The argument that there is no proof for the existence of God is irrational. In fact, there is no reasonable explanation for the universe or life itself, apart from God. The question that has been rightly asked is: “Why is there a universe at all?”
Since everything that exists has an explanation for its existence, there must also be a reason that the universe exists. Since all things that are temporal have a first cause and the universe came into being at some point, then the universe has a first cause. Since it is impossible for anything to cause itself, therefore, the universe is caused by a power that is transcendent of time and space. By the complexity, balance, and design of the universe, we perceive that all things in existence were caused by an infinite intelligence—an intelligence which is without limits and is perfect, knowing all things. Only a perfect and eternal being would have the capacity to create such a universe. I personally do not understand why it is so hard for people to accept that God exists and that He is the most logical explanation for the existence of the universe.
There are two types of things that exist.
Things that exist by necessity.
Things which are caused.
Mathematics exists by necessity. They are not caused to exist by anything else; they exist by their own by necessity.
The universe does not need to exist, it exists because it was caused. Nothing comes into existence apart from intelligence, therefore; God is the most logical cause of the universe, since it would require an infinite intelligence.
A Being which is eternal, such as God, does not require a cause.
The error of evolution is that it cannot explain how life began in the first place. Life was also, not necessary, it was caused. Since Human intelligence requires an equal or greater intelligence to bring us into being, the logical explanation is also God.
Could we imagine that the microprocessors that enable today’s computers to function, came about by random mutations or chance arrangements of atoms? How much more difficult would it be to evolve a human mind, which is exponentially greater in complexity to any microprocessor or sophisticated computer code?
How did God make the universe?
In the beginning there was nothing. The universe did not exist. There were no planets, no stars, not even empty space. Imagine all the matter that makes up the universe, tightly compressed into a particle that is nearly invisible. Scientists believe that it was from this tiny, densely compressed speck of material, that everything that we see today, originated.
At zero linear time, this speck of material exploded and expanded at hundreds of millions of miles per hour. This was an incomprehensible sphere of energy that was dense and compact beyond imagination. The temperature of the initial flash of energy was trillions of degrees. It was a mass of pure plasma expanding at the Speed of Light.
Everything that would exist in our present universe would come from this initial material; the planets, the stars, every living thing; even time and space itself—all things were created at that moment.
According to the Bible:
Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
The Hebrew word for “created” is Bara—to make from nothing. According to the words of God, He created everything that exists in the universe from nothing, in single event.
A Universe Without God is Irrational
There are certain phenomenon that are present in the universe that leave us with little doubt of their origin. Gasses may form stars, and stars form planets; these groups of stars may form galaxies, but what of their origin? We know today that specific and incredible processes were in play during the initial moments of the big bang. The universe did not come into existence by totally naturalistic causes. There is a reason for the order that we observe in the cosmos. Order never comes from chaos. When we behold a magnificent machine we understand that conception, design, engineering, and building were necessary for this device to exist.
Physicists have described the universe as a masterful machine. Some scientists and mechanical engineer’s describe the universe as “indistinguishable from a quantum computer.
The universe contains an organization and symphony of physical constants that have made life possible. The precise requirements that are necessary and provide enough stability for advanced life form to exist, is stunning.
If we modify any of the physical constants of the universe, even slightly, we end up with a completely different universe from the one we presently have.
“On the face of it, the universe does look as if it has been designed by an intelligent creator expressly for the purpose of spawning sentient beings.” —Paul Davis, Physicist and Cosmologist
Physicist, Fred Hoyle, described the universe as existing in its present form as though a “superintellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology.”
The existence of the universe is an ever-present reminder that we live in a world that was specifically made for us
It is unreasonable to try to explain the universe without God. What we observe is a cosmos of Brobdingnagian size and complexity that could not have come into existence apart from an eternal and infinite mind.
The basic premise for understanding the universe, begins with an acknowledgement of what we can observe: A cosmos so immense and complex, that it necessitates a Creator. Without this basic confirmation, we will never know anything of why and how the universe operates. To try and do so will leave out the most basic questions that must be answered before all others:
One: How did the universe come from nothing?
Two: Where did life come from?
Three: Why does the universe exist at all?
Evolution cannot answer these questions—even after 150 years of Darwinian doctrine. All that evolution can accurately explain, is how life developed after it appeared on earth; it does not tell us how and why life came into existence in the first place.
To imagine that the universe has no first cause is to assume that anything can come into existence without a cause. We do not observe this phenomenon having occurred anywhere in the universe, except during one infinite reality—God.
The atheists asks the question, “Who created God?”, assuming that His existence necessitated a cause. This is a fundamental error that atheists make in their inability to perceive God. They imagine that God must be created. Those who do believe in God, do not believe in a God who came into existence at some point in time. In this manner, Christians also do not believe in the kind of God that the atheists do not believe in.
The fallacy of insisting that God must have a creator Himself, runs an illogical circle of never-ending god’s who were each made by a god before them.
In order for one who is truly God to exist, He must be singular and uncreated.
Let us consider this premise: The term “God,” is defined as a Being who is perfect in every regard. Any being who is not perfect would not be God, with a big “G,” he would simply be one god amongst many imperfect god’s, little “g.”
The exclusive example of God existing as more than one, is found in the Bible. The Biblical God is a compound unity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; meaning that three person’s are all described as one God. The name of God; אֱלֹהִים ’ lôhîym; (Elohim) is plural.
This is the only way that three Beings who are perfect could be understood. Only if these three were in complete unity of mind, will, and purpose could they function as one God. It would be impossible for several Beings to exist as separate God’s; their lack of unity would define them as less than perfect, therefore, not God
A part of perfection is unity. Unity is defined as “the state of being united or joined as a whole.” In mathematics, unity is defined by the number one, therefore three persons who are perfect, must exist in perfect unity as one. For this reason, the true God must be singular.
Since there can only be one God (big G), this first premise requires that He must be perfect in every regard, incapable of error. If God were able to commit error, He would not be perfect, and therefore he could not be God.
Since God is perfect, He must also be eternal. For no created being, who came into existence at some point in time, by the work of one who existed before him, could be perfect, since he has relied upon one before him for his existence. The fact that a god could be created, removes the certainty that he is perfect—lacking the ability to exist before, and apart from, all other things.
In this regard, any created being could not be God (big G).
When atheists ask the question: “who created God?”, they are implying that the kind of God they are thinking of is a created God. In this regard, this kind of being is a logical impossibility.
The fact that a created god requires one before him for his existence, would define his creator as greater than the one he has made. If we continue to follow all of these created god’s back to their source, we never arrive at one who is the original and the source of all others.
If, however, God can be defined as singular, with no beginning; having no creator, and being eternal—this God would be perfect and would fulfill the true definition of God.
This is precisely the definition of the God who is revealed in the pages of the Bible.
“You are My witnesses,” says the LORD, “And My servant whom I have chosen, That you may know and believe Me, And understand that I am He. Before Me there was no God formed, Nor shall there be after Me. —Isaiah 43:10
…Is there a God besides Me? Indeed there is no other Rock; I know not one. —Isaiah 44:8
Before the mountains were brought forth, Or ever You had formed the earth and the world, Even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God. —Psalms 90:2
By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, And all the host of them by the breath of His mouth. Psalms 33:6
The God of the Bible is eternal, has no beginning, and was not formed by any god before Him. He simply exists, and always has. This God is perfect, knows all things, is unlimited and does not require a cause for His existence.
It is interesting to me that many scientists accept the fact that there could be a civilization somewhere in the universe that is so advanced in their intelligence, that they would have the power to create other beings and cause them to live forever. However, when we present the ultimate Being, who has lived forever, and describe Him as the source of all life, scientists reject this as impossible. It appears that the objection of an eternal Being with unlimited power and intelligence, originates from a religious abhorrence rather than a logical impossibility.
Of the five major religions of the world, we see a remarkable difference:
Hindus believe in millions of gods and goddesses.
Buddhists claim that God does not exist.
New Age followers believe that they are God.
Muslims believe in a powerful but unknowable God.
Christians believe in a personal God who is loving and knowable.
As previously defined, the true God must be singular. The concept of many god’s, defines their existence as less than perfect, therefore, not God. There are many examples of these lesser god’s in the world. Most often, these god’s are the creation of men, legend, or myth. The manner in which the Bible describes God, as a singular, compound unity, with no equal, meets the logical requirements for the true God. All the other religions of the world make use of substandard, or lesser god’s, and therefore—they are not the One True God.
These lesser god’s always fail the test of a true God. For these beings, starting as imperfect, they can never attain the place of perfection—since they first existed as flawed. The true definition of perfection is the eternality of that perfection. As human beings, we are willing to accept imperfection, but the essence of true perfection requires an eternal duration—or it is not perfection.
The God of the Bible is self-existent, having no beginning or end, requiring no first cause. He has always existed and is the source of all life, matter, and energy, even time itself.
Although we may not understand the eternal nature of God, for things which are eternal are difficult for human beings to understand, we do understand the concept of perfection. Although we cannot attain it, we know—instinctively, what perfection is. In understanding God, if we take what we can comprehend: God must be perfect, then we understand that this requires that He is eternal. Perfection requires eternality. Once again, any created being who depended upon a being before him, cannot be God in the sense of perfection. Perfection requires complete autonomy from all other created things.
This is why the atheist question: “who made God,” is flawed. If there is a God, He must be the only one. If there was a god before him who made him, he would not be God, only a substandard god—like so many mythical creatures of old.
The God who made the universe and all life was not Himself created; He is eternal. This is the primary difference between a universe that has a beginning and God who has no beginning. The universe came into being; God did not. This is the premise of the entire gospel of John:
In the beginning was the Word (Messiah), and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was with God in the beginning. Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. —John 1:1-3 (NIV)
Only God is self-existent and has no first cause. This is obvious and self-evident by the observable universe. The kind of God who could create the universe, would possess a mind of such infinite wisdom; it is impossible for a transient being to comprehend such a Being—unless He should choose to reveal Himself. We do not know how God was able to engineer and build the universe that we see (not to mention what we cannot see); we know only that a Transcendent Being of infinite power is required to accomplish such an endeavor.
To put forth the premise that matter and energy can self-generate themselves, from nothing; to assert that intelligent beings, could evolve from a single cell, is utter lunacy. The theory of evolution—where all life originates from a single cell; this cell mutates randomly, until it becomes a species that mutates into all other species, finally mutating into intelligent beings, is not possible. This kind of thinking is fantasy—insanity at its very essence. Evolution has never proven, how life began in the first place. Evolution has never proven that one species has, in the past, evolved into a new species. Observing evolutionary adaptation does not prove that it is possible for one species to evolve into a new and completely different species. The similarities that we observe between species, indicates a common creative source, not a common evolutionary source.
Let us remember that in all the history of the human species, no person has ever observed anything coming into existence by itself or from nothing. In spite of this, the scientific world works hard to prove that God does not exist and the universe created itself, rather than to simply acknowledge the obvious: God made the universe. We know that He exists by what He has made. When someone makes something, the evidence of their existence as an intelligent being is left behind and is verifiable proof that they exist. The incredible universe that we behold is evidence of the greatest intelligent Being in existence.
Science is founded upon the basis of observable, provable data. The evidence that is observable from the universe, indicates a super intellect is responsible for the cosmos, not a random set of events.
Many of the world’s greatest minds have examined the complexity of the universes and concluded that there is no possibility that the universe could have come into existence by itself. The fact that the universes exists—requires a Super-Intellect, capable of unlimited engineering and Creative power.
This is the premise that is stated by the Bible: Man knows that God exists, by the things that He has made:
…because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them. 20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead, so that they are without excuse… Romans 1:19-20
Ontological Arguments for the Existence of God
First: we know that God exists—by the things that He has made. The universe does not exist by happenstance or as the result of chance. In the first picosecond (one trillionth of a second) of the universe, the precise balance between gravitational force and the expansion of energy, was precisely calibrated, within extremely narrow limits—necessary for life to exist on earth, billions of years later (if it is billions year old). The big question is why they were calibrated at all since the models that scientists have developed for how the universe should have expanded, reveal a universe drastically different from what actually occurred.
1. The Universe as we know it, cannot be explained by natural forces.
2. The finely tuned universe as empirical proof for the existence of God, has no formal logical defects.
3. The only current explanation for the existence of the universe—which can be tested and verified, is the finely tuned and design evidence of the universe.
4. Our universe contains the precise physical constants that have the exact values that are required to allow for complex structures, such as galaxies, stars, planets, and people.
The universe cannot be explained apart from an intelligent source. It is far to complex, exceedingly super-engineered, and masterfully balanced. Every star that exists amongst the 300 sextillion that we think exists, came into being because of several early processes in the initial expansion of the universe. These processes demanded extreme power and control in order to spread out the material of the initial mass, evenly, so that matter would be disbursed in equal amounts, across the expanse of space. this would be similar to a person blowing air into a large balloon until it reached a critical point where it exploded and began to eject material outward from the pressure that had been exerted internally upon it. As time is slowed to near cessation, a person could act independent of time itself and walk throughout the room and place the balloon’s material in even patterns, in every direction. This is very similar to the phenomenon that scientists have observed in their mathematical calculations of the first second of the universe. No one knows for certain what process caused this equal distribution of matter throughout the universe—which allowed the clumping of matter that provided the perfect environment for stars to form much later. Whether is was inflation, antimatter, or some other unknown phenomenon, it is certain that extreme intelligence caused this control to exist in the first place.
Second: we know that God exists, because He has placed a knowledge of Himself inside the heart of every person. Universally, around the world, in all cultures and people, throughout the history of man on the earth—there is an inner knowledge of God within the heart of man. This creates a desire for worship and a sense of wonder that is universally seen in every people and nation.
Third: the Lord has also placed a knowledge of eternity in the heart of the human species. Every person understands that death is unnatural, unreasonable, and not a normal part of life. We seem to understand inherently that something has taken place in this world which has caused an unnatural break in what should be a life without end. It is not logical or reasonable that, at some point, we would cease to exist. All of us feel a deep sense of eternity; we seem to know inherently that we should not die.
He has made everything beautiful in its time. Also He has put eternity in their hearts, except that no one can find out the work that God does from beginning to end. Ecclesiastes 3:11
The Psyche of the Human Soul
All human beings are born with a conscience; the sense of right and wrong. There is an inner voice that speaks to our heart and guides us as a moral compass to direct our words and actions. When human beings violate their conscience repeatedly, this ability to sense the difference between right and wrong, becomes “seared’ and loses its ability to feel guilt. When this occurs in an individual, we say that he is a “sociopath.”
A few of the behaviors that develop in people who have lost or do not posses the ability of a conscience:
• They do not recognize the rights of others.
• People are seen as instruments to be used.
• A grandiose sense of self
• A person can tell a lie or speak an untruth without guilt.
• It is almost impossible for this person to consistently tell the truth.
• A complete lack of remorse or feelings of guilt
• Any sense of empathy or love, comes from an underlying ulterior motive.
• Often promiscuous, with deviant sexual behavior
• Lack of empathy for the suffering of others
• Leading parasitic lifestyle, taking pleasure from the pain of others
Now the Spirit expressly says that in latter times some will depart from the faith, giving heed to deceiving spirits and doctrines of demons, speaking lies in hypocrisy, having their own conscience seared with a hot iron…1 Timothy 4:1-2
Notice that the conscience that has been provided by God, is damaged by denying God, which in turn, opens the spirit of this person up to: “giving heed to deceiving spirits and doctrines of demons.” This conscience that is “seared,” or can no longer feel guilt or remorse, leads to an abhorrent lifestyle. It is interesting that this loss of conscience is linked to demonic activity in the life of a person. This is not to say that this person has knowingly participated in the worship of demons. A denial of God, removes His protection from our life and opens us up to the possibility of demonic oppression or possession. These individuals become prey for demonic activity, that can further sear the conscience and prevent a person from feeling any guilt or empathy towards other people. Along with the loss of a clear moral compass that dictates what is right or wrong behavior, these individuals are without feeling, concerning how their behavior hurts or affects other people.
It is clear that the human conscience which causes us to feel guilt, is intended as a sign that God exists.
Jesus Claimed to be God
More important than the question of His identity as the Messiah, is the belief that Jesus maintained that He is the Creator/God of the universe. Paul restated Jesus assertion that He created all things, when he wrote to the church at Colosse:
“For by Jesus all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him.” —Colossians 1:16
The Bible reveals a unique and exclusive relationship between Jesus—who claimed to be the Son of God, and the Father, and Holy Spirit. These three are all designated by the Bible as “One God.” They are eternally existent, with no beginning or end. John begins his account of Jesus by stating that in the beginning, Jesus (the Word) was with God and was God. It is from this scripture that we understand that the True God, must be; singular, eternal, and perfect in every regard.
In the beginning was the Word (Jesus), and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through Him, and without Him nothing was made that was made. John 1:1
When Jesus spoke of His special relationship with God as His Father, He did not describe this association in the same way that we would define our own relationship with God. Jesus calls God: “My Father.”
Therefore whoever confesses Me before men, him I will also confess before My Father who is in heaven. But whoever denies Me before men, him I will also deny before My Father who is in heaven. Matthew 10:32-33
I and My Father are one. John 10:30
Believe Me that I am in the Father and the Father in Me. John 14:11
Listen to how Jesus distinguishes between His relationship to God and ours, as He speaks to Mary Magdalene.
Jesus said to her, … “I am ascending to My Father and your Father, and to My God and your God.” John 20:17
Jesus did not say that He was ascending to “our Father.” He said “your Father.” Then He said that He was ascending to “My God” and “your God.” We can see here that Jesus believed that His relationship with God, is that of a Son, to whom all the scriptures refer to as “One God”? The concept of three distinct persons as “One God” is difficult for us to grasp as human beings. This is because we are thinking of numbers, God is expressing His existence in terms of unity. In the Book of Revelation, chapter 5, we see how these three distinct persons are illustrated as “One.”
Verse 1: Him who sat on the throne.
Verse 6: A Lamb in the midst of the throne.
Verse 6: The Spirit from within the throne.
Verse 7: The Lamb taking the scroll from “Him who sat on the throne.”
Revelation 5:1-7 1. And I saw in the right hand of Him who sat on the throne a scroll written inside and on the back, sealed with seven seals. 2 Then I saw a strong angel proclaiming with a loud voice, “Who is worthy to open the scroll and to loose its seals?” 3 And no one in heaven or on the earth or under the earth was able to open the scroll, or to look at it. 4 So I wept much, because no one was found worthy to open and read the scroll, or to look at it. 5 But one of the elders said to me, “Do not weep. Behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, has prevailed to open the scroll and to loose its seven seals.” 6. And I looked, and behold, in the midst of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as though it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God sent out into all the earth. 7. Then He came and took the scroll out of the right hand of Him who sat on the throne.
John sees just one throne in heaven; there is only One God sitting on a single throne. We see a Lamb coming from the “midst of the throne of God.” We see Him who sat on the throne; having a scroll in His right hand. We see the Holy Spirit described as the Seven Spirits, also from within the throne.
However, we might struggle to understand One God as Three Persons. Here, we see all Three in Heaven, seated on a single throne. Once again: Think in terms of unity, not numbers.
The Holy Spirit—who is always invisible to us, yet always present, is not declared or recognized. The Holy Spirit is observed as a part of the Lamb, described as “the Seven Spirits” (seven is completeness). It is the purpose of the Holy Spirit to exalt and magnify Jesus, not to exalt Himself. Nevertheless, the Holy Spirit is always spoken of as God.
But Peter said, “Ananias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit and keep back part of the price of the land for yourself? While it remained, was it not your own? And after it was sold, was it not in your own control? Why have you conceived this thing in your heart? You have not lied to men but to God.” Acts 5:3-4
The relationship that Jesus claimed to have with God was that of a Son—equal to God. He made this clear by the language that He used in the four Gospels. When Philip asked Jesus to show him the Father, Jesus said: “He who has seen Me has seen the Father…”
Jesus said to him, “Have I been with you so long, and yet you have not known Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father; so how can you say, ‘Show us the Father’?” John 14:9
Jesus claimed that to know Him was to know the one true and living God. To see Him was to see God. To believe in Him is to believe in the only Eternal God. Jesus said that unless a person receives Him as the only Savior of the world, they cannot be saved.
He who has the Son has life; he who does not have the Son of God does not have life. 1 John 5:12
When Jesus began His dissertation with the Pharisees on the subject of Abraham, He said something that utterly shocked their sensibilities.
Most assuredly, I say to you, if anyone keeps My word he shall never see death. John 8:51
If Jesus was seeking to gain their confidence, this sentence immediately turned them on the defensive. To intimate that He had greater authority, than Abraham or one of the Old Testament prophets, was utterly offensive to the leaders of Israel
Then the Jews said to Him, “Now we know that You have a demon! Abraham is dead, and the prophets; and You say, ‘If anyone keeps My word he shall never taste death.’ Are You greater than our father Abraham, who is dead? And the prophets are dead. Who do You make Yourself out to be?” John 8:52-53
Jesus directs these leaders of Israel back to His eternity. He informs the leaders of Israel that before Abraham existed, He had existed as the Great I AM.
In order to explain who He is, He had to define His true origin.
“Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it and was glad.” Then the Jews said to Him, “You are not yet fifty years old, and have You seen Abraham?” Jesus said to them, “Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM.” Then they took up stones to throw at Him; but Jesus hid Himself and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by. John 8:56-59
Whatever courtesies the Jews might have extended to Jesus up to this point, they were now ready to stone Him to death. Jesus had not simply claimed greater authority, than the words of Abraham, He now claimed that His authority was that of the eternal God, “I AM.”
By claiming this title, Jesus was stating that He was the voice of God from the burning bush, in the Book of Exodus, that spoke to Moses.
Then Moses said to God, “Indeed, when I come to the children of Israel and say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you,’ and they say to me, ‘What is His name?’ what shall I say to them?” And God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM.” And He said, “Thus you shall say to the children of Israel, ‘I AM has sent me to you.’ ” Exodus 3:13-14
We must pause now to consider where we are in the discussion of “who Jesus is.”
Many people, when they arrive at this destination where they realize that Jesus is claiming to be the eternal God—they can go no further. When a man claims to be God, we have reached the limits of reason.
It was because Jesus claimed to be the eternal God, that many Jews today cannot receive Him as the Messiah. The traditions of the elders in Jerusalem determined that the Messiah would be a ordinary man, like the Old Testament prophets. This is puzzling, since there is such a large body of Hebrew prophecies which describe the Messiah as “God.”
The fact of God’s existence is proven by the presence of Jesus, here on the earth. He repeatedly declared that He is the Eternal God, Creator of all that exists. Jesus proved this claim by raising Himself from the dead.
THE PRECEDING IS FROM THE NEW BOOK: “HONEST MEN: THE WRITERS OF THE BIBLE TOLD THE TRUTH,” BY ROBERT CLIFTON ROBINSON
 Evolution may be able to tell us how species adapt to their environment and make changes, but evolution has never proven how life originated from nothing.
 Paraphrased from the description of the origin of the universe from the movie; “The Genesis Code.” The Genesis Code is a 2010 American drama film directed by C. Thomas Howell and Patrick Read Johnson, and written by Michael W. Leighton. Initial release: August 25, 2010 Directors: C. Thomas Howell, Patrick Read Johnson
 Strong’s Hebrew # 1254, bara, to create from nothing
 1.First described as a machine by Johannes de Sacrobosco in “The Universe as a Machine,” (De Spehra Mundi), 1230 A.D.
2.Described by Isaac Newton in his laws of motion with the laws of universal gravitation.
3.Gottfried Leibniz: “The Notion of the World’s being a great Machine, going on without the Interposition of God, as a Clock continues to go without the Assistance of a Clockmaker; is the Notion of Materialism and Fate, and tends, (under pretence of making God a Supra-mundane Intelligence,) to exclude Providence and God’s Government in reality out of the World.”
4.Dennis Richard Danielson, The Book of the Cosmos: Imagining the Universe from Heraclitus to Hawking, Basic Books, 2001 (p. 246).
5.”The universe is a physical system.…In fact, the universe is indistinguishable from a quantum computer.” Lloyd, Seth (2006-03-14). Programming the Universe: A Quantum Computer Scientist Takes on the Cosmos (p. 54). Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
 1.Davies, Paul (2008-04-29). The Goldilocks Enigma (Kindle Locations 175-177). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Kindle Edition.
2.Peter Ward, Life as We Do Not Know It (New York: Viking, 2005).
 Davies, Paul (2008-04-29). The Goldilocks Enigma (Kindle Locations 180-181). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Kindle Edition.
 Strong’s # h0430. אֱלֹהִים ’ lôhîym; plural of 433; gods in the ordinary sense; but specifically used (in the plural thus, especially with the article) of the supreme God.
 Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, 2016
 “A Universe From God,” 2013, Robert Clifton Robinson, the chapter: “Scientists Who Believe in God.”
 The arguments from Romans 1:19-20 which declares that even though man may deny the existence of God, he is being disingenuous, as this knowledge was hardwired into the psyche of all human beings.