My kingdom is not from here.” —John 18:36
In other words: “I am not here to overthrow the kingdom of Roman, as you can tell from those who follow me. They have not risen up to defend me; therefore, I am no threat to Rome.”
Pilate therefore said to Him, “Are You a king then?” Jesus answered, “You say rightly that I am a king. For this cause I was born, and for this cause I have come into the world, that I should bear witness to the truth. Everyone who is of the truth hears My voice.” —John 18:37
Pilate now understands that Jesus is no threat to Rome, and this was his only concern. Pilate views Jesus as simply a harmless religious philosopher.
Pilate said to Him, “What is truth?” And when he had said this, he went out again to the Jews, and said to them, “I find no fault in Him at all.” —John 18:38
In desperation, the leaders of the Sanhedrin turn to their last hope of killing Jesus; a well known tradition of the Roman government: the release a prisoner on Passover. To Pilate’s surprise, the Jews do not cry out for Jesus, whom the Procurator clearly believes is harmless. The Jews demand the release of Barabbas, who is a genuine threat to Rome.
“But you have a custom that I should release someone to you at the Passover. Do you therefore want me to release to you the King of the Jews?” Then they all cried again, saying, “Not this Man, but Barabbas!” Now Barabbas was a robber. —John 18:39-40
The trial of Jesus before the Roman government should have been over at this point. Pilate had already pronounced: “I find no fault in Him at all.”
Pilate had conducted the trial before the Roman government correctly. He had acted as judge, heard the accusation against Jesus, examined Him and found Him innocent of the charges. Pilate attempted to acquit Jesus, but the Jews would not stand for this decision.
Why Pilate Conceded The Jews’ Demands:
Pilate’s reluctance to upset the Sanhedrin may have come from a previous event, in which he had been reproached and rebuked by the Emperor, after he had irritated the Jews—by placing gold shields in Herod’s Jerusalem palace to honor Tiberius Caesar. Pilate did this, knowing that it would anger the Jews; and they responded by a great protest. Pilate would not remove the shields, so the leadership in Israel petitioned the emperor Tiberius. Philo, a Jewish Philosopher from Alexandria, describes this event.
“Tiberius wrote to Pilate with a host of reproaches and rebukes for his audacious violation of precedent and bade him at once take down the shields and have them transferred from the capital to Caesarea.”
Philo writes that Pilate became fearful that should he not remove the shields from Herod’s palace, the Jews would take further action:
“If they actually sent an embassy they would also expose the rest of his (PIlate’s) conduct as governor by stating in full the briberies, the insults, the robberies, the outrages and wanton injuries, the executions without trial constantly repeated, the ceaseless and supremely grievous cruelty”
As the Jews object to Pilate’s unwillingness to condemn Jesus, he did not want to irritate the Jews once again and risk the Roman Emperor taking further action to remove Pilate from his rule. For this reason, Pilate may have assented to the demands of the leaders of the Sanhedrin—to ensure Jesus’ death.
It is certain by the account given in the gospels, that Pilate did not himself—want to condemn Jesus—believing Him to be innocent; and perhaps true to Jesus’ claims, Pilate might have imagined that Jesus was who He claimed to be. Even Pilate’s wife had experienced a dream in which she believed Jesus to be innocent. She had apparently shared this dream with her husband, while he sat in judgement over Jesus.
While he was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, “Have nothing to do with that just Man, for I have suffered many things today in a dream because of Him.” —Matthew 27:19
It is interesting that in the prophecy given by Zechariah, he predicted that three “shepherds” would be dismissed in one month in Jerusalem, as a result of their actions against the Messiah.
I dismissed the three shepherds in one month. My soul loathed them, and their soul also abhorred me. —Zechariah 11:8
Caiaphas (Matt. 26:57-68)
And those who had laid hold of Jesus led Him away to Caiaphas the high priest, where the scribes and the elders were assembled. —Matthew 26:57
Now the chief priests, the elders, and all the council sought false testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, but found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. —Matthew 26:59-60
Pontius Pilate (Matt. 27:11-31)
Then Pilate said to Him, “Do You not hear how many things they testify against You?” But He answered him not one word, so that the governor marveled greatly. —Matthew 27:13-14
While Pilate was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent to him, saying, “Have nothing to do with that just Man, for I have suffered many things today in a dream because of Him.” —Matthew 27:19
Then Pilate released Barabbas to them; and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered Him to be crucified. —Matthew 27:26
Herod (Luke 23:7-11)
When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked if the Jesus were a Galilean. And as soon as he knew that Jesus belonged to Herod’s jurisdiction, he sent Him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem at that time. —Luke 23:6-7
Then Herod, with his men of war, treated Him with contempt and mocked Him, arrayed Him in a gorgeous robe, and sent Him back to Pilate. —Luke 23:11
As a result of Jesus being brought before these three evil rulers, God holds them accountable for their actions that led to the death of the Messiah. Although there was no real credible evidence against Jesus that should have warranted His death by crucifixion, these three “shepherds” refused to defend Jesus or even call for a proper trial to be conducted.
Zechariah’s prophecy describes three leaders of Israel would be “dismissed” as a result of their harsh treatment of the Messiah.
Caiaphas was dismissed by the Syrian governor Lucius Vitellius, who was appointed by the Roman Government just a few years after Jesus died and rose from the dead.
Pilate killed himself when he was banished from his job because of his corruption in overseeing Israel.
Herod was removed by the Romans and exiled until he died.
When these three condemned Jesus and did nothing to save His life; they all had their own careers and lives prematurely ended by God. This, in fulfillment of the word of God through the prophet Zechariah.
Tenth Illegal Procedure
The Sanhedrin was restricted by law as to the location where a person, who had been found guilty of a capital crime, could be sentenced to death. By allowing Pilate to order their requested sentence of death at the pavement of the Romans, this was illegal according to the Talmud.
“After leaving the hall Gazith no sentence of death can be passed upon anyone whatsoever“ -Talmud
“A sentence of death can be pronounced only so long as the Sanhedrin holds it’s sessions in the appointed place“ -Maimonides
According to the law, when there was a capital case before the Sanhedrin, they were required to pass the sentence of death from the Temple, at the hall of “Hewn Stone.” It was illegal to sentence anyone to death from any other location.
Eleventh Illegal Procedure
The members of the Sanhedrin were clearly prejudiced against Jesus before the trial began. He had publicly exposed their hypocrisy before the people and discredited them as men seeking His death—in order to protect their positions of authority and desire for financial gain.
One of the most scathing accusations by Jesus against the scribes and the Pharisees, was the declaration that they were false teachers, who led the people away from God. On the outside, these men appeared perfect; while on the inside, their hearts served only their own personal agenda. Jesus’ entire indictment against the scribes and Pharisees is included in the text from Matthew 23:13-39.
Jesus Pronounces Eight “Woes” Upon The Religious Leaders Of Israel.
- Verse 13: Preventing people from finding salvation by false teaching.
- Verse 14: Taking advantage of helpless people and pretending to be holy.
- Verse 15: Leading people into damnation by failing to give them the truth.
- Verses 16-22: Misleading by religious ritual, instead of simple worship of God.
- Verses 23-24: Following the letter of the Law, without understanding the purpose of the law: Mercy, Justice, Faith.
- Verses 25-26: Appearing externally righteous, while internally having a heart that is evil and corrupt.
- Verses 27 and 28: Again, appearing to be good outwardly; while inside the heart, they were full of hypocrisy and lawlessness.
- Verses 29-37: Honoring the prophets of old by monuments, while killing them when they brought charges against the sins of their religious leaders.
Because of Jesus’ open indictment against the leaders of the Sanhedrin, they had become fearful that the people might remove them from their great positions of authority. These men had become rich because of their titles, as well as the achievement of great honor in the community. In this, we can see that the true motivation of the members of the Sanhedrin was to silence Jesus, in order to protect their careers, incomes, and status.
According to the laws of Israel, anyone who had a predisposition to this kind of prejudice should be recused from judgement against the one to whom they hold a particular bias.
“There must not be on the judicial bench either a relation, or a particular friend, or an enemy of either the accused or the accuser”  -Mendelsohn
Of course, none of these men removed themselves from judgement over Jesus, as the majority held a great vehemence towards Him. Though these men were clearly prejudiced against Jesus and were quite vindictive towards Him, they carried out their judgment and asked that He be put to death by crucifixion—the most brutal of all methods of death.
“Nor under any circumstances was a man known to be at enmity with the accused person permitted to occupy a position among his judges“ -Benny
The scriptures predicted that the Messiah wiould be hated for no just cause, even though He is dying for the sins of the world.
Those who hate me without a cause Are more than the hairs of my head; They are mighty who would destroy me, Being my enemies wrongfully; Though I have stolen nothing, I still must restore it.” —Psalms 69:4
Twelfth Illegal Procedure
The primary purpose of the law is to prove the innocence of the accused, not to search out a reason to convict. Jesus was not afforded the opportunity to prove His innocence by making a good defense. A legal defense was impossible for Jesus, because the Sanhedrin allowed Him no opportunity to have legal counsel represent Him during the trials.
“The primary object of the Hebrew judicial system was to render the conviction of an innocent person impossible. All the ingenuity of the Jewish legist was directed to the attainment of this end” – Benny
Prejudicial Hatred Was The Real Reason Jesus Was Sentenced To Death:
The historical record is replete with testimony describing the moral depravity of the men who sat in judgement over Jesus. The indictments listed here against the illegal procedures that resulted in Jesus’ death on the cross, is sustained by the added weight of historians who have written on this subject.
The family of Caiaphas had been in power over the Sanhedrin for 1,500 years by the time that Jesus had come to Jerusalem. As a result, they had lost all morality in their judgment, and served only for power and financial gain.
“A few priestly, aristocratic, powerful, and vain families, who cared for neither the dignity nor the interest of the altar, quarreled with each other for this appointment.” —Derembourg
Josephus, in his vast record of the Jews during this period of history, described the constant conflicts that occurred by these men of the Sanhedrin: fighting, the throwing of stones at each other, and immorality.
“They struggled together they did it by casting reproachful words against one another, and by throwing stones also. There was nobody to reprove them, but these disorders were done after a licentious manner, as if it had no government over it.”  —Flavius Josephus
The Talmud records the friction and difficulties of these men who oversaw the law in Israel during the period that Jesus was under their judgement.
“What a plague this is to the family; cursed by their hissing of vipers. They are high priests themselves, their sons are treasurers, their sons – in – law are commanders, and their servants strike the people with staves.” —Talmud
There are many hundreds of records from history which describe the despicable behavior of the members of this high counsel. It is no wonder that Jesus received the treatment that was perpetrated against Him. We might wonder why the Lord chose this period of history for His introduction to the world. It was no doubt for the very reasons that we have documented here in these twelve indictments. God, knowing the character of these men and that they would seek the death of the Messiah, chose these men to carry out their unjust actions—in fulfillment of the Hebrew prophecies of the Messiah.
We should understand that the Lord knows all things. He had chosen for His Son to die as the world’s sacrifice for sin—before anything in the universe had been created. He allowed the evil hearts of men, who were so corrupted in their power by the time that Jesus appeared before them—they were certain to put Him to death.
God controls all of the events of history. It is by His determined purpose and the counsel of His will that every event of the world takes their rightful place. It was the plan of God to send us a Savior who would be brutally put to death on a Roman cross. Many of the prophecies of the Old Testament describe the events that surrounded Jesus’ illegal trials and condemnation to death through crucifixion, by these evil men. God knew what would happen, and He placed Jesus on the earth at this specific moment in history—to accomplish the fulfillment of these many prophecies of the Messiah.
Isaiah the Prophet, predicted that the Messiah would be arrested and confined by evil men who will commit unjust legal action against Him.
He was taken from prison and from judgment —Isaiah 53:8a
New Testament Fulfillment:
And while He was still speaking, behold, Judas, one of the twelve, with a great multitude with swords and clubs, came from the chief priests and elders of the people. Now His betrayer had given them a sign, saying, “Whomever I kiss, He is the One; seize Him.” Immediately he went up to Jesus and said, “Greetings, Rabbi!” and kissed Him. But Jesus said to him, “Friend, why have you come?” Then they came and laid hands on Jesus and took Him. —Matthew 26:47-50
The idea behind Isaiah’s prophecy of the Messiah taken from prison is that He will not be put into prison. From the Hebrew word: Niph`al, He was excluded from a fair trial. This is language that indicates the unjust treatment the Messiah will receive at the hands of evil men. Jesus was denied the equitable and just process of a fair trial, conducted in a proper manner according to the rules of justice. He was taken from Judgment by unjust means, then put to death without a valid legal procedure or a justifiable reason for His execution.
This portion of Isaiah’s prophecy deals with the unjust acts that condemned the Messiah to death. Jesus committed nothing worthy of death; in fact He had committed no crime that would even warrant His arrest. It is clear that the false charges, false witnesses, and unjust arrest, were all orchestrated by satan in his attempt to destroy Jesus.
Unknown to anyone at the time, was that fact that the events which occurred the night of Jesus’ arrest, the illegal trials, and His subsequent death, were all a fulfillment of many Old Testament prophecies.
Although it was the action of evil men, directed by the work of satan, all of the events that led to Jesus’ death were under the determined purpose and foreknowledge of God. It was by Jesus’ crucifixion that God could secure the salvation of all people who would believe in and receive Him as their Savior.
Although the Jewish leadership clearly violated their own laws, Jesus never once opened His mouth to defend Himself. Amazingly, Isaiah predicted that this would happen, more than 600 years before Jesus was born (Prophecy 249).
He was oppressed and He was afflicted, Yet He opened not His mouth; He was led as a lamb to the slaughter, And as a sheep before its shearers is silent, So He opened not His mouth. —Isaiah 53:7
Jesus is taken from the Praetorium at the Fortress Antonia, to Pontius Pilate.
So then Pilate took Jesus and scourged Him. And the soldiers twisted a crown of thorns and put it on His head, and they put on Him a purple robe. Then they said, “Hail, King of the Jews!” And they struck Him with their hands. Pilate then went out again, and said to them, “Behold, I am bringing Him out to you, that you may know that I find no fault in Him.” Then Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. And Pilate said to them, “ Behold the Man!” —John 19:1-5
Upon Pilate’s examination of Jesus, he determined that He had committed no crime worthy of death. Instead, he orders Jesus to be scourged.
The purpose of the scourge was to exact a confession from the accused, before being put to death. Not that a confession would change the final disposition of the condemned, but for the purpose of setting an example to the crowd who were witnessing the judgment of a convicted criminal. If the condemned would confess their crimes early in the scourging, the Captain of the Roman guard might limit the number of lashes slightly. Literally, everything that was committed against a criminal in punishment was for the purpose of preventing others from committing the same crime themselves.
According to Eusebius, the Christians who were martyred at Smyrna in 155 A.D, had their bodies torn to ribbons with their inner muscles and veins exposed. In some cases, the intestines of those who were scourged would be in view.
“For they say that the bystanders were struck with amazement when they saw them lacerated with scourges even to the innermost veins and arteries, so that the hidden inward parts of the body, both their bowels and their members, were exposed to view...”
The punishment of the guilty was intended to be the ultimate deterrent. A vividly bloodied criminal who was publicly put to death before crowds of people, might prevent others from going down the same path. Those who would see the sentence of death being carried out, might think again before committing the crime they were considering. It is certain that every person who watched a man die by crucifixion would leave the scene with a graphic reminder of what the consequences of disobeying the law would mean to them personally, should they commit the same act.
If the criminal should confess their crimes at the beginning of the lashes from the guard throwing the whip to the criminal’s back, they might be spared further suffering or even death. Very often the obstinate criminal who would not confess their crimes, would be forced to endure all 40 lashes upon their body and would perish as a result of the massive tissue damage and extreme blood loss.
Because Jesus had committed no crime and therefore had nothing to confess, each progressive lash laid upon his body became harder and tore deeper into His flesh. As no confession ever came from Jesus lips, he endured 39 of the 40 lashed prescribed. The Jews desiring to be seen as merciful, often ceased the lashing at 39 instead of the prescribed 40.
The scourge was not simply a leather strap that struck the back of Jesus. It was a multi-thonged whip that could have had up to 9 separate leather cords attached to a single leather handle. Attached to the end of each leather cord were pieces of broken bone, jagged pieces of glass, or sharp metal objets. As the nine cords were laid upon the back of Jesus, the handle was then pulled away violently, causing the sharp objects on the ends of the nine cords to grab at the flesh of the back, stomach, shoulders and arms, tearing away ribbons of flesh with each pass. By the time Jesus endured the 39th lash, his body was a piece of torn and shredded flesh that exposed muscle and bone. He was bleeding profusely and by the shear loss of blood alone, Jesus should have expired from the scourge. Jesus was a strong, hard working, carpenter who had built up over many years, a sturdy frame coupled with a body that was Holy and pure. He was stronger than most men, but this was not the power that sustained Him. It was his love for us, that kept him on course to finish the payment for all our sins. He did not falter, nor fail to take the full measure of all God’s wrath for our sins, as He continued to take the punishment until the atonement for all our transgressions was accomplished.
Then Pilate ordered that the name “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews” be placed on the plaque above Jesus’ cross.
Now Pilate wrote a title and put it on the cross. And the writing was: JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JEWS. —John 19:19
Isaiah’s prophecy of the Messiah is a truly amazing and insightful view into a particular aspect of how men would treat God’s representative for the salvation of all people. Jesus was taken from justice and condemned without a valid legal basis to convict Him of any crime—much less the sentence of death He was sentenced to, on a Roman cross. This was God’s plan for the Messiah that ensured that He would receive the full measure of God’s wrath against all sins and permanently remove those sins from the record of all those who would fall beneath the protection of God provision for their redemption.
For an in-depth discussion on all the events surrounding Jesus death by Crucifixion, please see the chapter: The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
Because the leaders of Israel considered Jesus acknowledgment that He was the Son of God, so heinous, they did not believe that He was worthy of a trial. In their minds, by Jesus own confession—He had committed the worst possible sin: blasphemy.
Isaiah predicts this denial of a fair and equitable trial by the statement: who will declare (consider) His generation?
He was taken from prison and from judgment, And who will declare His generation? —Isaiah 53:8b
Literally, this statement “Who will declare His generation?” means “Who will declare the wickedness of His generation?” Jesus was denied a fair and just trial. Isaiah asks the question: “Who will declare this injustice to future generations?”
￼The problem with the judgment of the Jewish leadership was their lack of consideration that Jesus really was the Son of God—the Messiah. They did not “consider” (alternate translation of “declare”) that Jesus was who He claimed to be—though He met all of the criteria. Jesus said and did all the things that the Hebrew prophets predicted. The disciples recorded in the New Testament the fact that Jesus words and works were done in fulfillment of the words of these Hebrew prophets.
Ten times, Matthew records the words: that it might be fulfilled (See Prophecy 245).
So all this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying: —Matthew 1:22-23
No proof of Jesus guilt
The charges brought against Jesus were false. When witnesses were sought to bring evidence that He had committed crimes worthy of death, no credible testimony could be found.
Now the chief priests, the elders, and all the council sought false testimony against Jesus to put Him to death, 60 but found none. Even though many false witnesses came forward, they found none. But at last two false witnesses came forward 61 and said, “This fellow said, ‘I am able to destroy the temple of God and to build it in three days.’ ” —Matthew 26:59-61
The two persons who did come forth to testify that Jesus had said that He was able to destroy the temple and rebuild it in three days—misrepresented the intent of His words. As is always true of those who have yet to be Born Again, they did not understand the spiritual meaning of Jesus words (1 Corinthians 2:14). When Jesus said, Destroy this Temple and I will rebuild it in three days, He was speaking of His ability to raise the Temple of His crucified body—back to life again after three days. Jesus never said that He was going to destroy the temple at Jerusalem.
Jesus answered and said to them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” 20 Then the Jews said, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will You raise it up in three days?” 21. But He was speaking of the temple of His body. —John 2:19-21
Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own? —1 Corinthians 6:19
Isaiah’s prophecy that the Messiah would be falsely and unjustly condemned to die—is a fact of the historical record. Isaiah wrote this prediction approximately 700 years before Jesus was arrested and accused of sedition. The fact that the disciples remembered that Jesus had prophesied that this would happen is recorded by their testimony.
Therefore, when He had risen from the dead, His disciples remembered that He had said this to them; and they believed the Scripture and the word which Jesus had said. —John 2:22
Prophecy 251 explores similar facts of Jesus’ unjust arrest and resulting trials.
￼As Jesus is suffering so severely from the punishment the leaders of the Sanhedrin have determined for Him, their plans are ultimately to put Him to death. About 700 years before these events, the prophet Isaiah described the Messiah as being “cut off.’
He was taken from prison and from judgment, And who will declare His generation? For He was cut off from the land of the living; For the transgressions of My people He was stricken. —Isaiah 53:8c
The term cut off is an Old Testament expression used to describe the killing of the Messiah, which is first mentioned in the prophecy of Daniel Chapter 9.
“And after the sixty-two weeks Messiah shall be cut off, but not for Himself…” —Daniel 9:26
Isaiah borrows this term and includes it in his prophecy describing the suffering of the Messiah. At the time that Jesus was crucified, the Roman government and the religious leadership of Israel believed that it was they, who were carrying out the sentence of death upon Jesus. In reality, the death of the Messiah was the eternal plan of God, from before the foundation of the world.
… the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. —Revelation 13:8
Matthew records the fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy in chapter 27 of his gospel
Then they crucified Him… —Matthew 27:35
The Sovereignty of God and the Free Will of Men
Acts 2:22-23 describes the evil men who put Jesus to death by unrighteous actions, while it was also the determined purpose and foreknowledge of God that allowed it to take place.
“Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a Man attested by God to you by miracles, wonders, and signs which God did through Him in your midst, as you yourselves also know—Him, being delivered by the determined purpose and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by lawless hands, have crucified, and put to death…” —Acts 2:22-23
This is one place in the Bible where we see both the sovereignty of God and the free will of men working together at the same time.
There are many instances throughout the Bible where seemingly ordinary circumstances occur that are in fact orchestrated and controlled by the Lord. The census that was conducted at the time Mary was about to deliver Jesus was made by men, but ordained by God to bring Joseph back to the place of his ancestors’ birth so that Jesus would fulfill the Old Testament prophecy of the Messiah’s birth in Bethlehem.
And it came to pass in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be registered. 2 This census first took place while Quirinius was governing Syria. 3 So all went to be registered, everyone to his own city. 4 Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and lineage of David, 5 to be registered with Mary, his betrothed wife, who was with child… —Luke 2:1-5
We should pay special attention to the certainty that God is always moving people and events where He has determined they should be, in order to fulfill His prophetic word. We see this demonstrated throughout history as we compare the prophecies which Jesus fulfilled in the New Testament, with the words of God—which were recorded hundreds of years in advance, by the Old Testament.
The prophet Micah predicts that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem, Prophecy 321.
“But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Though you are little among the thousands of Judah, Yet out of you shall come forth to Me The One to be Ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth are from of old, From everlasting.” —Micah 5:2
Matthew confirms that Jesus fulfilled Micah’s prophecy as the Messiah.
So they said to him, “In Bethlehem of Judea, for thus it is written by the prophet: 6 ‘But you, Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, Are not the least among the rulers of Judah; For out of you shall come a Ruler Who will shepherd My people Israel.’ ” —Matthew 2:5-6
When Joseph was taken as a slave to the house of Pharaoh, God again engineered a great famine over the whole earth so that Joseph’s brothers would have to come to Egypt to find food for the survival of their family (Genesis 41-50). It seems that the only place in the world at that time where there was adequate grain was in Egypt. God ensured that Egypt would be this place of salvation by giving Pharaoh a dream of seven abundant years before seven years of famine would take place. Joseph, who had been placed in prison in Egypt, was given the ability by God to interpret Pharaoh’s dream. As a result of this ability and a satisfactory interpretation of Pharaoh’s dream, Joseph was placed in charge of all the food supplies of Egypt. It was while in Egypt that the prophecy Joseph had made many years before that his brothers would all bow down before him, came true.
There we were, binding sheaves in the field. Then behold, my sheaf arose and also stood upright; and indeed your sheaves stood all around and bowed down to my sheaf. —Genesis 37:7
As Joseph’s brothers come to Egypt to seek food for their family, Joseph is now second in command over the entire kingdom. Joseph reveals to His brothers that God was working in the background all along in order to make certain that all of these things would happen according to His plans and purposes.
And Joseph said to his brothers, “Please come near to me.” So they came near. Then he said: “I am Joseph your brother, whom you sold into Egypt. 5 But now, do not therefore be grieved or angry with yourselves because you sold me here; for God sent me before you to preserve life. —Genesis 45:4-5
Men may move to accomplish their own will, but all that any man can do is conform himself to the sovereign will and power of God. Nothing can take place anywhere, at anytime, without the Lord causing and allowing it to happen. God is always supreme over all the affairs of this world.
As Isaiah describes the Messiah as cut off, this event was planned by God before He made the universe or created the first man. Nothing ever catches God unaware or takes Him by surprise. It is a great comfort to know that once we commit ourselves to God through Jesus Christ, every detail of our life is under the power and control of the Great God who stretched out the universe and determined its measurements.
One of the most difficult principles to grasp and accept, once a person begins to follow Jesus, is that our part in the execution of God’s will is to simply submit to the changes and circumstances that God moves us to and through during our life. If we understand that each detail of our existence is planned by God so that He might conform us into the image of Jesus Christ, we can have peace, knowing that even the most difficult of circumstances have a good end intended for our life.
What evil men did to Jesus, they are responsible for their actions. At the same time, God was orchestrating His plan of Salvation that He had determined and prepared before He created the universe. As we gaze into the horrible treatment that the leaders of the Sanhedrin and the Roman government inflicted upon Jesus, we must understand that God was permitting these action so that He could punish Jesus for our sins.
If God had not allowed His Son to come to earth an die for us, each person would have been required to stand before God at the final judgement and give an account of their life. There would have been no excuse that any person could offer for their sins. Each one of us would have stood before God—guilty as charged, and be required to die—eternally for our sins.
Because God so loved the world, He gave us His only Son, so that by His death, our sins would be fully paid for. Jesus stood at the place of judgement and took the full wrath of God for us. Though He had done no wrong Himself, He was willing to take all of our sins and suffer the punishment for them.
Isaiah records well in advance of Jesus arrival, that He would be perfect and without sin
And they made His grave with the wicked— But with the rich at His death, Because He had done no violence, Nor was any deceit in His mouth. —Isaiah 53:9b
New Testament Fulfillment:
For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us... —2 Corinthians 5:21
“Who committed no sin, Nor was deceit found in His mouth” —1 Peter 2:22
And the chief priests accused Him of many things, but He answered nothing. Then Pilate asked Him again, saying, “Do You answer nothing? See how many things they testify against You!” But Jesus still answered nothing, so that Pilate marveled. —Mark 15:3-5
Here, Peter quotes Isaiah 53:9b in confirmation that Jesus as the Messiah, fulfilled the words of Isaiah’s prophecy.
How could a good and innocent man, who had done no wrong throughout His entire life, be condemned to die by crucifixion? The extraordinary circumstances that surrounded the arrest, trial, and condemnation of Jesus, which resulted in His death, make no sense. It was well known by all that Jesus was a good, honorable, and Holy man who had never sinned. The fact that He could be sentenced to death, demands that the origin of these evil deed is none other than, satan himself. In Jesus’ death, there were three forces at work:
Satan, who earnestly sought Jesus’ death.
Men, who hated Jesus and wanted His death.
God, who planned the death of His Son to save the world.
There were also three outcomes that each of the above believed had happened when Jesus died.
1. Satan felt that he had stopped God’s plan of salvation.
2. Men believed that they had prevented Jesus from being accepted by the people.
3. God, who knew for certain that Jesus’ death had paid for the sins of all people.
In many of the events that occur throughout the course of human history, men and satan often believe that they have won certain battles against God. The lesson that we learn from reading the Bible is that all of the supposed victories that men and satan think they have won were really planned, orchestrated, and carried out—according to the purposes and foreknowledge of God.
Peter, who stood before the people of Israel on the day of Pentecost and spoke of the facts of Jesus’ death and resurrection, told them that the Lord was killed by the lawless hands of men but allowed by the determined purpose and foreknowledge of God.
“Men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus of Nazareth, a Man attested by God to you by miracles, wonders, and signs which God did through Him in your midst, as you yourselves also know—23 Him, being delivered by the determined purpose and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by lawless hands, have crucified, and put to death; 24 whom God raised up, having loosed the pains of death, because it was not possible that He should be held by it.” —Acts 2:22-24
Isaiah writes that when the Messiah arrives on earth, evil men will put Him to death even though He is completely innocent. This prophecy was written over 700 years before Jesus was born. Even this far in advance, God had determined for His Son that He should die in our place. The shocking truth is that long before Isaiah described this event, God wrote that this plan for Jesus to die for us was actually an eternal plan of God.
Jesus is spoken of as the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. The obvious meaning of this verse is that Jesus was offered for our sins even before God created the universe or the first man. God knows all things. He knew before He made each one of us that we would rebel against Him, and that we would need a Savior. The love, care, and knowledge of God for you in your life is without limits. He has loved you even before He created anything else in the universe. When He created the world, He did so with all of us in mind. He knew that we would require His help, or we would be lost forever. It has always been His intention to give us the opportunity to live together with Him in the perfection of Heaven, forever. For this reason, God conceived of and put into place, this solitary method of saving us all—through His own dear Son.
Jesus was prophesied to suffer and die, though He had never committed any wrong. He endured the pain of His crucifixion, beating, and death because He was paying for our sins, not His own. How amazing that Isaiah could accurately describe these facts and tell us, in this 256th prophecy, precisely what was going to happen.
It is apparent that there was a plan in operation by God, even before the beginning of the material universe. It was hidden beneath the schemes of evil men who wanted to put the Son of God to death. It would have been highly unusual for a good man, with no record of wrong throughout his entire life, to be expeditiously convicted of crimes to which there was absolutely no evidence and then crucified within 24 hours of that unjust conviction.
To the diligent observer, the circumstance of Jesus’ life appear odd and out of place. If a person was attempting to contrive a story that would sell people on the new religion of Christianity, the reasons that are given for crucifying Jesus would not attract anyone to Him. An innocent man dying for crimes He did not commit is not reason enough for someone to commit his entire life to Jesus Christ. It is upon an examination of the Old Testament prophecies which foretold that this would happen, which makes us sit up and take notice that this story is not only extraordinary, but clearly set about by God so that we might believe.
Jesus not only died for crimes that He had not committed, three days later He rose from the dead; an event that has never happened before in the history of the world, nor since that time. Now, that is a great reason to take notice.
 1. Stavros, Scolops (σταῦρός, σκόλοψ). The cross; encyclopedia Hellinica
2. Translation by Aubrey de Selincourt. The original, “σανίδα προσπασσαλεύσαντες, ἀνεκρέμασαν … Τούτου δὲ τοῦ Ἀρταύκτεω τοῦ ἀνακρεμασθέντος …”, is translated by Henry Cary (Bohn’s Classical Library: Herodotus Literally Translated. London, G. Bell and Sons 1917, pp. 591–592) as: “They nailed him to a plank and hoisted him aloft … this Artayctes who was hoisted aloft”.
3. W.W. How and J. Wells, A Commentary on Herodotus (Clarendon Press, Oxford 1912), vol. 2, p. 336
 By Cicero, Licona, Michael (2010). The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach. InterVarsity Press,. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-8308-2719-0
 The Prophecies of the Messiah, 2015, by Robert Clifton Robinson, Prophecy 309
 The idea and source material for the Illegal trials of Jesus came from netbiblestudy.com, the author is not know as it is not specified on the article: http://www.netbiblestudy.com/00_cartimages/illegaltrialofjesus.pdf
 The Prophecies of the Messiah, 2015, by Robert Clifton Robinson, prophecy 236
 Ibid, prophecy, 237
 The Mishnah (Sanhedrin 1:1
 Because of the ten spies who came back with a bad report. Numbers 13:32 And they gave the children of Israel a bad report of the land which they had spied out
 Salvador in, “Institutions de Moise” p.365
 Dupin in, “Jesus Devant Caiphe et Pilate.”
 Mishna in “Sanhedrin” Vol.1
 Mendelsohn in “Criminal Jurisprudence of Ancient Hebrews” p. 112
 Mishna, in “Pirke Aboth” IV 8
 Salvado in, “Institutions de Moise” pp. 365-366
 Edersheim in, “Life and times of Jesus the Messiah” Vol. I. p.309
 Mendelsohn in “The Criminal Jurisprudence of the Ancient Hebrews,” p.110
 Talmud, Jerus, Sanhedrin – Vol. I, p. 19
 M.M. Lemann in “Jesus Before the Sanhedrin.” p. 109
 Mishna, in “Talmud, of the Perpetual Sacrifice.” Chapter III
 Betza, chapter Vol. II
 Mishna, Sanhedrin IV. 1
 Rabbi Wise in “Martyrdom of Jesus” p.67
 Mishna in “Sanhedrin” IV. 1.
 The Mishnah (Sanhedrin 1:1
 Mendelsohn in”Criminal Juris- prudence of the Ancient Hebrews” p. 141
 Rabbi Wise in “Martyrdom of Jesus” p. 74
 Maimonides in “Sanhedrin” IV p.2
 Mendelsohn in “Criminal Jurisprudence of the Ancient Hebrews” p.133
 Deuteronomy 19:15
 Philo, On The Embassy of Gauis Book XXXVIII 299–305
 Ibid, Philo.
 Isaiah 42:28, Cyrus
 Antiquitates Judaicae 18.95-97 Bond, Caiaphas, p. 86.
 Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiae ii: 7
 Josephus, Antiquities 18.240–252, War 2.181–183. For the date, see Schürer 352–353 n. 42
 Talmud, Idolatry, Chapter 1, Vol.8
 Maimonides in “Sanhedrin” XIV
 Mendelsohn in “Criminal Jurisprudence of the Ancient Hebrews” p. 108
 Benny in “Criminal Code of the Jesus” p. 37
 Benny in “Criminal Code of the Jews” p. 56
 M. Hartwig Derembourg, 1844-1908, wrote extensively on Jewish law.
 Josephus, Antiquities 18.240–252, War 2.181–183. For the date, see Schürer 352–353 n. 42
 From the commentary on the gospel of Matthew by Chuck Missler.
 Eusebius, Church History, Chapter 15. Under Verus, Polycarp with Others suffered Martyrdom at Smyrna, section 4
 From Edwards WD, Gabel WJ, Hosmer FE. On the Physical death of Jesus Christ. JAMA 1986;255(11):1455-63. Used with permission of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, all rights reserved.￼
 Cambridge Bible Commentary: And who shall declare his generation?] A still more difficult clause. The Hebr. word for “generation” (dôr) may mean (a) the time in which he lived, (b) the circle of his contemporaries, (c) those like-minded with him (Psalm 12:7; Psalm 14:5; Proverbs 30:11 ff.); but is never used with any such significance as “length of life,” or “life-history,” or “posterity.
 Mark 14:61-62 But He kept silent and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked Him, saying to Him, “Are You the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?” 62 Jesus said, “I am. And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.”